Writing High Quality Nursing Case Studies

Writing High Quality Nursing Case Studies – Writing Service


Nursing education is a complex and demanding field that requires students to develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. One effective method to enhance these skills is through the use of case studies. Case studies provide nursing students with real-life scenarios that require them to apply their knowledge and skills to make clinical decisions. Nursing case studies are an important part of nursing education that allows students to apply their knowledge and skills to real-life scenarios. In this blog post, we will explore the importance of nursing case studies for nursing students and provide tips on how to write high-quality nursing case studies. We will also discuss the different elements of a nursing case study and ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity. By the end of this blog post, readers will have a better understanding of the importance of nursing case studies and how to write effective case studies that can help them improve their nursing practice. In this article, we will explore the importance of nursing case study for nursing students, examine real-life examples, and discuss how to find effective case studies.

Importance of High-Quality Nursing Case Studies

Here are some reasons why high-quality nursing case studies are important and how they benefit nursing students:

  1. Integration of theory and practice: Nursing case studies bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical application. They enable students to understand and analyse complex patient situations, consider relevant theories and concepts, and apply appropriate nursing interventions. By engaging with case studies, students can develop critical thinking skills and enhance their ability to make informed clinical decisions.
  2. Enhanced clinical reasoning: Nursing case studies require students to assess, analyse, and synthesize a range of information to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s condition. This process strengthens students’ clinical reasoning abilities, allowing them to identify relevant signs and symptoms, prioritize nursing interventions, and develop effective care plans. Through repeated exposure to case studies, students can refine their clinical reasoning skills and become more proficient in providing patient-centred care.
  3. Exposure to diverse scenarios: High-quality nursing case studies expose students to a variety of patient scenarios, covering different ages, conditions, and healthcare settings. This exposure broadens students’ understanding of the nursing profession and helps them develop versatility in their skills. By examining cases that encompass various specialties and patient populations, students gain a well-rounded perspective and can adapt their knowledge to different clinical situations.
  4. Safe learning environment: Case studies provide a safe and controlled environment for nursing students to explore different scenarios and make decisions without direct patient consequences. They can experiment with different approaches, evaluate their choices, and learn from both successful and unsuccessful outcomes. This allows students to build confidence in their abilities and develop a sense of autonomy in their decision-making.
  5. Application of evidence-based practice: High-quality nursing case studies often emphasize the importance of evidence-based practice. Students are encouraged to apply the best available evidence, such as clinical guidelines and research findings, to support their decision-making process. Through the analysis of case studies, students learn to critically appraise research literature, identify gaps in evidence, and implement interventions that are supported by the best available evidence. This cultivates a culture of evidence-based practice among nursing students, ensuring that their clinical decisions are grounded in the latest research.
  6. Preparation for real-world challenges: Nursing case studies mirror the complexities and challenges that nurses face in real-world clinical settings. By engaging with these case studies, students gain exposure to realistic patient care scenarios, allowing them to develop skills required for effective practice. They learn to navigate ethical dilemmas, manage time constraints, collaborate with interdisciplinary teams, and communicate effectively with patients and their families. This prepares them for the dynamic and demanding nature of nursing practice.

Choosing a Topic

When choosing a topic for a nursing case study, it is important to select a topic that is relevant to nursing practice and has enough literature available. Here are some tips for choosing a topic:

  1. Choose a topic that interests you: Select a topic that you find interesting and engaging. This will help you to stay motivated throughout the writing process.
  2. Consider the scope of the topic: Consider the scope of the topic and narrow it down to a specific area of interest. This will help you to focus your research and writing.
  3. Ensure that there is enough literature available: Ensure that there is enough literature available on the topic to support your case study. This will help you to write a well-researched and well-supported case study.
  4. Look for a topic that is relevant to nursing practice: Choose a topic that is relevant to nursing practice and that will help you to develop your skills and knowledge as a nurse.
  5. Use a list of nursing research topics: Consider using a list of nursing research topics to help you choose a topic. There are many resources available online that provide lists of nursing research topics

Elements of a Nursing Case Study

A nursing case study typically consists of several key elements that help structure the information and provide a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s situation. Here are the different elements commonly found in a nursing case study:

  1. Introduction: The introduction sets the stage for the case study by providing a brief overview of the patient and the reason for their admission or encounter. It includes essential information such as the patient’s demographic details, chief complaint, and any relevant contextual information.
  2. Background: The background section provides a more detailed description of the patient’s history, including their medical history, past treatments, and any relevant social or environmental factors that may have an impact on their current condition. It helps establish the context for the case study and provides important background information for the reader.
  3. Assessment: In this section, the nursing case study presents a comprehensive assessment of the patient. It includes a detailed description of the patient’s physical assessment findings, vital signs, laboratory results, and any other relevant data that helps understand the patient’s current health status. The assessment should cover all pertinent body systems and provide a thorough overview of the patient’s overall condition.
  4. Diagnosis: The diagnosis section identifies and discusses the nursing diagnoses or health problems that are relevant to the patient’s case. This involves analyzing the assessment data and identifying actual or potential nursing diagnoses based on established nursing taxonomies, such as NANDA-I (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International). The nursing diagnoses should be specific, accurate, and supported by the assessment data.
  5. Planning: The planning section outlines the nursing care plan for the patient. It includes the identification of goals and expected outcomes for each nursing diagnosis, as well as the development of nursing interventions aimed at achieving those outcomes. The care plan should be individualized and evidence-based, taking into consideration the patient’s unique needs, preferences, and the available resources.
  6. Implementation: This section describes the implementation of the nursing interventions outlined in the care plan. It includes a detailed account of the nursing actions taken to address the patient’s identified nursing diagnoses. The implementation should consider the appropriate nursing interventions, techniques, and therapies, as well as any relevant patient education or support provided.
  7. Evaluation: The evaluation section assesses the effectiveness of the nursing interventions and the progress made toward achieving the identified goals and outcomes. It involves a critical analysis of the patient’s response to the nursing care provided, including the monitoring of patient outcomes, reassessment of the patient’s condition, and reflection on the effectiveness of the interventions. The evaluation helps determine the success of the nursing care plan and provides insights for future interventions or modifications, if necessary.

In addition to these core elements, a nursing case study may also include other sections such as ethical considerations, collaboration with the healthcare team, and reflection on the nursing practice.

By incorporating these different elements, a nursing case study presents a comprehensive picture of the patient’s situation, assessment, nursing diagnoses, care plan, and the outcomes of the nursing interventions. It serves as a valuable tool for learning, documentation, and communication among healthcare professionals.


Tips for Writing a Nursing Case Study

Here are some tips for writing a nursing case study:

  1. Use a reflective model: Consider using a reflective model, such as Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle or Johns’ Model of Structured Reflection, to guide your writing process. These models encourage a systematic and reflective approach to analyzing and learning from the case study experience. They help you explore your thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as identify areas for improvement and growth.
  2. Be descriptive: Provide a detailed description of the patient’s history, assessment findings, and nursing interventions. Use clear and concise language to paint a vivid picture of the patient’s condition, the care provided, and the outcomes observed. Including specific details and examples enhances the richness and authenticity of the case study.
  3. Use credible sources: When discussing background information, assessment findings, or evidence-based interventions, ensure that you use credible sources such as peer-reviewed journals, reputable textbooks, clinical practice guidelines, or authoritative websites. This enhances the credibility and reliability of your case study.
  4. Be honest and reflective: It’s important to be honest and transparent in your case study. Reflect on the strengths and limitations of your nursing practice and the decisions made during the patient’s care. Discuss any challenges or uncertainties encountered, as well as the lessons learned. This reflective approach demonstrates self-awareness, critical thinking, and a commitment to professional growth.
  5. Focus on patient-centred care: Emphasize the patient’s perspective and the impact of nursing care on their well-being. Highlight how nursing interventions addressed the patient’s unique needs, preferences, and values. Discuss the outcomes achieved and any areas for improvement in delivering patient-centred care.
  6. Follow a structured format: Organize your case study using a clear and logical structure. Include sections such as introduction, background, assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation (as discussed earlier). This ensures that the information flows smoothly and readers can easily navigate through the case study.
  7. Maintain confidentiality: Protect patient privacy and confidentiality by de-identifying any personal information. Use pseudonyms or patient codes to refer to individuals involved in the case study. Adhere to ethical and legal guidelines regarding patient confidentiality, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States.
  8. Use appropriate formatting and referencing: Follow the guidelines provided by your institution or the publication you are writing for regarding formatting and referencing. Use a consistent referencing style (e.g., APA, MLA) to cite your sources accurately and avoid plagiarism.
  9. Seek feedback and revision: After completing the initial draft, seek feedback from peers, instructors, or mentors. Their input can help you identify areas for improvement, clarify any ambiguous points, and ensure the overall quality of your case study. Revise and edit your work accordingly to enhance clarity, coherence, and professionalism.

Ethical Considerations

When writing a nursing case study, it is important to consider ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity. Here are some tips on how to address these ethical considerations:

  • Privacy: Protect the privacy of patients and colleagues by avoiding using real names or identifying information that could reveal their identity. Instead, use pseudonyms or general descriptions to protect their privacy.
  • Confidentiality: Similar to privacy, confidentiality is also important when writing a nursing case study. Avoid sharing confidential information that could harm the patient or colleague. Ensure that the case study is only shared with those who have a legitimate need to know.
  • Cultural sensitivity: Be culturally sensitive when writing a nursing case study. Consider the cultural background of the patient or colleague and how it may impact their experience. Avoid making assumptions or stereotypes based on cultural background.
  • Informed consent: Obtain informed consent from the patient or colleague before writing the case study. This involves explaining the purpose of the case study and obtaining their permission to use their information.
  • Potential for harm: Consider the potential for harm that the case study may cause to the patient or colleague. Ensure that the case study is respectful and does not cause harm or distress.

By following these tips, nursing students can write an effective nursing case study that is respectful of ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity.

Examples of High-Quality Nursing Case Studies

Here are some examples of high-quality nursing case studies that can help nursing students understand how to write their own case studies:

  1. “Improving Patient Outcomes in the ICU: A Case Study”

This case study focuses on a patient in the ICU and how the nursing team worked together to improve the patient’s outcomes. It includes a detailed assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

  1. “The Role of the Nurse in Geriatric Care: A Case Study”

This case study focuses on a geriatric patient and the unique challenges that come with caring for older adults. It includes a detailed assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

  1. “Cultural Sensitivity in Nursing: A Case Study”

This case study focuses on a patient from a different cultural background and how the nursing team provided culturally sensitive care. It includes a detailed assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.


In conclusion, nursing case studies are an essential part of nursing education that allows students to apply their knowledge and skills to real-life scenarios. Writing high-quality nursing case studies can help nursing students develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. When writing a nursing case study, it is important to consider ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity. By using a reflective model, being descriptive, using credible sources, and being honest and reflective, nursing students can write effective nursing case studies. Examples of high-quality nursing case studies can help nursing students understand how to structure their own case studies. Overall, nursing case studies are an important tool for nursing students to develop their skills and knowledge and prepare for real-world scenarios. Thank you for visiting our blog,! We hope that the information provided in this post has been helpful to you. If you have any further questions or need assistance with nursing case studies or any other nursing-related topics, please feel free to reach out. We are here to support you in your nursing journey. Best of luck in your studies!

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Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

Prepare a comprehensive analysis on an adverse event or near-miss from your professional nursing experience that you or a peer experienced. Integrate research and data on the event and use as a basis to propose a Quality Improvement (QI) initiative in your current organization.

Note: Remember, you can submit all, or a portion of, your draft to Smarthinking for feedback, before you submit the final version of your analysis for this assessment. However, be mindful of the turnaround time for receiving feedback, if you plan on using this free service.

The numbered points below correspond to grading criteria in the scoring guide. The bullets below each grading criterion further delineate tasks to fulfill the assessment requirements. Be sure that your Adverse Event or Near-miss Analysis addresses all of the content below. You may also want to read the scoring guide to better understand the performance levels that relate to each grading criterion.

  1. Analyze the missed steps or protocol deviations related to an adverse event or near miss.
    • Describe how the event resulted from a patient’s medical management rather than from the underlying condition.
    • Identify and evaluate the missed steps or protocol deviations that led to the event.
    • Discuss the extent to which the incident was preventable.
    • Research the impact of the same type of adverse event or near miss in other facilities.
  2. Analyze the implications of the adverse event or near miss for all stakeholders.
    • Evaluate both short-term and long-term effects on the stakeholders (patient, family, interprofessional team, facility, community). Analyze how it was managed and who was involved.
    • Analyze the responsibilities and actions of the interprofessional team. Explain what measures should have been taken and identify the responsible parties or roles.
    • Describe any change to process or protocol implemented after the incident.
  3. Evaluate quality improvement technologies related to the event that are required to reduce risk and increase patient safety.
    • Analyze the quality improvement technologies that were put in place to increase patient safety and prevent a repeat of similar events.
    • Determine whether the technologies are being utilized appropriately.
    • Explore how other institutions integrated solutions to prevent these types of events.
  4. Incorporate relevant metrics of the adverse event or near miss incident to support need for improvement.
    • Identify the salient data that is associated with the adverse event or near miss that is generated from the facility’s dashboard. (By dashboard, we mean the data that is generated from the information technology platform that provides integrated operational, financial, clinical, and patient safety data for health care management.)
    • Analyze what the relevant metrics show.
    • Explain research or data related to the adverse event or near miss that is available outside of your institution. Compare internal data to external data.
  5. Outline a quality improvement initiative to prevent a future adverse event or near miss.
    • Explain how the process or protocol is now managed and monitored in your facility.
    • Evaluate how other institutions addressed similar incidents or events.
    • Analyze QI initiatives developed to prevent similar incidents, and explain why they are successful. Provide evidence of their success.
    • Propose solutions for your selected institution that can be implemented to prevent future adverse events or near-miss incidents.
  6. Communicate analysis and proposed initiative in a professional and effective manner, writing content clearly and logically with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
  7. Integrate relevant sources to support arguments, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.

Submission Requirements

  • Length of submission: A minimum of five but no more than seven double-spaced, typed pages.
  • Number of references: Cite a minimum of three sources (no older than seven years, unless seminal work) of scholarly or professional evidence that support your evaluation, recommendations, and plans.
  • APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.



The purpose of the report is to assess whether specific quality indicators point to improved patient safety, quality of care, cost and efficiency goals, and other desired metrics. Nurses and other health professionals with specializations and/or interest in the condition, disease, or the selected issue are your target audience.

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis


As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

Reflect on quality improvement (QI) initiatives in your workplace:

  • What makes a QI initiative a success? What elements must be incorporated?
  • What opportunities are there for interprofessional collaboration on a QI initiative in your workplace?
  • Proficiency in interpretation of data is critical to understanding and communicating QI outcome measures. What can be done to improve data literacy across interprofessional teams?



Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis


Adverse events are defined as injuries resulting in unnecessary and prolonged hospitalization, disability or even death as a result of healthcare mismanagement. On the other hand, a near miss is a serious error that could potentially result in an adverse event, but fails to do so due to an intervention or by chance (Rafter et al., 2015). These events have a significant impact on patients and result in increased healthcare costs attributed to longer stays in the hospital. Preventable medical errors are not limited to lower quality healthcare facilities; excellent facilities also experience undesirable events. What differentiates high quality facilities from low quality facilities is the way they respond to adverse events to significantly reduce the risk of the event reoccurring. Research shows that approximately 10% of patients will experience preventable harm during their stay in a medical facility. Over the years, health systems and governments have invested heavily in quality improvement systems to reduce harm to patients (Harrison et al., 2019). Additionally, incident reporting and analysis of adverse and near miss events plays a critical role in reducing and preventing reoccurrence.

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

As a nurse who offers care to elderly patients over 70 years old, there are several adverse events that affect patient care and result in harm. Falls are a devastating and common complication in healthcare facilities particularly for older patients. Statistics shows that between 700,000 to 1 million hospitalized patients fall every year. A large percentage of patients who fall are in long-term care facilities (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Furthermore, one-third of falls result in serious injuries including fractures, head traumas or even death. In line with this, the analysis will integrate research and data on falls, provide a real-life example in practice and recommend effective strategies to mitigate and prevent reoccurrence of falls in the healthcare facility.

The Adverse Event

The facility recently received a supply of modern mobility devices in form of walkers and canes. Among the elderly patients to benefit from the mobility devices was a 70-year old grandmother of four. All the beneficiaries of the devices received comprehensive training on how to use the walking aids. Additionally, the devices were fitted by professionals and every patient was assigned either a walker or a cane depending on the results of the professional assessment completed. The 70-year old grandmother was allocated a walker which was fitted to her unique needs taking into consideration the fact that she recently had a major hip surgery and required assistance to move around. However, during a shift change, there was poor communication between nurses and as a result, the patient was given a cane instead. The patient within a few minutes of using the cane, fell and broke her hip and pelvis. She was immediately rushed to the emergency room.

Analysis of Missed Steps Related to the Adverse Event

Research shows that over 47,000 emergency room visits for falls are related to the use of canes and walkers in individuals over 65 years old. Generally, older people using walking aids are at a higher risk of falling than those who do not use walking aids. This is attributed to spatiotemporal gait pattern, age and psychotropic drug intake. Therefore, extensive training and the use of appropriate walking aids greatly reduces occurrence of falls (de Mettelinge& Dirk, 2015). In addition to the high-risk factors associated with elderly falls, nurse errors played a critical role in the 70-year old grandmother’s fall-related injuries.

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

Clinical handovers occur in clinical settings between shifts. During these processes, professional responsibility over a patient is transferred from one healthcare professional to another, either on a temporary basis or permanently (Manias et al., 2015). The transfer of essential information is an integral part of communication in the healthcare setting. Ineffective handoffs such as the one experienced in the facility result in breaches in patient safety, which ultimately results in serious harm. There was a communication breakdown during the clinical handoff of the patient resulting in them receiving a cane rather than a walker. Since the mobility devices were new in the facility, there was little to no information about their use. Apart from the training given to patients by professionals, nurses were never trained on the appropriate use of these devices. Ineffective patient handoff and lack of staff training resulted in the patient’s fall and required emergency care.


While mobility devices have been known to reduce falls, other studies have questioned their efficacy. These studies claim that individuals who use mobility devices like canes or walkers may already have a predisposition to falls. Therefore, the number of falls that have been prevented by mobility devices cannot be correctly determined (Gell et al. 2016).

Implications of the Adverse Event for all Stakeholders

Patient safety as a healthcare discipline aims to prevent and reduce healthcare risks that occur to patients in healthcare facilities. Adverse events have a negative effect on patient safety and the quality of care they receive. When these events occur, patients are the most affected.Patient families are also affected when adverse events occur. In addition to patients and their families, healthcare facilities, care givers and the community experience both short and long-term effects of adverse events.When patients visit a healthcare facility, they generally expect that the care they receive will have a positive impact on their health and not worsen it (Schwendimann et al.,2018). To analyze the effect of adverse events on patients, their families, the healthcare facility and the community in general, several assumptions are made; stakeholders have a critical role to play in ensuring quality care is provided. The organization’s culture affects quality of care offered to patients and effective communication between care givers reduces the occurrence of adverse events.

The first victims of adverse events are patients and their families. When medical errors occur, patients risk experiencing life-changing events including; disability, extended hospital stays, physical harm or even death. Additionally, patients and their families experience psychological harm brought about by grief and avoidable patient suffering. Disability and death also result in economic stress on family members and caregivers (Holden & Card, 2019).

Healthcare professionals experience emotional distress following adverse events. Referred to as the second victims, healthcare professionals experience feelings of guilt, shame, fear, anger, disappointment and doubt when the patients they are caring for experience adverse events. Studies show that these feelings are long lasting and affect their future interactions with patients. Additionally, physicians report loss of self-confidence, increased anxiety about future errors and reduced job satisfaction (Ullstrom et al. 2014)

Evaluation of Quality Improvement Technologies

Communication patterns during shift transfers are ambiguous, problematic and non-standardized, thus contributing to increased patient harm. Attention should be focused on improving communication during patient handover. The use of standardized communication aids like the situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) tool improve communication between health care professionals (Gobel et al., 2014). When caregivers communicate with SBAR forms, two cue types of communication should be evaluated. They include; patient-situation cues that convey patient’s situation and background cues that convey specific data about the patient’s situation. Successful use of SBAR involves effective use of both cues without any data omissions (Gobel et al. 2014). Other communication devices like iSoBar checklist and TeamStepps team training tool significantly improve patient handover procedures and effectiveness. iSoBar handover forms are comprehensive and they reduce the number of clinical handover forms and prevent duplication of paperwork. They are easy to integrate into existing processes in the facility thus are well suited to local conditions.Likewise, the use of digital patient files and checklists in daily practice significantly reduce handover errors and incidences of miss-communication (Gobel et al., 2014).

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

Healthcare facilities are increasingly using health information technology (HIT) to identify and prevent the occurrence of adverse events. Health information technology facilitates communication between healthcare providers, improves tracking and reporting of events and promotes quality of care by optimizing access to care and adhering to guidelines. HIT improves patient safety through the use of clinical flags, reminders and medication alerts (CommitteeOpinion, 2015).HITs can be evaluated by using a synthesis framework that analyses the rate of falls before and after its implementation. Success will be determined by the rate of reduced falls in the facility. Technology-based interventionsdetect falls as soon as they occur and alert clinicians. Technology also allows older adults to self-assess for assistive equipment provision (Hamm, Money, Atwal & Paraskevopoulos, 2016). Health information technology (HIT) improves patient care through the use of effective frameworks and metrics.

Relevant Metrics of the Adverse Event

The data on fall-related injuries will be obtained from electronic medical records used by clinicians to monitor patient’s treatments. Additionally, data will be retrieved from the patients’ electronic health records. Organizational departments including the administrative and finance department will provide supplemental data. Numerical data will be obtained from patient surveys that capture self-reported information from the elderly patients about their healthcare experiences. Additionally, patient numerical data will be obtained from the facility’s Minimum Data Set (MDS) and the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS). Three KPIs will be analyzed including; outcome, process and structural metrics. To maintain patient safety, the healthcare facility must use meaningful metrics. Effective frameworks are based on two main metrics: one that identifies measures and eliminates errors and the other that identifies measures and eliminates injuries (“Measurement of Patient Safety”, 2019). The data obtained from these metrics can be used to inform improvement efforts, enhance transparency and maintain organizational accreditation.

To prevent future falls, the facility should invest in safety measurement strategies. Among the most effective safety measurement strategies is the retrospective chart review which contains detailed clinical information. Voluntary reporting error systems are tools used for internal quality improvement and highlighting adverse events. Automated surveillance is a helpful tool used to screen patients who are at a higher risk of experiencing adverse eventssuch as falls.

AHRQ patient safety indicators are useful for tracking adverse events over a long period of time and across large groups of people. Lastly, the facility should rely on patient reports to capture communication errors between healthcare providers and other errors that are not easily recognized (“Measurement of Patient Safety”, 2019). While the aforementioned patient safety improvement frameworks will assist the facility reduce fall rates and improve patient handoff practices, there needs to be a quality improvement initiative to prevent future occurrence of the adverse event.

Quality Improvement Initiative to Prevent Future Adverse Event

Quality improvement (QI) is a formal approach designed to analyze practice performance and the efforts directed towards improving it. QI models present a formal framework for establishing quality processes in healthcare facilities. Among the common QI models is the model for improvement referred to as the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle. This model combines the total quality management model and the rapid cycle improvement model (AHRQ, 2015). The “plan” stage requires the healthcare facility to write a concise statement of what it plans to test and what steps it will follow to execute the plan. The “do” stage requires the facility to execute the plan it established during the plan stage. After implementation, the facility should study the results to determine if the interventions implemented are successful. Lastly, the “act” stage requires the facility to analyze the overall outcomes of interventions to determine future implications (AHRQ, 2015).

Quality improvement initiatives designed to affect favorable change can use the PDSA model. The model is the most favorable model as it establishes a causal relationship between changes, behaviors and outcomes. In line with the proposed steps-, the facility should start with determining the scope of fall rates, what changes should be made, who should be involved, what KPIs should be measured and where the QI strategy will be targeted. To reduce fall rates in the facility, a multi-component quality improvement program that involves clinician education and prevention of falls should be implemented. There are several reasons that result in elderly falls. As such, educating nurses, clinicians and physiotherapists on adherence to protocols and general safety practices including proper use of walking aids will help prevent future falls. To further improve process outcomes, bi-annual training activities should be conducted especially before new devices like walking aids are introduced. Additionally, improving communication between nurses during patient handover and conducting comprehensive assessments will prevent future occurrence of preventable medical errors. The QI program designed should prompt primary care givers to implement interventions like referrals to other community resources and screening programs for patients with a high fall risk (Ganz et al. 2016). The screening programs should analyze predisposing factors like the use of medication such as anxiety and antipsychotic drugs and patients’ age. Likewise, the facility should incorporate the CDC STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths and Injuries) initiative consisting of three core elements: Screen, assess, intervene. STEADI’s main goal is to reduce the risk of elderly falls by offering tailored interventions

Adverse Event or Near Miss Analysis

Measuring performance is essential to improving quality of healthcare. Effective QIs make use of available patient data. The PDSA model, when used in conjunction with health information technologies, will reduce the probability of future falls and improve communication between nurses, physicians and patients in the facility.



Man is to error. Healthcare providers are also human beings and therefore, at times, they make mistakeswhen administering care to their patients. Adverse events are very common in healthcare settings. As explained in the real-life scenario provided, elderly falls often result in life-threatening injuries. A majority of these falls are caused by inappropriate use of mobility devices. Poor communication practices between nurses during patient handovers also result in adverse events. However, by applying health information technologies and QI models, these errors can be controlled and prevented.




Committee Opinion. (2015). Patient safety and health information technology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved from;ications/committee-opinions/

Gobel, B., Zwart, D., Hesselink, G. et al. (2014). Stakeholder perspectives on handovers between hospital staff and general practitioners: An evaluation through the microsystems lens. BMJ Quality & Safety, 1, 106-13. Doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001192

Ganz, D.A. et al. (2016). The Effect of a Falls Quality Improvement Program on Serious Fall-related Injuries. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(1), 63-70. Doi: 10.1111/jgs.13154

Gell, N.M., Wallace, R.B. et al. (2016). Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings from the 2011-2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(5), 853-859. Doi: 10.1111/jgs.13393

Harrison, R., Sharma, A., Walton, M. et al. (2019). Responding to adverse patient safety events in Viet Nam. BMC Health Services Research, 19(677). Doi:10.1186/s12913-019-4518-y

Hamm, J., Money, A.G., Atwal, A. & Paraskevopoulos, I. (2016). Fall prevention intervention technologies: A conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 59, 319-345. Doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.12.013th

“Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit, 2nd Edition”. (2015). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from

Holden, J. & Card, A.J. (2019). Patient Safety Professionals as the Third Victims of Adverse Events. ResearchGate, 1-28. Doi: 10.1177/2516043519850914

De Mettelinge, R. & Dirk, C. (2015). Understanding the Relationship Between Walking Aids and Falls in Older Adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 38(3), 127-132. Doi: 10.1519/JPT.000000000000000000031

Manias, E., Geddes, F., Watson, B., Jones, D. & Della, P. (2015). Communication Failures During Clinical Handovers Lead to a Poor Patient Outcome: Lessons from a Case Report. Sage Open Medical Case Reports, 3. Doi: 10.1177/2050313X15584859

“Measurement of Patient Safety”. (2019). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Retrieved from

Rafter, N., Hickey, A., Condell, S., Conroy, R., O’Connor, P., Vaughan, D. & Williams, D. (2015). Adverse Events in Healthcare: Learning from Mistakes. QMJ Monthly Journal of the Association of Physiciana, 108(4), 272-277. Doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcu145.

Schwendimann, R. et al. (2018). The Occurrence, Types, Consequences and Preventability of in-Hospital Adverse Events- a Scoping Review. BMC Health Services Research, 18(521)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (2019). Falls. Retrieved from

Ullstrom, S., Sachs, M.A., Hansson, J., Ovretveit, J. &Brommels, M. (2014). Suffering in Silence: A Qualitative Study of Second Victims of Adverse Events. BMJ Quality & Safety, 23(4).




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The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


  •       This is a Masters level paper.
  •       Follow correct APA format for title page
  •       Times New Roman, Font size 12, double spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers
  •       No running head, in-text citations required, and reference list.



A short introduction with a purpose statement

Body: 4- to 5-page paper addressing the following:

·         Identify the 5 peer-reviewed articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.

·         Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described.

·         Be specific and provide examples.


Reference page (Required Five total at least two course resources)

·         Should be five peer review articles not older than 5 years


To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery.
  • Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”
  • Identify and select 5 peer-reviewed articles from your research.

The Assignment: (4-5 pages)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Be sure to address the following:



The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Clinical systems are integral elements in the healthcare sector. They contribute towards improving the outcomes and efficiencies in service delivery within the elaborate healthcare systems. This paper aims to analyze relevant literature on various clinical systems and how they help in the improvement of outcomes together with effectiveness and efficiency in dealing with health problems.

Rao-Gupta, Kruger, Leak, Tieman, and Manworren (2018) conducted a study on the leveraging of the interactive care technology to bring effective pain management on the patients. The study was primarily to find a way of easing the pain on children while undergoing treatment in the hospitals. The pain management mechanisms in place at the time were unsatisfactory, leading to the development of the clinical care system. The authors were trying to examine how the use of the care system would significantly lead to the improvement of pain management. Consequently, the common understanding is that interactive care technology was integral in easing the pain on the children on its utilization. This led to increased satisfaction in the pain management responses, following the increased effectiveness in the evaluation of treatments and pain assessment.

Nursing Paper Help

The application of the peer-review article by Rao-Gupta et al (2018) brings into perspective the understanding that care technologies are important in making certain care functions manageable. This led to increased overall satisfaction for the families with patient suffering from pain while undergoing treatment. Equally, it is critical for the care facility to be cognizant and sensitive to the pains of both patients and their families as part of the experiences that they give to the general public. This is critical in the appreciation of the role of clinical systems in the management of and support of life. In the study, the use of the pediatric surgical unit patients to conduct the assessment on the effectiveness of the pain management system is vital in bringing a wholesome understanding of the whole perspective. Thus, it goes into record as one creative realization contributing to positive development in the health sector.

The study by Skiba (2017) examines the use of digital systems in the facilitation of healthcare delivery to the public. The digital tools are of critical importance in ensuring that there is an establishment of critical links between care providers and consumers of health services. The clinical systems space provides an avenue for working towards ensuring that health management becomes easy. The assessment of those systems gives a glimpse of what an ideal care system should look like.

The takeaway from the research is that there is an increasing diversity in healthcare courtesy of the invention and innovation of social media and related apps. It has brought effectiveness in health services delivery in the sector. Social media and mobile apps tools have ensured that service delivery takes place across the board. The integration of the applications into the clinical systems has transformed the health sector significantly. A good example of those applications is the myoclonic social media and apps in both Apple and Android stores (Skiba, 2017).

Gabriel, Quaresma, Secca and Vieira (2018) investigated the use of the stereo vision system in conducting an assessment of the spine. The clinical system has overseen the realization of immense changes in the spinal columns, contributing to recovery in the patients. The Vertebra Metrics understanding becomes an essential tool in evaluating the pain aspects. This has led to improvements in dealing with back pains. The clinical system comes an innovation that is contributing to the realization better health. The wholesome understanding of how technology works make the clinical setting effective in the delivery of care.

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The Vertebral Metrics clinical system has been integral in dealing with back pains in patients (Gabriel, Quaresma, Secca & Vieira, 2018). This leads to increased overall efficiency in the offering of health services to patients with issues in the vertebra. The clinical application of the system as a tool for dealing with vertebral issues has brought immense changes in the health sector. The takeaway from the whole undertaking becomes a critical way of gauging the effectiveness of services offered in the health sector, and the far that improvements have come into perspective.

Huang, Goo, Behara and Agarwal (2018) studied the system for the management of COPD-readmission risk. The readmission risk indicator checks on the quality of patient care for those dealing with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Conducting the study using live data made it possible to establish reliable outcomes of the whole process. The whole undertaking enhanced the realization of how the clinical system deals with the issue at hand. In this way, the clinical system goes into records as one of the tools that have managed to achieve its intended purpose in as far as healthcare delivery is concerned.


The primary lesson of the study is that the clinical support system immensely enhances the reduction of readmission statistics for patients’ dealing with chronic illnesses. Consequently, the whole study reaffirms the importance of the clinical support system. Its efficiency in performing its intended function is unmatched. Essentially, the whole undertaking to apply the system in dealing with chronic ailments for patients in several hospitals helps manage the diseases effectively and efficiency. In this way, the improvement of the outcomes is unavoidable, contributing to the growth and development of the entire health sector. This paves way for continuous improvements and innovations to help improve the health sector. In their study, Huang, Goo, Behara, & Agarwal (2018) have found that the readmission risk, which was problematic in the past, has slowly faded due to the clinical system in place.

Safdari, GhaziSaeedi, Masoumi-Asl, Rezaei-Hachesu, Mirnia and Samad-Soltani (2018), in their review study, focus critically on the antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems applicable in the clinical settings. The systems work through the integration of diverse elements. In this way, they are in a position to achieve their functionality largely. This helps put mechanisms in place to deal with the resistance, which is a public health menace in many countries.

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The study is a success courtesy of the fact that it manages to reveal how the resistance surveillance system help deal with the problem (Safdari, et al., 2018). Essentially, the whole review reveals to a large extent the importance of the antimicrobial resistance surveillance system. In this way, it becomes possible to evaluate other ways of handling the issue at hand. The effectiveness and efficiency that comes with putting in place the right mechanisms for dealing with the problem. This makes innovativeness and creativity in the health sector at its peak.

In conclusion, the review of the relevant literature gives a brief overview of what the authors examine. The subsequent lessons from the study contribute towards the understanding of how the clinical systems are of critical importance in the whole undertaking. This is critical in working towards ensuring that there is a check of the whole health sector to ensure that it offers the relevant services to the intended level. In this way, it becomes possible to appreciate the role of the health sector in enhancing lives.




Gabriel, A. T., Quaresma, C., Secca, M., & Vieira, P. (2018). Development and clinical application of vertebral metrics: Using a stereo vision system to assess the spine. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 56(8), 1435-1446. Doi: 10.1007/s11517-018-1789-0

Huang, C. D, Goo, J., Behara, R. S., & Agarwal, A. (2018). Clinical decision support system for managing COPD-related readmission risk. Information Systems Frontiers, 1-13. Doi: 10.1007/s10796-018-9881-4

Rao-Gupta, S., Kruger, D. Leak, L. D., Tieman, L. A., & Manworren, R. C. B. (2018). Leveraging interactive patient care technology to Improve pain management engagement. Pain Management Nursing, 19(3), 212–221. Doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2017.11.002

Safdari, R., GhaziSaeedi, M., Masoumi-Asl, H., Rezaei-Hachesu, P., Mirnia, K., & Samad-Soltani, T. (2018). Knowledge discovery and visualization in antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems: A scoping review. The Artificial Intelligence Review, 1-38. Doi: 10.1007/s10462-018-9659-6

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation tools to appraise social media and mobile applications. Informatics, 4(3), 32–40. Doi:10.3390/informatics4030032




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Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making. A critical component of any policy design is evaluation of the results. How comfortable are you with the thought of becoming involved with such matters?

Some nurses may be hesitant to get involved with policy evaluation. The preference may be to focus on the care and well-being of their patients; some nurses may feel ill-equipped to enter the realm of policy and political activities. However, as you have examined previously, who better to advocate for patients and effective programs and polices than nurses? Already patient advocates in interactions with doctors and leadership, why not with government and regulatory agencies?

In this Discussion, you will reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

To Prepare:

  • In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making.
  • Review the Resources and reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

By Day 3 of Week 9

Post an explanation of at least two opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review. Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present and describe how you might overcome these challenges. Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities. Be specific and provide examples.



Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

Opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review

Policy reviewing involves key stakeholders who are involved in decision-making processes to determine their interest in policy proposals and development (Milstead & Short, 2019).  For RNs and APRNs, they have various opportunities in which they can participate in when it comes to policy reviewing and development. First, they can participate by ordinarily taking part in unit developmental meetings and engage in policy introduction processes (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). For instance, for a health center that seeks to introduce new technologies, RNs can participate by presenting their expectations and proposing new ideas since they are mostly involved with the patients compared to other stakeholders.

Another opportunity is by becoming members and collaborating with other professionals in organizations such as the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP); this will ensure they participate in every step of policy analysis and implementation (Capitol Beat, 2019). For instance, during the design of the affordable care act, RNs and APRNs were encouraged to take part in the evaluation processes and the different phases of implementation (National League for Nursing, 2019). By taking part in such a proposal, RNs and APRNs help inform policymakers’ decisions and participate in reviews.


Challenges that these opportunities may present and how to overcome these challenges

As RNs and APRNs have access to various opportunities to take part in policy reviews, it is important to be aware of the possible challenges that such opportunities present. For instance, in policy implementation and review, they may be required to work with other lawmakers and professionals from different areas of specialization, with whom they might have differing opinions (Capitol Beat, 2019). In such cases, other groups may not be as receptive to the nurses’ ideas since it is believed their opinions majorly revolve around the healthcare system, and they might not be well informed on other important aspects of policy reviews like availability of finances. To overcome this challenge, nurses can broaden their knowledge of what is required for policy formulation and all the other aspects involved (National League for Nursing, 2019). They can also work together to empower one another in providing evidence-based opinions. In the case of the unit council meetings, during the introduction of a new policy, some of the participants, including other nurses, might challenge the policy simply because of fear of a change (Milstead & Short, 2019).  To overcome such challenges, nurses need to prepare ahead by providing awareness of the new policy (including costs analysis and the expected outcomes) to other coworkers to gain support in case they may need a vote.

Two strategies to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities

For nurses to be able to access the opportunity provided regarding policy review, it is also necessary to ensure that there is enough awareness. Various strategies can be used to communicate the existence of these opportunities. Such may include the use of social media and seminars (Milstead & Short, 2019). Since social media has become a highly appreciated means of communication in the modern world and a reliable tool that can be used to communicate important information to RNs and APRNs (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). With network groups formed in platforms such as Facebook, news on new opportunities can be easily spread and reach a larger group. Further, the information can also be spread through seminars where nurses can participate in policy reviews. These can also be used for creating awareness in case of new opportunities.



Capitol Beat. (21 August 2019). ANA Capitol Beat. Nurses are speaking, and Congress is

listening as August recess wraps up. Retrieved from

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

National League for Nursing (NLN). (2019). Workforce. NLN. Retrieved from

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (January 23, 2019) AACN Applauds

Bipartisan Commitment to Support Investments in Nursing Education and Practice. AACN.



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Major Psychological Theories

Major Psychological Theories

Understanding the theoretical foundations, influential theorists, and demarcation of the three major movements of psychology is essential to having a fundamental knowledge of the discipline. Psychoanalysis; behaviorism; and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE) are recognized as the three primary movements of psychology.  As such, they provide a rich history of human science and form the basis for understanding human experience and the human condition as a whole. In this assignment, you will address this history, synthesize the theories, and consider applications of the theories.


General Requirements:

  • To foster retention of foundational theories in psychology, this assignment requires the incorporation of information from this course and previous courses regarding psychological theories and their applications. Refer to PSY-802, Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theory and PSY-803, Behaviorism to assist with this assignment.
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • This assignment requires that at least ten scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included. Scholarly works encountered in prior doctoral courses may be used in this assignment

Major Psychological Theories


Write a paper (2,250-2,500 words) that demonstrates your understanding of the primary movements in psychology – psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). Your paper should provide a historical perspective for each of the movements, showcase your understanding of the key components of each, and suggest a synthesis and application of the theories. Include the following in your paper:

  1. An overall historical context of all three movements. (Benchmarks C.1.1:  Discuss the history and development of the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and   Humanistic/Transpersonal/Existential (HTE) Psychology)
  2. A rationale for why each movement is/was considered essential to understanding human behavior and experiences.
  3. An analysis of psychoanalysis/psychodynamic theory. What were the primary tenets and perspectives of the theories? Who were the key theorists? How did their work lead them to new ideas including Neo-Freudianism?
  4. An analysis of behaviorism. What were the theoretical underpinnings of the movement? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? Who were the key theorists?
  5. An analysis of humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). From what cultural and historical contexts did the movement emerge? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? How do these tenets and concepts differ across the movement? Who were the key theorists?
  6. A synthesis of these movements. How did these movements enhance the understanding of human behavior, growth, and potential? (Benchmarks C.1.2:  Synthesize the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  7. An evaluation of the applications of the theories that were the basis for each of these movements. To what extent has the application of these theories enhanced treatments in mental health and the helping professions? (Benchmarks C.1.3:  Evaluate the common applications of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  8. A statement of next steps. What comes next in the development of psychological approaches to understanding human behavior and experience



Major Psychological Movements


When psychology initially emerged as a separate science from philosophy and biology, a debate emerged over how to analyze and explain the human mind and behavior. Prior to the 19th century, anyone interested in analyzing the human mind would do so in a philosophical context. However, two men, Wilhelm Wundt and William James, working at this time defied the rules of human physiology to introduce a new field of science referred to as psychology. Over the years, psychology has evolved into several approaches and theories. There may be multiple theories within a specific approach but all share common assumptions and beliefs about human behavior (McLeod, 2014). There are several different psychological perspectives that introduce something different to the understanding of the human mind and behavior. Among the many psychological approaches there are three primary movements in psychology. They include; the theories of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal theory and existential psychology. This paper will provide a historical analysis of psychology and its approaches, it will also synthesize the three primary movements in psychology and lastly, the paper will present the applications of the theories.

Historical Context of the Primary Movements in Psychology

Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism and Humanistic

Behaviorism is a psychological approach that uses scientific methods to investigate stimulus-response behaviors. According to behaviorism, behaviors are acquired through a series of interactions with the environment (Krapfl, 2016).  Early work in behavior psychology begun in 1913 and was championed by John Watson and his article ‘Psychology as the behaviorist views it’. In the article, Watson presented several basic assumptions about behaviorism. Watson claimed that the environment plays a major role in influencing behavior. Additionally, behaviorism focuses on observable behavior and not on internal events. A few years before Watson’s article, Ivan Pavlov carried out an experiment on conditioning after studying digestion in dogs. In 1897, Pavlov published his findings. A few years after Watson’s article, B.F Skinner founded radical behaviorism which claimed that psychology should neither predict nor control behavior (McLeod, 2017). Skinner, like Watson, recognized that internal mental events can be explained in the analysis of behavior. Skinner in 1948 published ‘Walden Two’ where he proposes the development of a Utopian society rooted in the principles of behaviorism. Later on in 1971, Skinner published Beyond Freedom and Dignity where he notes that free will is an illusion. In addition to the work done by Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, other behavioral psychologists have expounded on the idea of behaviorism by publishing books and writing articles. Clark Hull published the principles of Behavior in 1943 (McLeod, 2017). Overall behaviorism states that behavior is simply a stimulus-response feature.

Major Psychological Theories

Owing its origin to the works and theories of Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis is a set of therapeutic techniques and psychological theories whose core idea is the belief that human beings have feelings, desires, thoughts and memories (Wachtel, 2014). By introducing the contents of the unconscious mind into the consciousness, individuals are able to experience catharsis and thus become aware of their current state of mind. Therefore, people find relief from distress and any form of psychological disturbance (Wachtel, 2014). Freud (1856-1939) an Australian neurologist was fascinated by patients with hysteria and neurosis. After observing these patients, Freud theorized that the hysteria arose from the patient’s conscious mind. Based on his observations, he developed psychoanalytical therapy and published his findings in his book A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis in 1922 (Lees, 2008). Gestalt psychology principles were introduced in the United States by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler who were German psychologists immigrating into the United States. According to Gestalt principles, sensory experiences can be broken down into different parts where the parts relate to each other forming a whole. Unlike behaviorism, psychoanalysis is more concerned with understanding inner experiences and how these experiences affect the individual.

Major Psychological Theories

While behaviorism focuses on stimulus-response interactions and psychoanalysis on the effects of the unconscious mind on the conscious mind, humanistic psychology emphasizes on looking at an individual as a free and self-efficient being. Additionally, humanistic psychology helps people maximize their potential and their well-being (Serlin, 2014). This approach emerged in the 1950s as a response to behaviorism and psychoanalysis which had dominated the field of psychology at the time. Carl Rogers, a psychologist was interested in understanding everything that helped humans grow, improve and thrive. According to Rogers, psychology was designed to help people live their best lives and achieve happiness (Serlin, 2014). It was this belief that motivated psychologist Abraham Maslow to develop the hierarchy of human needs. In the late 1950s, Maslow and other humanistic psychologists begun to grow the humanistic approach which focused on creativity, individualism, self actualization and personal fulfillment. In line with these objectives, the American Association for Humanistic Psychology was developed in 1961. The following year, Maslow published Toward a Psychology of Being which highlights the third force in psychology. In 1971, humanistic psychology was introduced as a unique division of the American Psychological Association (Serlin, 2014). The humanistic approach has provided unique perspectives on the way human behavior is understood.

Major Psychological Theories

Transpersonal Psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a field in psychology focused on the spiritual aspects of human life. Transpersonal psychology was initially introduced in 1960 by Abraham Maslow and Victor Frankl. In 1969, the journal of transpersonal psychology was published. Two years later, the association for transpersonal psychology was founded. Additionally, in 1978 the international transpersonal association was created to promote education and research in the field of transpersonal psychology (Stanislav, 2008).  While transpersonal psychology did not formally begin until the 1960s, it owes its roots to the works of psychologists William James and Carl Jung. In addition to applying the principles of psychology to understand spiritual matters, transpersonal psychology provides a richer appreciation and understanding of human beings and strives to help them attain their maximum potential.

Major Psychological Theories

Existential psychology

Existential psychology is a branch of psychology that analyses the way in which people understand the basic concepts of human existence (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology was developed in the early 20th century to reflect on the principles of philosophical anthropology and psychoanalysis. Existential psychology is mainly based on the works of Martin Heidegger’s “Being and Time”. Since its introduction, existential psychology has been closely linked to philosophy since it is majorly based on some aspects of psychological theory of personality and the philosophical understanding of human beings (Tan & Wong, 2012). This form of therapy was developed from the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Soren Kierkegaard. Philosopher Kierkegaard theorized that human internal wisdom can overcome human discontent. Nietzsche on the other hand, developed the principles of existentialism by introducing the concepts of personal responsibility and free will. In the early 1990s, Jean-Paul Sartre explored the role of interpretation in the healing process. Otto Rank actively pursued this filed and was latter joined by Paul Tillich and Rollo May who introduced existential therapy in their writings (“History of Existential Therapy”, 2015). Later on, Viktor Frankl developed logotherapy while other psychologists ventured into humanistic psychology (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology focuses on the underlying factors associated with behavior while also addressing mental health concerns.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Psychoanalysis Theory

Psychoanalytic psychologists believe that psychological problems are located in the mind. Thus, when these symptoms manifest, they are often caused by hidden disturbances. Some of the hidden disturbances include unresolved issues that mainly occur during the development stage or as a result of repressed trauma (Sousa, 2011). According to psychoanalysis, treatment should focus on bringing forward repressed trauma to the conscious mind so that the individual can deal with it. Psychologists use psychoanalysis to treat anxiety disorders and depression. Due to the intricate defense mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the unconscious mind, psychoanalysis is a lengthy process. The theory assumes that when symptoms are reduced they make little to no difference in the wellness of the patient as long as the underlying conflicts are not resolved (Sousa, 2011). Some of the techniques used in psychoanalysis include Rorschach ink blots, Freudian slip and free association. Sigmund Freud had many ideas that were controversial. However, Freud attracted several followers who adopted many of his views but changed several aspects of the theory by incorporating their own ideas, opinions and beliefs. Neo-Freudian psychologist Carl Jung developed the theory of personality and introduced the concept of collective unconscious. Alfred Adler heavily disagreed with Freud’s statement that sex was the primary motivator of human behavior. As such he designed his own approach that placed greater emphasis on interpersonal and social influences. Erik Erikson disagreed with Freud’s beliefs that personality was cemented in early childhood. Erikson believed that development was a life-long journey (Sousa, 2011). Additionally, Erikson noted that not all conflicts were unconscious. Karen Horney was the first woman to receive training in psychoanalysis. She was also the first one to criticize Freud for presenting women as lesser beings to men. Both Freudian and neo-Freudian principles played an intricate role in shaping the field of psychology.


Analysis of Behaviorism

Behavior analysis is a science-based approach that utilizes the principles of behaviorism. Behavior analysis is a behaviorist tradition that utilizes learning principles and investigates how they are used to bring about change in behavior. Behavioral psychology does not focus on mentalistic causes of behavior but analyzes the behavior itself (O’Neil, 2008). Behavior analysis builds the abilities in children and adults increasing their academic performance or employee performance. According to division 25 of the American Psychological Division, behavior analysis occurs through experiments and investigations of behavior and through applied behavior analysis. Behaviorism was established by Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (O’Neil, 2008). While conducting investigations on dogs, Pavlov noticed the occurrence of conditioning reflex. He used his findings to establish classical conditioning. According to classical conditioning, environmental stimuli can stimulate a conditioned response. Watson expounded on Pavlov’s theory and applied it to understanding human behavior. Skinner further expounded on these concepts and introduced operant conditioning. According to Skinner, reinforcements result in desired behavior. There are several techniques and strategies used by behavior analysts (O’Neil, 2008). They include; chaining, prompting and shaping. Chaining is a behavior technique that involves breaking down a task into smaller parts. The simplest tasks are then selected and are taught first. Prompting is the use of prompts to trigger desired responses. Lastly, shaping strategies involve the process of gradually altering behavior. Behavior analysis has been used to help children with autism or children with developmental delays better control their behavior.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Humanistic, transpersonal and Existential (HTE) Psychology

Transpersonal psychology has implicit metaphysical assumptions that there are experiences that transcend human experiences. This concept has been backed by transpersonal theorists like Abraham Maslow, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Stansilov Krippner. Both existential and transpersonal psychology share one thing in common; both of them believe in the human potential and are committed to upholding human dignity. In the 1950s, the two most dominant schools of thought were behaviorist and psychoanalytic. Many psychologists criticized these beliefs and in response, embraced the humanistic approach. Humanistic psychology theorizes that a person’s subjective experience is crucial in behavior (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Additionally, humanistic psychology believes that every person has free will and people naturally strive to maintain a state of self actualization (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Transpersonal psychology introduces new concepts in the field of psychology. Transpersonal psychology includes the influences of spiritual experiences and acknowledges that they is a higher purpose. Transpersonal psychology highly emphasizes on relationships and strives to understand how the mind works based on the person’s relationships with others (Friedman, 2014). Existential psychology believes that man has free will and is self aware, human beings are self-actualizing and have a great capacity to grow, and lastly, individuals and their self-identity. Existential psychology is unique in that it has acknowledged that humans have limitations. Existential psychology analyzes human condition but takes a positive approach towards it.

Major Psychological Theories

In conclusion, there is no right way to study the way people think or act. However, there are several schools of thought that have evolved in the development of psychology and have advised psychologist on the human behavior investigated. Some of the main schools include; psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanist, transpersonal and existential psychology. Some psychologists focus on specific schools of thought including the biological perspective while other psychologists take a different approach where they incorporate new approaches. Overall, as the paper has shown, no perspective is better than the other; each perspective simply highlights different aspects of human behavior.



Bland, A.M. & Derobertis, E.M. (2017). The Humanistic Perspective in Psychology. Researchgate, Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1484-2

Friedman, H., (2014). Finding Meaning Through Transpersonal Approaches in Clinical Psychology: Assessments and Psychotherapies. International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5(1), 45-49.

“History of Existential Therapy”. (2015). East European Association for Existential Therapy. Retrieved from

Krapfl, J.E. (2016). Behaviorism and Society. The Behavior Analyst: Association for Behavior Analysis International, 39(1), 123-129. Doi: 10.1007/s40614-016-0063-8

Koole, S.L. (2011). Existential Psychology. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Doi: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0329

Lees, J. (2008). A History of Psychoanalytic Research. Journal of Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organizations, 11(2), 117-131. Doi: 10.1080/14753630500108042

McLeod, SA. (2014). Psychology Perspectives. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

McLeod, SA. (2017). Behaviorist Approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

O’Neil, W. M. (2008). American Behaviorism: A Historical and Critical Analysis. SAGE Journals Theory & Psychology, Doi: 10.1177/0959354395052008

Serlin, I.A. (2014). The History and Future of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(4), 428-431. Doi: 10.1177/0022167811412600

Stanislav, G. (2008). Brief History of Transpersonal Psychology. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 27(1). Doi: 10.24972/ijts.2008.27.1.46

Sousa, A. (2011). Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A Conceptual Analysis. Mens Sana Monographs, 9(1), 210-217. Doi: 10.4103/0973-1229.77437

Tan, S. & Wong, T.K. (2012). Existential Therapy: Empirical Evidence and Clinical Applications from a Christian Perspective. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3).

Wachtel, P.L. (2014). Psychoanalysis and its Social Context. Psychoanalytic Perspectives, 11(1), 58-68. Doi: 10.1080/1551806X.2014.857991


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Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

As you might recall from Week 5, there are significant differences in the applications of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for families and individuals. The same is true for CBT in group settings and CBT in family settings. In your role, it is essential to understand these differences to appropriately apply this therapeutic approach across multiple settings. For this Discussion, as you compare the use of CBT in group settings and family settings, consider challenges of using this approach with your own groups.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for groups to cognitive behavioral therapy for families
  • Analyze challenges of using cognitive behavioral therapy for groups
  • Recommend effective strategies in cognitive behavioral therapy for groups

Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

To prepare:

  • Reflect on your practicum experiences with CBT in group and family settings.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the Post to Discussion Question link and then select Create Thread to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!

By Day 3

Post an explanation of how the use of CBT in groups compares to its use in family settings. Provide specific examples from your own practicum experiences. Then, explain at least two challenges counselors might encounter when using CBT in the group setting. Support your response with specific examples from this week’s media.



Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Group Settings versus Family Settings

            Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) be described as a practical, hands-on approach psychotherapy intervention aimed at improving mental health. The objective of CBT is changing the behavior and patterns of thinking behind the difficulties that individuals, groups, or families experience. Furthermore, it is important to note there are considerable differences in the application of CBT inn family and in group settings (Dobson & Dobson, 2018).

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Group CBT tends to involve a simultaneous interaction with people who are typically not in the client’s familial or social network. These people may be considered as relative strangers. Furthermore, a group can either bee homogeneous or heterogeneous. When heterogeneous, the clients tend to have similar issues, but when heterogeneous, the clients to have diverse issues. On the other hand, CBT in family settings tends to be solution-focused and brief (Knell, 2016).  Additionally, it involves supporting the family members to think and to act in a manner that tends to be more adaptive as well as learning to make choices that enhance the relations between family members (Zettle & Hayes, 2015). An example from practicum experience is a family that had some members who had drinking disorders, which resulted in chaos in the family.


Some of the challenges when using CBT inn group settings is the lack of commitment from some of the clients. For these clients to benefit, they need to be fully committed and to undertake any activities as instructed by the therapist. Lack of commitment reduces the efficacy of CBT in group settings. Furthermore CBT in group settings may not be effective since some of the clients may be having learning difficulties, whereas others may have problems that are more complex (Dobson & Dobson, 2018).




Dobson, D., & Dobson, K. S. (2018). Evidence-based practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Knell, S. M. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral play therapy. Handbook of play therapy, 118-133.

Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (2015). Rule-governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In The Act in Context (pp. 33-63). London, United Kingdom: Rutledge.

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Social Structure and Social Interaction

Social Structure and Social Interaction

You’ve learned how important groups, roles, statuses, and social networks are in the structure of society. In this assignment, you will complete a short answer activity in which you’ll demonstrate what you’ve learned by identifying and describing examples from your own life. Use the Assignment 2 template to complete this assignment


a) List five statuses that you currently have.
• Remember: A status is simply a position you fill in society. It may be a job title, but it could also include a position you fill within a family or a community. For more information, review Section 4.3 in your webtext. b) Label each status as either ascribed, achieved, or master.
• Remember: An ascribed status is one you’re born with and have no control over. An achieved status is reached through your own efforts or simply good or bad luck. A master status is so important that it overrides your other statuses. For more information, review Section 4.3 in your webtext.
2) Roles:

a) Choose one status from your list.

b) Describe the role that is associated with the status.
c) Describe how you learned that role.

• Remember: A role is the behavior expected of someone with a certain status. For more information, review Section 4.4 in your webtext.
3) Role Conflict:

a) Describe a time when you experienced a conflict because of the demands of two different roles associated with any of your statuses.
b) How did you resolve the conflict? (Discuss any conversation or social interactions you had.)
c) List any active listening skills you used to resolve the conflict. If you didn’t use active listening skills, then list the skills you could have used to resolve the conflict. • Remember: Refer to the active listening skills checklist in page 2.10 in your webtext.

FORMATTING 4) Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

• Use the Assignment 2 template to complete this assignment.



Social Structure and Social Interaction

1) Status Set
a) List five statuses that you currently have.

  1. Father
  2. Spouse
  • Home owner
  1. Youth leader
  2. Philanthropist
  3. b) Label each status as either ascribed, achieved or master.
  4. Father – achieved
  5. Spouse – achieved

iii.        Male – ascribed

  1. British – ascribed
  2. Teacher – achieved
    2) Roles
    a) Choose one status from your list.

b) Describe the role that is associated with the status.

As a father, the primary role is to model the children in the right way. Through this, the children will be in a position to feel the significance of having a father in their lives. Being part and parcel of the children’s lives becomes integral. The father ensures that the child gets what he needs in life to live a comfortable life. Giving love to the child, teaching the necessary virtues, and providing the basis all make up the fatherly role.
c) Describe how you learned that role.

I learned the fatherly role primarily through observing how my father brought me up as the only son. He always ensured I lived a simple decent life, where basic provisions were met without fail. Taught me the right ways, which I now find important in my achieved status. This demonstrates the understanding that the learning observation right from the time I was young was not in vain.


3) Role Conflict
a) Describe a time when you experienced conflict because of the demands of two different roles associated with any of your statuses.

At one time, I experienced a conflicting arising from the execution of my role, both as a father and a spouse. As a father, I am indebted to the children. However, as spouse, I am attached to my wife. Sometimes it was common to give all my attention to one role, without an idea that I was ignoring the other. For instance, I was torn between having to go out with my wife to fulfill my role as a spouse at the expense of my son who needed my attention. The conflict helped me learn the importance of each role to the relevant party. From then on, I tried to balance my life to ensure that I meet all my roles without fail.

Social Structure and Social Interaction
b) How did you resolve the conflict?

When I experienced the conflict of being both a spouse and father at the same time, I had to come up with a resolution that would not break either my wife or son. In this case, I had to talk to my wife because he understands well enough that I have an obligation to fulfill my role as a father. Thus, it was necessary to postpone the dinner arrangement with my wife to be there for my son as promised earlier. However, I had to inform my child in advance that I was not to be available at a later date to be with him as usual since I had to go out with my wife, his mother. In this way, there was an amicable resolution to the whole problem. Being at peace with both parties was necessary to depict that I have indeed executed my role as intended.

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c) List any active listening skills you used to resolve the conflict. If you didn’t use active listening skills, then list the skills you could have used to resolve the conflict.

The active listening skills that I used to resolve the conflict include demonstrating concern (Hoppe & Center for Creative Leadership, 2014). This was effective in communicating that I recognize each of them and my role in their life. I promised never to fail any of them, although meeting their needs would always have to entail patience form each of them. Equally, the use of brief verbal affirmations was critical (Jahromi, Tabatabaee, Abdar & Rajabi, 2016) in dealing with the conflicting situation. This was of essence depicting the fact that was aware of the concerns of each of them and would address them adequately.



Hoppe, M. H., & Center for Creative Leadership. (2014). Active listening: Improve your ability to listen and lead. Greensboro, N. C.: Center for Creative Leadership.

Jahromi, V. K., Tabatabaee, S. S., Abdar, Z. E., & Rajabi, M. (2016). Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers. Electronic physician8(3), 2123.

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Nursing collaboration with other disciplines

Nursing collaboration with other disciplines

Nursing should not ‘borrow’ theories from other disciplines.” Refute this statement by providing specific examples from your current nursing practice. Describe the importance of increased nursing collaboration with other disciplines.

Your initial posting should be at least 400 words in length and utilize at least one scholarly source other than the textbook.



Concepts and Theories in Nursing

Nursing discipline is a unique profession that overlaps many sciences to help provide care holistically. The major disciplines that nursing overlaps include sociology, education, and psychology (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2015).  Nursing has stayed in the silent knowledge phase for decades due to the little attempts to develop researches to ensure evidence best practices. However, today nursing profession has entered the received knowledge phase where nurses can learn and employ theories from other disciplines and use them to improve care in nursing practice (Desbiens, Gagnon, & Fillion, 2012). Nursing theories have constructs and concepts that can help in practice.

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The use of theory-guided practice is vital in providing holistic, efficient, and effective care. Since nurses often care for patients with both terminal and chronic diseases, they must employ theoretical principles to guide their decisions and plan of providing quality care (Desbiens, Gagnon, & Fillion, 2012).  For example, borrowed theories have been used in nursing to develop protocols used in delivering care. The theories guide clinical tests, nurse-patient relations, and delivery of care to improve the quality of life and health of patients (Fawcett & DeSanto-Madeya, 2012).  The use of the self- efficacy and self-care theories have also helped to ensure the nursing behavior is founded on professionalism and evidence-based nursing practice that provide positive patient outcomes (McEwen & Wills, 2014). Therefore, theories from other disciplines can be borrowed to enhance nursing knowledge in delivery of healthcare.  However, the theories must be validated to ensure they improve nursing practice and increases the efficiency of healthcare delivery.  This can be achieved through continued research to find theories that significantly impact nursing practice and improve quality of life.


The increase of nursing collaboration with other disciplines is critical in improving nursing practice and delivery of healthcare.  Borrowing theories from science disciplines has been crucial in addressing nursing issues and providing care in a holistic manner (Fawcett & DeSanto-Madeya, 2012).  According to Chamberlain College of Nursing, (2015) borrowed nursing theories have also helped nurses to understand and build nurse-patient relationships in palliative care. The theories have helped to identify problems needed to be examined in nursing practice and implemented to provide critical solutions in nursing practice. Desbiens, Gagnon, and Fillion, (2012) consider that borrowed theories help to understand a given phenomenon or extend and challenge a particular knowledge based on clinical assumptions. The theories are also critical in making clinical decisions that improve practice through influencing patient outcomes and quality of health positively. The use of the borrowed theories can be explained using the old phrase “Why reinvent the wheel?” as it depicts reasons borrowed theories are essential in nursing practice (McEwen & Wills, 2014). Nursing as a patient-centered discipline can use borrowed theories and adopt them in practice to provide best evidence-based outcomes. Thus, the use of theory-guided practice is vital in providing holistic, efficient, and effective care.

Although theories from other disciplines can be borrowed to enhance nursing knowledge in delivery of healthcare, the theories need to be tested and proven before being applied in different nursing practices — some theories only present rationale in research but not in practice (Chamberlain College of Nursing, 2015).  Creating awareness of the borrowed theories that can be used as nursing theories supported by evidence will help improve the provision of healthcare and improve patient outcomes.



Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2015). NR 501: Theoretical Basis for             Advanced        Nursing: Week One lesson History of Nursing Theory Development Timeline.           [PowerPoint slides]. St. Louis, MO: online publication.

Desbiens, J., Gagnon, J., & Fillion, L. (2012). Development of a shared theory in

palliative care to enhance nursing competence. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 68(9), 2113-2124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05917.x

Fawcett, J., & DeSanto-Madeya, S. (2012). The Structure of Contemporary Nursing           Knowledge. In Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of        Nursing Models and Theories (3rd ed., p 17). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

McEwen, M., & Wills, E. (2014). Stages of Theory Development in Nursing. In      Theoretical

basis for nursing (4th ed., pp. 23-47). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott       Williams & Wilkins.






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Journal – Major Issues Anticipated while Writing the Essay

Journal – Major Issues Anticipated while Writing the Essay


In 300 words, Discuss what major issue you anticipate having when you begin writing this essay. How do you plan to address this issue when it arises?



Essay topic: Fake News Outcry is Misguided


FYI: These are the essay instructions that the above question is referring to:

Essay 3 will be a research argument essay. This week you will receive a course message with an article attached to it. The article will be taking a position on a current event. Your essay will be an classical argument paper that either agrees with or disagrees with the author’s of the article’s position.

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You must support your argument with evidence from the academic databases found in the college library–Academic Search Complete, EBSCO, CQ Researcher, etc. Please review the library orientation videos to refresh your understanding of including reputable sources for research papers. Sources that are found outside of the academic databases will not count and may even harm your grade for this essay.

Essay guidelines:

-7-10 pages of content typed in MLA format with a work-cited page (work cited page does not count as a page of content).

-You must include at least 4 sources for you paper–these sources must be indicated in the annotated bibliography.



WK 8 Journal – Major Issues Anticipated while Writing the Essay

The main issue that I anticipate in writing this essay is the introduction. The introduction is supposed to serve as the icebreaker for the audience that will read my work and therefore, I acknowledge that I need to put more focus on how to grab the attention of the audience in my introduction. I am not sure I will be able to attract the interest of the specific audience and still be able to focus on the subject matter of the argument. The essay topic also has a lot of information and I am afraid about the idea of providing enough background information so that I can ensure that the audience is aware of the general problem or issue that I am addressing. The challenge is on identifying the elements of background or context that needs to be resented in the introduction amidst the large pool of information that exists.


However, I plan to address the issue as soon as it arises through several techniques. The first one will be to find the best way to capture and focus the audience’s attention. On this, I will choose to focus on quotations, or a representative analogy or case. Also, a useful strategy would be to attack an opposing point of view which will focus on grabbing the attention of the audience so that they can be prepared for my thoughts. Also, I intend to carefully elect worlds so that I can be able to use my introduction to signal my specific position on the topic of discussion and the direction of my argument. In addition, I will ensure that I establish my image and bring out exactly what I would like to project in the argument such as aggression and passion on the topic for the readers to understand my point.

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E-portfolio Plan

E-portfolio Plan

Please write in simple academic  language

It is an e-portfolio plan

600 words

At Least  4 references

I have uploaded a model answer along with this order.



-Write about a general introduction about e-portfolio

2.Structure and purpose of e-portfolio


3.What are the things to be prepared and included in the portfolio

I will do this

4.The relevance to career development in nursing speciality.

A sample paragraph below

(Nurses can reach their goals by reviewing the e-portfolio. They can evaluate their

studies and experience and update themselves by checking their portfolio and it will help

them to gain higher positions in their specialty area or can do higher studies if they needed

(Ryan, 2011).)

Time frame

Please do the  same columns  and answers according to the model answer,


A model paragraph)

(e-portfolio is electronically accessed portfolio which includes all the details and documents from educational, professional and personal experience. It will help nurses to provide better care and quality life to patients and also nurses can gain their goals and develop their career.)





An e-portfolio is electronic evidence of work, which showcases proof of clinical competency among nursing students and registered nurses (Green, Wyllie, & Jackson, 2014).  This means that the e-portfolio looks at the personal and professional growth and offers a planning space for development of nursing experiences and needs. E-portfolio is essential in creating a reflection of one’s experiences and professional skills. It also creates a platform that allows health care practitioners to showcase their experiences, skills, and achievements (Green, Wyllie, & Jackson, 2014).  Therefore, an e-portfolio ensures a holistic integration of professional assessment that is not susceptible to degradation or damage as traditional portfolio.


E-portfolio needs to be well executed to ensure they provide an authentic assessment of the student. An e-portfolio supports learning of nursing students through providing workplace assessment, personal development plans, and learning events. It also showcases the professional activities, learning experiences, continuing education, competencies, personal goals and skills, and professional achievement (Nielsen, Pedersen, & Helms, 2015). Therefore, students use e-portfolio to reflect their weaknesses and strengths and the improvement they expect in the future.  E-portfolio is a rich resource that allows one to learn about the achievement of a given student and make connections on the curriculum and areas where the student needs to improve (Green, Wyllie, & Jackson, 2014).  As a digital application in nursing, an e-portfolio allows for information sharing, collaboration, and interaction of an individual’s learning experiences (Nielsen, Pedersen, & Helms, 2015). Therefore, an e-portfolio is a critical innovation in nursing profession that provides the workplace assessment, personal development plan, and learning events of nursing students and nurses.



Nurses can achieve their goals by going through and assessing their e-portfolio. An e-portfolio allows nurses to evaluate their experiences and studies and update their weaknesses and strengths by going through their e-portfolio regularly (Green, Wyllie, & Jackson, 2014). Having an e-portfolio allows nurses to target higher positions in the nursing profession or seek a leadership position in nursing organizations and associations (Birks et al., 2016). Therefore, e-portfolio serves as a repository that ensures professional and career development and ensures analysis of one’s competencies and weaknesses in nursing profession and practice.


Week one Selection of website
Week two Purpose of the e-portfolio and uses
Week three Collecting information and organizing the e-portfolio
Week four Adding artefacts
Week five Interject personality
Week six Reflect metacognitively
Week seven Self-assess and inspect goals
Week eight Perfect, evaluate and grade your strengths and weaknesses
Week nine Connect and conference
Week ten Inject and eject the e-portfolio
Week eleven Review for adding additional information and proofreading
Week twelve E-Portfolio completion
Week thirteen Show pride and respect accomplishment
Week fourteen E-Portfolio submission and Peer Review



E-portfolio is a digital electronic tool that is critical to the nursing profession in many ways. E-portfolio is electronically accessed compared to the traditional portfolio to enable nursing students and nurses to showcase their experiences, skills, and achievements. An e-portfolio includes personal experiences, professional experiences, and education details of an individual (Nielsen, Pedersen, & Helms, 2015). This helps nurses to develop their career, goals, skills, and knowledge by assessing their e-portfolio. Nursing students and nurses find it exciting to identify their strengths and weaknesses and keeping track of their professional development.



Birks, M., Hartin, P., Woods, C., Emmanuel, E., & Hitchins, M. (2016). Students’ perceptions of the use of e-portfolios in nursing and midwifery education. Nurse Education in Practice, 18, 46-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.nepr.2016.03.003.

Green, J., Wyllie, A., & Jackson, D. (2014). Electronic portfolios in nursing education: A review of the literature. Nurse Education in Practice, 14(1), 4-8. DOI:


Nielsen, K., Pedersen, B. D., & Helms, N. H. (2015). E-Portfolio and learning styles in clinical nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(9), 54–62. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecns.2015.04.005

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