Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs

You will also evaluate and analyze ethical and legal implications and practices related to prescribing drugs.  As advanced practice nurses, almost every clinical decision you make will have ethical or legal implications. Your ethical and legal knowledge is fundamental to your ability to resolve the multitude of challenging issues encountered in practice.  For the Week 1 Assignment, you will explore the ethical and legal implications of the following scenario, and consider how to appropriately respond:


A friend calls and asks you to prescribe a medication for her. You have this autonomy, but you don’t have your friend’s medical history. You write the prescription anyway.

Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following: all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references.

1.      Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.

2.      Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.

3.      Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.

4.      Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.

To Prepare

Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.

Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.

Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.

Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.

Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.


Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescriptions


In healthcare, practitioners often find out that their friends, co-workers, or relatives may request informal medical advice. In addition, people close to the practitioners may ask for medical prescriptions without following medical procedures.  Practitioners realize that engagement in informal prescriptions increase their chances of having malpractice liability. In serious cases, they face legal investigations and risk going to jail or losing their job (Arcangelo et al., 2017). This paper tries to determine the ethical and legal implications that are associated with casual prescriptions. It involves a scenario where a female friend calls for medical prescription while the practitioner does not have her medical history. With that autonomy, the prescription is still written.

Ethical and Legal Implications

The scenario creates an ethical challenge to the practitioner. Due to their close association, the practitioner’s professional objectivity may be affected. The fact that the practitioner prescribes medicine for the client without her medical history shows that the doctor’s judgment is based on their relationship. Legally, if the state law requires the patient to be present during prescription, the process would be against the authority. In addition, the process would be inefficient due to lack of physical examinations (Kling, 2015).

From another perspective, if the state requires an association between the physician and nurse, an investigation may be enforced on the practitioner for engaging in the process alone. Moreover, if the prescription is done away from the facility setting, it will be illegal. It can also be viewed that if the patient’s condition deteriorates after prescription, there will be no documentation to reveal the drugs she had taken. This act would jeopardize further assistance. Also, there will be no evidence of the patient’s informed consent (Arcangelo et al., 2017).

Strategies for Disclosure and Nondisclosure

Disclosure of patient safety is an important aspect in any healthcare situation. From the scenario, the practitioner may choose to orally disclose the error to a colleague and the patient. This act would increase trust between the practitioner and co-workers. In addition, it would create a suitable patient-nurse relationship. Also, the practitioner may create a formal report to the facility, revealing the details of the error in a way to reduce such errors in future (Kling, 2015).

Strategies for Decision Making

When it comes to decision making, the practitioner may choose to reject the patient’s request. This act would be done in a polite way, with the practitioner giving an explanation of associated ethical concerns. This may be followed by the practitioner assigning the patient to a different qualified nurse to engage in the prescription. Contrarily, the practitioner may choose to engage in the prescription process. However, the process needs the nurse to have a professional relationship with the patient. The procedure should be done in a facility setting, with the practitioner making suitable medical assessments of the patient. It would need official documentation which would enhance a suitable follow-up (Bao et al., 2016).

Prescription Writing Process

Having a systematic approach in prescribing drugs is required to enhance prescription quality. The process should start with proper evaluation and definition of the patient’s problem. This step is followed by development of a therapeutic objective. A proper drug therapy is initiated. Thereafter, details, warnings, and instructions should be provided. To avoid errors, the practitioner may apply the five rights of drug prescription. They involve the needs for the right drug, right patient, right dosage, right process, and right time. Another strategy is to employ computer technology in designing the prescription (Ladd & Hoyt, 2016).


The paper shows that prescription of drugs to people close to a practitioner is associated with ethical and legal implications. These issues may make a nurse lose his or her job, especially if it is associated with errors. Nurses need to be careful when administering drugs to patients who are associated with them. The paper tries to reveal that with proper strategies, the process can be done properly, thereby limiting ethical and legal consequences. In addition, it is observed that drug prescription needs to follow a systematic approach to avoid errors.


Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotheraeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4thed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bao, Y., Pan, Y., Taylor,A., Radakrishnan, S., Luo, F., Pincus, H. A., &Schackman, B. (2016). Prescription drug monitoring programs are associated with sustained reductions in opioid prescribing by physicians. Health Affairs, 35(6), 1045 -1051.

Kling, S. (2015). Is it ethical to treat one’s family and friends?: ethics article. Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 28(2), 118-120.

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166-173.

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Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Telenursing and telemedicine will only be successful if patients engage in the program. You have been asked by your manager to pilot a program aimed at improving transitions of care using the new telemedicine system recently implemented at your hospital. What are some of the ways that you can encourage both patient and provider engagement to ensure the pilot program success? Citations should conform to APA guidelines. You may use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources or connect to the APA style website through the APA icon below.


Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

For patients and caregivers to reap the full benefits of telemedicine, they must wholly embrace the revolutionary technology. The engagement of the patient and care-giver is paramount for the effective use of telemedicine since it relies on the ability of stakeholders to use the system (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Collecting from and providing information to users will increase the involvement of both patients and care providers in the integration of telemedicine.

Educating caregivers and patients on the uses and benefits of telemedicine will increase the engagement in the pilot and subsequent roll out of the program. Dispelling myths, and providing knowledge on how to use the system provides all stakeholders with the required information to practice telehealth. Skepticism on compatibility, fear of losing face to face interactions and security concerns are some of the popular myths among physicians (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Providing information to the stakeholders will encourage them to get more involved because patients and providers have knowledge on how to use the system and understand the potential benefits.

Conducting research prior to designing and rolling out implementation strategies is critical in the adoption of the proposed procedures. The data collected informs on preferences and possible barriers to the acceptance of telemedicine. Collecting data from stakeholders ensures that their views are incorporated in making the pilot thus it is more acceptable. Both providers and patients will participate more knowing that their input is valued and will be included in the execution of telehealth procedures.

Patient and provider engagement can be increased through improving communication to and from stakeholders. Transition of care is an important aspect for the recovery of patients and it can benefit greatly from the use of telemedicine While a pilot program designed to improve the transition of care using telehealth systems is a noble initiative, stakeholders in the medical field must be fully engaged in the process to capitalize on the advantages.


Dantu, R., & Mahapatra, R. (2013). Adoption of telemedicine – challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from

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Antibiotics and Childhood immunity

Antibiotics and Childhood immunity

Childhood is a time of growth, exploration, and resilience, where developing a robust immune system is vital. Antibiotics have long been hailed as lifesaving weapons in the battle against bacterial infections, offering hope and relief. However, beneath the surface lies a growing concern that warrants attention – the impact of antibiotics on childhood immunity.

In recent years, an increasing body of evidence has shed light on the potential drawbacks of antibiotics, particularly in their interaction with the delicate ecosystem of the human microbiota. An accumulating wealth of evidence illustrates their detrimental effect on host-microbiota homeostasis, posing a serious menace to the global public health. In recent years, it is becoming evident that infants, who are subjected to frequent antibiotic exposures due to their vulnerability to infection, reflect increased susceptibility to a wide spectrum of diseases, including infection, in later life.

Antibiotics induce perturbations of the microbiota or dysbiosis, which in turn alters the host immune responses against pathogens. In comparison with adults, antibiotic treatments in infants have disproportionate consequences because the infant microbiota represents an evolving system that is unstable and immature until 2–3 years of age. However, relatively less knowledge is available on how antibiotics affect the infant microbiota and immunity.

In this review article, we focus on how Antibiotics and Childhood immunity and antibiotic treatment regimens influence the infant innate and adaptive immunity to pathogens in humans and animal models, and make the host susceptible to infections in later life. There is a critical need to better understand the effect of antibiotics on infant immune function, which may have implications for developing effective prophylactics and therapeutics against diseases in infants and adults. The consequences of disrupting this intricate balance during the early stages of life can be profound, affecting the trajectory of a child’s immune system and leaving lasting implications for future health.

The Gut Microbiome and its Role in Immune Function

Hidden within our bodies lies a thriving community of microorganisms known as the gut microbiome, which holds the power to shape our health and well-being in remarkable ways. Beyond aiding in digestion emerging evidence suggests that the gut may have an equally important role in the development and function of our immune system via both intestinal and systemic mechanisms. The gut microbiota is associated with the small intestinal paracellular permeability and the development of the immune system in healthy children during the first two years of life.

The gut microbiome is a diverse and dynamic collection of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic organisms that reside in our digestive tract. This vibrant community interacts with our body’s immune system in a intricate dance, playing a crucial role in the development, regulation, and balance of our immune responses. The gut microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis.

The gut microbiome is closely linked to the immune system and influences each other, and this interaction is associated with various diseases in infants. The gut mycobiome regulates the host immunity and affects the course of chronic inflammatory diseases, but it is still unclear whether early life nutrition can affect the gut mycobiome. The gut microbiome is a critical factor in the development and function of the immune system in infants and children.

Through a series of intricate mechanisms, the gut microbiome communicates with our immune cells, training and fine-tuning them to recognize friend from foe. It acts as a tutor, educating our immune system during its formative years and continuing to shape its function throughout our lives. A harmonious relationship between the gut microbiome and immune system is essential for robust defence against pathogens, while also maintaining tolerance to harmless substances.

The gut microbiome also directly influences systemic immunity in animal models, and modulation of the gut microbiome can impact the innate immune system in children. The gut microbiota provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. The gut microbiome is closely linked to the immune system and influences each other, and this interaction is associated with various diseases in infants. The gut mycobiome regulates the host immunity and affects the course of chronic inflammatory diseases, but more research is needed to determine whether early life nutrition can affect the gut mycobiome

However, disruption to this delicate equilibrium can have far-reaching consequences. Factors such as antibiotic use, dietary choices, stress, and environmental influences can perturb the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome, potentially leading to dysbiosis—a state of imbalance within the microbial community. This dysbiosis has been linked to a range of immune-related disorders, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, and inflammation.

Fortunately, understanding the intricate relationship between the gut microbiome and immune function provides opportunities for interventions and preventive strategies. Researchers are now exploring the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and targeted dietary modifications to promote a healthy gut microbiome and optimize immune responses.

How Antibiotics Affect the Gut Microbiome and Immune Function

Antibiotics have undoubtedly revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives by combating bacterial infections. However, while antibiotics target harmful bacteria, they can also inadvertently disrupt the delicate balance of the gut microbiome, giving rise to a host of unintended consequences. Antibiotics can have a significant impact on the gut microbiome and immune function. The following are some of the ways antibiotics affect the gut microbiome and immune function:

  1. Alteration of the gut microbiome

Antibiotics can dramatically alter the gut microbial composition, reducing exposure to microorganisms and disrupting the body’s natural microbiota. This alteration can lead to dysbiosis, a condition in which the balance of microorganisms in the gut is disrupted, leading to a less vigorous immune response to routine childhood vaccinations

  1. Reduction in microbial diversity

Antibiotics can cause a reduction in microbial diversity among intestinal flora, leading to dysbiosis. This reduction can lead to a decrease in the number of protective species such as Bifidobacterium spp.

  1. Immunological disorders

Antibiotics interfere with the interaction between the microbiome and immune system, resulting in immunological disorders. This interference can lead to an increased risk of allergy, asthma, various infections, and inflammatory bowel disease

  1. Selection of antibiotic-resistant organisms

Antibiotics can select for antibiotic-resistant organisms, leading to downstream effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and recurring C difficile infections

  1. Impact on the gut microbiome pre and post-birth

Although the effects of prenatal antibiotics on neonates remain unclear, the microbes that first colonize a child after birth are known to have a fundamental influence on the development of the microbiome. An infant’s mode of delivery is a critical determinant of the composition of their gut microbiota.

The Long-Term Effects of Antibiotics on Childhood Health Outcomes

Antibiotics are amongst the most commonly used drugs in children, including infants, in the Western world. While antibiotics have transformed previously lethal infections into relatively minor diseases, antibiotic treatments can have adverse effects on childhood health outcomes. Here are some of the long-term effects of antibiotics on childhood health outcomes:

  1. Increased risk of wheezing and asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis found that antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of developing wheezing and asthma in children. Antibiotics prescribed from 12 to 24 months were associated with a significantly increased risk of asthma in both sexes, according to a study published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
  2. Increased risk of immunological disorders: Antibiotic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of allergy, various infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. A paper written jointly by Mayo Clinic and Rutgers researchers found that children under age 2 who take antibiotics are at greater risk for childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  3. Increased risk of metabolic disorders: Early-life, repeated courses of antibiotics have been correlated with increased later-life risks for asthma, obesity, and Crohn’s disease. Antibiotic exposure in the first two years of life was studied in five-year-old children in Japan, and antibiotics were found to be a risk factor for asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis in these children.

The link between antibiotics and childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Antibiotics and Childhood immunity and antibiotic exposure in children under age 2 has been linked to several chronic conditions, including childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A paper written jointly by Mayo Clinic and Rutgers researchers found that children under age 2 who take antibiotics are at greater risk for these conditions. While previous studies have looked at the association of antibiotics with single diseases, this is the first to look at the association across many diseases. The study found that antibiotics were associated with metabolic diseases (obesity, being overweight), immunological diseases (asthma, food allergies, hay fever), and cognitive conditions or disorders (ADHD, autism), but effects varied among the different antibiotics. Cephalosporins were associated with the most risk for multiple diseases, and uniquely autism and food allergies. Early antibiotic exposure has been associated with an increased risk of childhood onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, celiac disease, overweight, and obesity. A study found that children under age two who take antibiotics are at greater risk for childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although rates have declined in recent years, antibiotic use in children remains high; clinicians prescribed 67 million to US children in 2013. A growing body of evidence reveals early-life antibiotic use can have long-term consequences. In one study, the impact of antibiotic exposure in the first two years of life was studied in five-year-old children in Japan. Antibiotics were a risk factor for asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rhinitis in these children. These findings suggest that antibiotics can have adverse long-term effects on childhood health outcomes. It is important to use antibiotics judiciously and only when necessary to minimize the risk of adverse effects on childhood health. Healthcare providers should consider the potential impact of antibiotics and other medications on childhood health outcomes when prescribing them to children. Parents can also promote a healthy childhood by providing a balanced and varied diet, avoiding unnecessary antibiotics, and encouraging physical activity.


Strategies for Balancing Antibiotic Use and Childhood Immunity:

  1. Highlight the importance of judicious antibiotic use: Healthcare providers should consider the potential impact of antibiotics and other medications on childhood health outcomes and vaccination response when prescribing them to children. Parents can also promote a healthy childhood by avoiding unnecessary antibiotics and encouraging physical activity.
  2. Discuss alternative approaches to managing childhood infections, such as supportive care and targeted therapies: In some cases, supportive care and targeted therapies may be effective alternatives to antibiotics for managing childhood infections. For example, supportive care for viral infections may include rest, hydration, and fever-reducing medications. Targeted therapies may include antiviral medications or antifungal medications for specific infections.
  • Provide recommendations for healthcare providers and parents to minimize the impact of antibiotics on childhood immunity: Healthcare providers can minimize the impact of antibiotics on childhood immunity by prescribing antibiotics judiciously and only when necessary. Parents can promote a healthy childhood by providing a balanced and varied diet, avoiding unnecessary antibiotics, and encouraging physical activity.
  1. Educate parents and healthcare providers on the potential long-term effects of antibiotics on childhood health outcomes: Antibiotic exposure in children has been linked to several chronic conditions, including childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Healthcare providers should educate parents on the potential long-term effects of antibiotics on childhood health outcomes and the importance of judicious antibiotic use.
  2. Encourage the use of probiotics: Probiotics are live microorganisms that can provide health benefits when consumed in adequate amounts. Probiotics can help restore the balance of microorganisms in the gut and support immune function. Healthcare providers can recommend probiotics to children who have been prescribed antibiotics to help restore the gut microbiome.

These strategies can help balance the use of antibiotics and childhood immunity. Healthcare providers and parents should work together to promote a healthy childhood and minimize the impact of antibiotics on childhood health outcomes.


In conclusion, this article highlights the significant associations between antibiotic exposure in children under the age of 2 and various chronic conditions, including childhood-onset asthma, respiratory allergies, eczema, celiac disease, obesity, and ADHD. The research emphasizes the need for a balanced approach to antibiotic use in order to preserve childhood immunity and long-term health outcomes.

By judiciously using antibiotics only when necessary, healthcare providers and parents can minimize the potential risks and adverse effects on childhood health. It is crucial to consider the broader implications of antibiotic use, taking into account the impact on the delicate balance of the gut microbiome and the potential long-term consequences on immune function.

However, further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the intricate relationship between antibiotics, the gut microbiome, and childhood health outcomes. Continued efforts in research, awareness, and education are essential to inform healthcare providers, parents, and policymakers about the potential risks associated with early antibiotic exposure and the importance of responsible antibiotic prescribing practices.

Ultimately, by adopting a cautious and informed approach to antibiotic use, we can strive to protect and preserve the delicate immune systems of children, promoting their overall health and well-being for years to come.

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Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Strategies

Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment: Strategies for Effective Management

Welcome to, your trusted source for insightful articles on nursing and healthcare. In this blog post, we dive into the fascinating world of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) treatment. So, buckle up and join us as we explore the strategies and interventions that pave the way for effective management of this critical condition.

Picture this, a relentless battle is raging inside the human body, where the very essence of life hangs in the balance. Acute Coronary Syndrome, with its vice-like grip on the heart, demands urgent attention. Time becomes the enemy, and the right treatment can make all the difference between life and death.

As top-tier writers dedicated to providing you with the most up-to-date and accurate information, we take pride in unravelling the complexities of ACS treatment. Whether you’re a healthcare professional seeking comprehensive knowledge or a curious reader eager to understand the intricacies of cardiovascular care, you’ve come to the right place.

Join us as we embark on a journey through the corridors of cardiac health, exploring the nuances of Acute Coronary Syndrome treatment. From the initial recognition and diagnosis to the implementation of cutting-edge interventions, we will equip you with the knowledge and insights needed to make a difference in the lives of those affected by ACS.

So, without further ado, let’s delve into the world of ACS treatment and discover the strategies that hold the power to mend broken hearts and restore hope.

Understanding Acute Coronary Syndrome

Imagine a symphony where the heart takes center stage, orchestrating the rhythm of life. Now, picture an unwelcome disruption in this harmonious performance—an obstruction that hampers the heart’s supply of oxygen and nutrients. That disruption is none other than Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) refers to a group of conditions characterized by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. It is a medical emergency that requires prompt evaluation and treatment. In this section, we will delve into the different types of ACS, their underlying causes, and the risk factors involved.

Types of ACS

ACS encompasses three main conditions: unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

  • Unstable Angina: Unstable angina is characterized by chest pain or discomfort that occurs at rest or with minimal exertion. It is caused by a partial blockage of the coronary arteries due to the formation of blood clots or the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Unlike a heart attack, unstable angina does not cause permanent damage to the heart muscle.
  • NSTEMI: NSTEMI occurs when there is a partial blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. It is characterized by chest pain and may be accompanied by changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and an increase in cardiac biomarkers, such as troponin levels. NSTEMI can cause damage to the heart muscle, although it is usually less severe than STEMI.
  • STEMI: STEMI is the most severe form of ACS and is caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery, typically due to a blood clot. This complete blockage leads to a lack of blood flow and oxygen supply to a specific area of the heart, resulting in significant heart muscle damage. Prompt restoration of blood flow is crucial to minimize the extent of damage and improve outcomes.

Underlying Causes and Risk Factors

The underlying cause of ACS is atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the build-up of fatty deposits (plaques) within the coronary arteries. These plaques can gradually narrow the arterial lumen, reducing blood flow. When a plaque ruptures, it can trigger the formation of blood clots, further impeding blood flow and leading to ACS.

Several risk factors contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of experiencing ACS. These risk factors include:

  • Age: ACS risk increases with age, especially after 45 years in men and 55 years in women.
  • Gender: Men are generally at higher risk, but the risk in women increases after menopause.
  • Smoking: Tobacco use significantly raises the risk of ACS.
  • High blood pressure: Uncontrolled hypertension contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
  • High cholesterol levels: Elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, often referred to as “bad” cholesterol, promote plaque formation.
  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk of developing atherosclerosis and experiencing ACS.
  • Obesity: Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, increases the risk.
  • Family history: Having a close relative with a history of ACS or premature coronary artery disease raises the risk.
  • Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of regular physical activity is associated with an increased risk of ACS.
  • Stress and psychological factors: Chronic stress and certain psychological conditions may contribute to the development of ACS.

The Importance of Early and Effective Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment 

In the realm of Acute Coronary Syndrome, time becomes a precious commodity. Every passing moment can mean the difference between preserving heart muscle function or irreversible damage. Early and effective treatment is the key to altering the course of events and improving patient outcomes.

When it comes to ACS, the mantra is clear: Act swiftly, act decisively. By recognizing the signs and symptoms promptly, healthcare professionals can initiate a cascade of interventions designed to restore blood flow, relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and reduce the risk of future events.

It’s not just about buying time; it’s about seizing the opportunity to save lives. Early treatment can significantly minimize the extent of heart muscle damage, increase the chances of survival, and pave the way for a speedier recovery. With each passing minute, the stakes grow higher, underscoring the critical importance of a rapid and coordinated response.

As healthcare providers, we hold the power to make a profound impact on the lives of those affected by ACS. By understanding the nuances of this condition and staying abreast of advancements in treatment, we equip ourselves with the tools needed to deliver optimal care and instill hope in the hearts of our patients.

In the next sections, we will explore the recognition and diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome, uncover the goals of treatment, and delve into the strategies and medications employed to combat this relentless foe. So, stay tuned as we navigate the intricate landscape of ACS management, arming ourselves with knowledge to make a difference.

Recognizing and Diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome

In the realm of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), time is of the essence. Swift recognition and accurate diagnosis are crucial in initiating timely treatment and improving patient outcomes. In this section, we explore the common symptoms of ACS and highlight the importance of prompt medical evaluation and various diagnostic tests.

Common Symptoms of ACS

ACS often manifests with a distinctive array of symptoms that serve as warning signs of a potentially life-threatening condition. While symptoms can vary among individuals, the following are commonly reported:

  • Chest Pain or Discomfort: One of the hallmark symptoms of ACS is chest pain or discomfort. This pain is typically described as a pressure-like sensation, squeezing, heaviness, or tightness in the chest. The pain may radiate to the arm(s), jaw, neck, or back. It is important to note that chest pain may not always be present, especially in certain atypical presentations, such as in older adults, women, or individuals with diabetes.
  • Shortness of Breath: As ACS progresses, the inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle can lead to difficulty in breathing. Patients may experience shortness of breath, especially with minimal exertion or at rest. This symptom is often accompanied by a feeling of tightness in the chest.
  • Nausea and Sweating: ACS can also elicit other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, and profuse sweating. These symptoms are attributed to the body’s response to the immense stress and inadequate oxygen supply.

It is important to remember that symptoms can vary from person to person, and some individuals may even experience atypical or subtle symptoms, particularly in the elderly, women, or individuals with diabetes. Therefore, maintaining a high index of suspicion and considering ACS in the differential diagnosis is crucial for timely intervention.

Prompt Medical Evaluation and Accurate Diagnosis

When faced with potential ACS, prompt medical evaluation is vital to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Healthcare providers employ a combination of clinical assessment and diagnostic tests to accurately diagnose ACS. Here are some key diagnostic measures:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): An electrocardiogram is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It is a valuable tool in diagnosing ACS. ECG changes can reveal characteristic patterns, such as ST-segment elevation or depression, T-wave inversion, or the presence of Q-waves, which provide important clues for differentiating between NSTEMI and STEMI.
  • Blood Tests (Troponin Levels): Blood tests, specifically the measurement of cardiac biomarkers such as troponin levels, play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of ACS. Elevated troponin levels indicate heart muscle damage or injury. Serial measurements of troponin are often performed to assess the trend and aid in the diagnosis and risk stratification of ACS.
  • Coronary Angiography: Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure that involves the injection of contrast dye into the coronary arteries to visualize their anatomy. It helps identify the location and severity of coronary artery blockages or obstructions, guiding further management decisions, such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) if necessary.

Accurate diagnosis through these diagnostic tests enables healthcare providers to tailor treatment plans according to the specific type and severity of ACS, ensuring appropriate interventions are initiated promptly.

By recognizing the common symptoms of ACS and emphasizing the importance of prompt medical evaluation and accurate diagnosis, we emphasize the critical role of healthcare providers in swiftly identifying ACS and initiating the necessary steps to improve patient outcomes. Now, let’s move on to our third Section, Goals of Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment, as outlined earlier.

Goals of Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment

When facing Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), the goals of treatment revolve around saving lives, preserving heart function, and preventing future cardiovascular events. In this section, we explore the primary objectives of ACS treatment and the strategies employed to achieve them.

1.Saving Lives and Minimizing Heart Damage

The primary goal in ACS treatment is to save lives by restoring blood flow to the heart muscle and minimizing heart damage. Time is critical, and the following interventions are typically employed:

  1. a) Reperfusion Therapy: Reperfusion therapy aims to restore blood flow to the blocked coronary artery promptly. Two common approaches are utilized:
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): PCI, also known as angioplasty, involves the insertion of a catheter with a balloon at its tip into the blocked artery. The balloon is then inflated to widen the artery, allowing improved blood flow. Often, a stent is also placed to keep the artery open.
  • Thrombolytic Therapy: Thrombolytic therapy involves the administration of clot-dissolving medications to break down the blood clot causing the blockage. This therapy is typically used when immediate PCI is not feasible.
  1. b) Medications: Various medications are utilized to manage ACS and improve outcomes. These may include antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, and statins, among others. Medications are tailored to the specific type of ACS and the patient’s individual characteristics.
  2. Preventing Future Cardiovascular Events

ACS is a wake-up call, indicating the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. To prevent future cardiovascular events, additional goals of treatment include:

  1. a) Risk Factor Modification: Lifestyle modifications and management of risk factors play a crucial role in preventing recurrent events. This may involve addressing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and promoting smoking cessation. Healthy lifestyle choices, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress reduction, are also emphasized.
  2. b) Long-Term Medication Management: Following an ACS event, long-term medication management is essential. Medications such as antiplatelet agents, statins, and blood pressure-lowering medications may be prescribed to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events.
  3. c) Cardiac Rehabilitation: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a comprehensive approach to recovery and secondary prevention. These programs typically involve supervised exercise training, education on heart-healthy lifestyle choices, psychosocial support, and close monitoring of risk factors.
  4. Individualized Care and Shared Decision-Making

Each patient’s ACS journey is unique, necessitating individualized care and shared decision-making. Healthcare providers collaborate with patients to develop treatment plans that consider the patient’s preferences, comorbidities, and overall well-being.

By focusing on saving lives, minimizing heart damage, and preventing future cardiovascular events, ACS treatment encompasses a comprehensive approach that extends beyond the acute phase. Through timely interventions, risk factor modification, and long-term management, healthcare professionals strive to improve patients’ quality of life and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

In the next section, we will explore the specific strategies and medications employed in ACS treatment, shedding light on the tools that healthcare providers use to combat this formidable adversary.

By outlining the primary goals of ACS treatment and highlighting the strategies used to achieve them, we emphasize the comprehensive nature of care and the importance of tailoring treatment plans to individual patients. This approach underscores the collaborative nature of healthcare and the shared responsibility in promoting optimal outcomes.

Medications for Long-term Management

In the battle against Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), long-term management plays a crucial role in preventing future cardiovascular events and promoting optimal health. In this section, we explore the medications commonly prescribed for long-term management of ACS, empowering patients with the knowledge to take control of their health.

  1. a) Antiplatelet Agents: Antiplatelet medications are a cornerstone of long-term ACS management. They help prevent blood clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Commonly prescribed antiplatelet agents include:
  • Aspirin: Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation and is often recommended for long-term use in ACS patients.
  • P2Y12 Inhibitors: Medications such as clopidogrel, ticagrelor, and prasugrel are P2Y12 inhibitors that further inhibit platelet activation and aggregation. The choice of P2Y12 inhibitor depends on individual patient factors and considerations.
  1. b) Statins: Statins are lipid-lowering medications that play a vital role in reducing cholesterol levels and stabilizing plaque in the arteries. They are prescribed to ACS patients to lower the risk of future cardiovascular events. Commonly prescribed statins include atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin.
  2. c) Beta-Blockers: Beta-blockers help regulate heart rate and blood pressure, reducing the workload on the heart and preventing further damage. They are often prescribed to ACS patients, particularly those who have experienced a heart attack or have certain cardiac conditions. Commonly prescribed beta-blockers include metoprolol, carvedilol, and bisoprolol.
  3. d) Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs): ACE inhibitors and ARBs are medications used to manage hypertension and protect against further cardiac damage. They help relax blood vessels, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on the heart. Examples of ACE inhibitors include lisinopril, enalapril, and ramipril, while ARBs include losartan, valsartan, and candesartan.
  4. e) Other Medications: Depending on the individual patient’s needs, additional medications may be prescribed, such as:
  • Antiplatelet/Anticoagulant Combination: Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin with a P2Y12 inhibitor, may be prescribed for a specific duration following ACS events or interventions like stent placement.
  • Anticoagulants: In certain cases, anticoagulant medications like warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be prescribed for individuals at high risk of blood clots.

It is essential to adhere to the prescribed medication regimen, attend regular follow-up appointments, and communicate any concerns or side effects to healthcare providers. Long-term medication management, in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, forms the foundation of successful ACS treatment.

Lifestyle Modifications and Cardiac Rehabilitation

Beyond medications, lifestyle modifications are key to optimizing cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of future cardiac events. Coupled with cardiac rehabilitation programs, these changes empower individuals to take charge of their well-being and enhance their quality of life.

  1. a) Healthy Eating Habits: Adopting a heart-healthy diet can significantly impact cardiovascular health. Emphasize the importance of:
  • Consuming a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
  • Limiting intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugars.
  • Controlling portion sizes and practicing mindful eating.
  1. b) Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity strengthens the heart, improves circulation, and reduces the risk of complications. Encourage patients to engage in aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming, for at least 150 minutes per week. Additionally, incorporating strength training exercises at least two days a week helps improve overall cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength.
  2. c) Smoking Cessation: Smoking is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including ACS. Encourage patients to quit smoking and provide resources and support to facilitate smoking cessation. Quitting smoking not only reduces the risk of future cardiac events but also improves overall health and well-being.
  3. d) Stress Management: Chronic stress can contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Encourage patients to explore stress management techniques such as mindfulness meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, or engaging in hobbies and activities that promote relaxation and emotional well-being.
  4. e) Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Encourage patients to adopt a balanced, calorie-controlled diet, and provide guidance on portion sizes and mindful eating. Incorporating regular physical activity is also essential for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
  5. f) Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a comprehensive approach to recovery and secondary prevention for individuals with ACS. These programs provide a range of benefits, including:
  • Supervised Exercise Training: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer structured exercise sessions under the supervision of healthcare professionals. These sessions help patients safely increase their physical activity levels, improve cardiovascular fitness, and regain confidence in their ability to exercise.
  • Education on Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Cardiac rehabilitation programs provide valuable education on topics such as nutrition, medication management, stress reduction, and risk factor modification. This knowledge empowers patients to make informed decisions and adopt sustainable lifestyle changes that promote cardiovascular health.
  • Psychosocial Support: ACS can have a significant emotional impact on patients. Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a supportive environment where individuals can connect with others who have experienced similar challenges. Psychosocial support, including counseling and group therapy, helps patients navigate the emotional aspects of their condition and cope with the stress associated with their recovery.

Participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program can significantly improve cardiovascular health, enhance overall well-being, and reduce the risk of future cardiac events. Encourage patients to take advantage of these programs to optimize their recovery and long-term outcomes.

In the final section of this blog article, we will explore recent advancements in ACS treatment, shedding light on emerging therapies and ongoing research that holds promise for improving patient outcomes. Stay tuned to stay informed about the exciting developments in the field.


Recent advancements in ACS

Recent advancements in ACS treatment have brought about promising new therapies and ongoing research that could improve patient outcomes. Here are some key developments in ACS treatment.

Anti-inflammatory Treatment

  • Recent research suggests that anti-inflammatory treatments might improve the outcome of ACS by blocking interleukin-1 (IL-1) and other inflammatory markers
  • These treatments may help reduce inflammation and promote healing in the heart after an ACS event.

Biosensors and Implantable Devices

  • Recent advances in biosensor-based diagnosis and implantable devices have made it easier to diagnose and monitor ACS
  • These devices can provide real-time data on heart function, allowing healthcare providers to respond quickly to changes in a patient’s condition.

New Medications

  • New medications have been developed to treat ACS, including prasugrel, ticagrelor, vorapaxar, and abciximab
  • These medications have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent ACS events and improve patient outcomes.

Improved Systems of Care

  • Improvements in systems of care for STEMI and other types of ACS have helped reduce the time between symptom onset and treatment
  • This can help minimize damage to the heart and improve patient outcomes.

While there is no cure for ACS, early diagnosis and prompt treatment can protect the heart from further damage and help it work as well as possible. Ongoing research and development of new therapies hold promise for improving patient outcomes and reducing the burden of ACS on individuals and healthcare systems


In this comprehensive blog article, we have explored the essential aspects of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) treatment.

Timely and comprehensive treatment of ACS is paramount. By understanding the symptoms, seeking medical evaluation, adhering to medication regimens, and embracing lifestyle modifications, individuals can significantly improve their cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of future events.

Furthermore, it is essential to acknowledge the advancements in ACS treatment and the hope they bring. Ongoing research and emerging therapies continue to shape the field, offering new possibilities for improved outcomes and enhanced quality of life.

We understand that the content discussed in this article can be heavy, but accuracy and providing valuable information to our readers at are our top priorities. We appreciate your visit to our blog and hope that the knowledge shared here will empower you to make informed decisions regarding ACS treatment and promote a healthier future.

Thank you for your readership and for choosing as your trusted source of information. Stay tuned for more engaging and informative content to support your journey in the field of nursing and healthcare.

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Approach to Care

Approach to Care

Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care

The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health care needs of an individual and provide personalized care.

Write a paper (1,750-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

  1. Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
  2. Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
  3. Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.
  4. Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?
  5. Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
  6. Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.

You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.



Approach to Care

Cancer is regarded as one of the leading causes of deaths globally. According to the center for diseases control and prevention (CDC), it is the second leading cause of deaths in America. Further, in 2018, the American cancer society approximated an increase of 1735350 for new cancer diagnoses and over 600000 deaths resulting from the disease. The condition has been identified as one that affects everyone regardless of the age group, lifestyle, or social status. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and avoiding a sedentary life is necessary to avoid prolonging or worsening the condition. For health providers, providing quality patient-centered care is the first step in preventing deaths that result from the condition. This may be achieved with many approaches because every patient is unique and individualized (Mosher et al., 2014). As such, it is necessary for health providers to understand vital factors such as the diagnosis process, cancer stages, complications resulting from the condition, treatment side effects, and how they can be reduced.

The Diagnosis of Cancer

Although research is still being done on the causes of cancer, it is believed that it is caused by genetic and epigenetic alterations that causes abnormal multiplication of cells. Unlike normal cells, which divide, grow, and later die, cancer cells grow continuously and finally develop into a tumor. This may occur in different parts of the body, hence the various forms of cancer. According to the study conducted by the National Cancer Institute (2015), mo0re than 100 types of cancer have been identified, and these are categorized based on the location of the affected organ or tissue, which are also used in diagnosis.

Approach to Care

Various methods can be used to detect cancer, including routine examination, or screen test. The diagnosis is made based on the affected cell (Neal et al., 2015). Cancer is diagnosed based on the signs and symptoms that the patient presents. Other factors like degree, type and location of the cancer are first established before a diagnosis is conducted. Although the symptoms can be used in cancer detection, other methods like screening are more effective since the symptoms may take more time to develop. For a patient whose condition has progressed, the general symptoms include fatigue, fever, skin change, and unexplained weight loss. However, different forms of cancer present specific symptoms like bowel changes for cancer affecting the bowel (Mosher et al., 2014). Other symptoms to also look for include the inability to coordinate, coughing blood, seizure, and loss of sensation. After identifying the symptoms, the primary care provider also conducts further examination by obtaining family history, conducting lab work, physical examination, and scanning procedures. Early detection is highly advocated since it helps to save lives.

Staging of Cancer

After diagnosis, cancer staging is conducted depending on its severity and the percentage of the original tumor. Staging is an important step since it assists the doctor in developing the most effective treatment plan and correctly approximates the prognosis. It is also deemed significant by researchers and health providers who use the data from staging to communicate patient information and make necessary conclusions. Based on the anatomic positioning of the tumor, clinical staging is normally conducted by classifying it into one of the four stages which range from 0 to 4. Stage 0 is classified as cancer in situ; stage 1 is a localized tumor growth, stage 2 has a limited spread in a local area, while at stage 3, it is spread extensively, and stage 4 is a metastasis. The stage 0-4 classification is mostly applicable in Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cervical cancer (Neal et al., 2015). Another classification is the TMN system, which shows the local extent of the tumor using three parameters; (T) Size and invasiveness, (N) number of lymph nodes affected by cancer, and (M) to represent metastasized cancer. Other means of staging the magnitude of cancer involve the use of MRI and CT (National Cancer Institute, 2015). After diagnosis and staging, the health provider now goes ahead to discuss with the patients and family, the prognosis and complications of the condition.

Approach to Care

Cancer Complications and Side Effects During Treatment

Cancer complications vary depending on the patient’s health and may result from either the condition itself or the treatment process. Such complications resent both physical and psychological effects and mostly affect organ systems such as respiratory, digestive, excretory, circulatory, nervous, endocrine, integumentary skeletal, reproductive, and immune systems (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Depending on the type and diagnosis, some systems will be more affected compared to others.

The main complications resulting from cancer include pain metastasis and depression. As noted earlier, cancer complications can be classified as physical and psychological. For physical, pain is regarded as the most frightening complication; pain results from the tumor spreading to other nearby tissues exerting pressure to nearby nerves and eventually leading to nerve injury. After identifying the cause of pain, treatment is administered using opioids such as morphine and other pain medication. Patients may also experience other physical complications such as disability, metastasis, fatigue, and health impairment (American Cancer Society, 2018). Depression is also another complication that increases the patient’s risk of committing suicide. As such, cancer patients also undertake treatments for depression such as antidepressant medication. Besides depression, another dangerous cancer complication is metastasis. This occurs as a result of cancer cells spreading to other body parts through the lymphatic system. As noted in the reports by American Cancer Society, deaths related to cancer occur due to the cells spreading to other vital body organs like bones, lungs, liver and brain.


Early detection is normally advocated to ensure patients begin the treatment process as early as possible. However, although treatment procedures are significant, patients experience severe side effects from chemotherapy and the radiation used in curing cancer. Radiation therapy involves using radiations that are directed through the skin to kill cancerous cells. These might result in temporary side effects such as irritated skin, itching, hoarseness and throat pain. In most cases, patients are likely to develop serious long-term effects (Mosher et al., 2014). For instance, patients undergoing chemotherapy are likely to experience side effects. For instance, one may experience hair loss, vomiting, nausea, and weak immune system. In addition to these, women also experience vaginal dryness, amenorrhea, and hot flushes. Although temporary side effects may disappear after treatment, patients still have to experience such tough effects as a result of cancer. Recommendations to lessen the side effects include medication, seeking support from family and friends, and maintain normalcy.

The Role of ACS

The ACS has a significant role in creating awareness regarding cancer prevention, symptoms, and treatment. The organization is regarded as a nationwide community-based voluntary health provider that is dedicated to developing cancer elimination programs to save lives. It can provide education and support by conducting research and advocacy activities at the community level. Further, since the organization has collaborative partnerships with other major organizations like the ASCO, it is also able to contribute by developing other programs that advocate for cancer prevention.

Further, the ACS can also provide service by educating health professionals and physicians on how to provide care to cancer patients. Some of the ACS services that I would recommend include their research program, which involves three major components, supporting other cancer research institutes, developing cancer centers throughout the country, and conducting intramural research. I would also recommend the voluntary services provided by the organization in caring for cancer patients and providing support to their families.

Approach to Care

The Nursing Process

Nursing process is a tool used in promoting evidence-based practice as nurses examine and address each patient’s conditions. The process is also applied in cancer identification and treatment. It involves five phases; assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. (Mosher, 2014) For cancer patients, the first step involves systematically collecting and analyzing physiological and psychological data. For instance, if the patient is experiencing pain, the assessment phase would involve identifying the physical cause and manifestation of the pain.

The diagnosis phase involves the clinical judgment regarding a patient’s response to the health condition in question. For cancer, diagnosis also reflects the root cause of the problem and provides a basis for the nursing care plan. Based on the first two phases, the health provider is able to set measurable short and long-term goals in the planning phase. Depending on the cancer stage, planning may range from activities like maintaining adequate nutrition to pain management through medication. This forms a basis for the implementation phase, which involves assuring continuity of care for the patient when in hospital and when preparing for discharge (Neal et al., 2015). The final phase involves continuously evaluating the patient’s status and the effectiveness of the nursing care plan for regular modification.

Approach to Care

Linking Liberal Arts and Science Studies with Nursing Education

Liberal education courses have significantly contributed to medical and nursing education, hence becoming a necessary component in the nursing profession. The modern world poses daunting challenges that result from a wide range of factors like growing clinical knowledge, scientific advancement, patient diversity ethics, justice, and technology advancements. The nursing profession has, therefore, go beyond just understanding the need for care, to also identifying the significance of other elements of liberal arts.

As Neal et al. (2015) argue, the integration of humanities is a curricular approach that supports critical thinking within humanistic perspectives and enhances the professional and personal development of a nursing professional. With the growing complexities of healthcare, nursing student is required to be well informed, compassionate, competent empowered, and professional nurses with broadened knowledge in different areas (Neal et al., 2015). Further, with the different conflicting influences, liberal learning in higher education is necessary for preparing students to meet the challenges imposed in their profession. For instance, by incorporating social studies, nursing students are able to learn distinct concepts of evaluation methods and learning strategies in providing care and employing the nursing process



American Cancer Society. (2018). Cancer Facts & Figures 2018 | American Cancer Society.

Retrieved from

Mosher, C. E., Ott, M. A., Hanna, N., Jalal, S. I., & Champion, V. L. (2014). Coping with

physical and psychological symptoms: a qualitative study of advanced lung cancer patients and their family caregivers. Supportive Care in Cancer, 23(7), 2053-2060. DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2566-8

National Cancer Institute. (2015). What Is Cancer? Retrieved from


Neal, R. D., Tharmanathan, P., France, B., Din, N. U., Cotton, S., Fallon-Ferguson, J., … &

Macleod, U. (2015). Is increased time to diagnosis and treatment in symptomatic cancer associated with poorer outcomes? Systematic review. British journal of cancer, 112(s1), S92.


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The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

A short introduction about:

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making



Two Opportunities for RNs and APRNs to Participate in Policy-Making

v  An explanation of at least two opportunities that exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy-making.


Challenges These May Present

v  Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present.


How I Might Overcome these Challenges

v  Describe how you might overcome these challenges.


Two Strategies to Better Advocate for to Participate in Policy-Making (provide examples)

v  Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities to participate in policy-making.

v  Be specific and provide examples.



This is a discussion

No tittle pages.

No running heads.

This a Masters level class

APA Format with intext citation

Required to use the reading resources, outside resources SHOULD BE PEER REVIEW

Reference page (Required four at Least three sources)



The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

There are over four million nurses in the United States alone. This means that nurses have the potential to influence policymaking that can transform the healthcare sector and delivery of healthcare (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). Therefore, RNs and APRNs can function as patient advocates to help shape the standards and practices in healthcare system. This paper analyzes the role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making and the opportunities and challenges they may face.

The significant opportunity for RN and APRNs is the role they can play in influencing the politics and policy at the local, federal and state level.  Nurses can also assume leadership positions and help in formulation of legislations that can improve the healthcare sector (Milstead, & Short, 2019). RNs and APRNs can influence policymaking by joining professional nursing organization (Milstead, & Short, 2019) to become activists and lobbyists on policies regarding healthcare.


The significant challenges faced by RNs and APRNs are time and resources that can help them participate in policy change and politics. Nurses also do not have enough support that leads to lack of awareness and little opportunity for involvement in policymaking and politics (Capitol Beat, 2019). The challenges can be overcome through support from nurses themselves, the nursing schools, and the nursing organization and provision of resources and opportunities that allow them to engage in policymaking at their local, state, and federal levels.

Nurses can participate in policymaking by being at the forefront of transforming and redesigning the nursing sector in the country. However, support must be provided through nursing organizations and boards of nurses to enable them effect policy changes in healthcare sector (Milstead & Short, 2019). The nursing organizations and boards of nurses should also create awareness and educate APRNs and RNs on their role in policy change and making (National League for Nursing, 2019). Collaboration would be critical in policymaking and bridging the gaps in healthcare system.



Capitol Beat. (21 August 2019). ANA Capitol Beat. Nurses are speaking, and Congress is

listening as August recess wraps up. Retrieved from

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

National League for Nursing (NLN). (2019). Workforce. NLN.

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (January 23, 2019) AACN Applauds

Bipartisan Commitment to Support Investments in Nursing Education and Practice. AACN.





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Ethical Issues Faced by the Nursing Staff

 Ethical Issues Faced by the Nursing Staff

The student will watch the documentary Code Gray (1983) or The Waiting Room (2012). These documentaries are available thru the Newman Ethical Issues Library. For this paper the student will consider and explore the issue(s) and the complexities in making a decision that has ethical ramifications using the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University Framework for Ethical Decision Making (2017) at Or

The following guidelines will help you craft your paper:

Use headings to help guide your reader through the sections of this paper.

Explore the ethical dilemma from either documentary Code Gray (1983) or the waiting room (2012). describe one ethical dilemma. what individuals and groups have an important stake in the outcome? discuss three options that could be used for resolution of the dilemma. evaluate three options by asking the following questions;

Which options will produce the most good and do the least harm? (The Utilitarian approach)

Which option best respect the right of all who have a stake (The rights approach ) which option treat people equally proportionately (The Justice approach )

Which option best serve the community as whole, not just some member (The common good approach)

Which option leads me to act as the sort of person I want to be ( the virtue approach )

o    Considering all these approaches, which option best addresses the situation

List three or more ethical principles that are applicable in making a decision regarding the ethical dilemma. Autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence are examples of ethical principles that may be considered in the decision. The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University Framework for Ethical Decision Making (2017), American Nurses Association (ANA) website and your textbook have resources that can help guide in identifying ethical standards.

In summary, discuss the impact of this ethical issue on the nursing profession

the waiting room link on youtube

will require an abstract.




Code Gray (1983) highlights the ethical dilemmas that Registered nurses as well as the licensed practical nursing staff in a rural nursing home. The ethical issues that they face involve the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice, and fidelity. This paper addresses the case of Olive, an 88-year old woman who is unsteady on her feet and consequently prone to accidents that may harm her and others. The nurses are faced with the dilemma of restraining her against her wish although this would make her safe. Several options could be employed for the solution but they present challenges in deferent dimensions. The option that best addresses the situation is to inform the patient about the restraint and convince her that it is beneficial for her so that she can accept it. This case analysis is important for the nursing practice as it highlights a conflict between the duties of beneficence and respect for autonomy, which nurses experience frequently.

Ethical Issues Faced by the Nursing Staff


Ethical issues in Code Gray (1983)

Ethical Dilemma

Code Gray (1983) is a 26-minute documentary that presents nurses in different settings and how they confront ethical dilemmas that have an impact on the patients under their care. There are four sequences that aim at illustrating the ethical issues that arise and face the bedside nursing and they involve the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice, and fidelity. One ethical dilemma is in the second case that faces the Registered nurses as well as the licensed practical nursing staff in a rural nursing home. They are faced with the ethical option of deciding whether to apply mechanical and chemical restraints although it is against the wish of the residents (Bollig et al. 2015). The aim of the restraint is to help the residents be safe so that they do not injure themselves or interfere with the normal day to day lives of the other occupants in the facility.


The specific case is of Olive who is 88 years of age and is not only unsteady on her feet but is also very forgetful. The nurses are worried that she may injure herself because she has fallen in the past. She has been requested to seek help with movement but has not done so. The nurses, therefore, suggest that she wears a belt tied around her waist and her chair in order to remind her not to get up without someone to walk with her. In addition, it will serve to prevent her from getting up unaided. She however objects and is unwilling to relinquish her freedom. This brings about a dilemma because older people should be allowed to live in accordance to their own free will (Tuominen, Leino-Kilpi, and Suhonen, 2016).  The ethical dilemma, in this case, revolves around autonomy. This is a concept in bioethics that illustrates that an individual is autonomous and therefore the nurses and other professionals should respect the values and choices that they make.

Three Options That Could Be Used for Resolution of The Dilemma

The utilitarian approach to the case is to have the patient tied up so that she does not move without being helped, which may, in turn, make her to be injured or to injure others. This is because although it makes her unhappy, she is safe, and she still has the option of being helped with walking. This is also the option that is the virtue approach as it allows me to act like the person I would want to be. I would want to ensure that she is safe and can always provide assistance for her to walk.

Ethical Issues Faced by the Nursing Staff

The option that respects her right is to allow her to enjoy her autonomy and freedom of movement. This will ensure that she is treated equally with other members of the facility and her autonomy and wishes will be granted. The approach that serves the community as a whole, also known as the common good approach is to have her tied to her chair to restrain her so that she can seek help and not fall as this may harm her and any other person that may be around if she falls on them or their walking equipment.

Option That Best Addresses the Situation

Considering the options, it is advisable that Olive be spoken to and informed of the benefits of the restraint. Also, it will be important if she is allowed some form of freedom especially during specific times that are deemed to be safe by the nurses, who will also ensure that they closely monitor her.

List the Ethical Principles

  • Beneficence
  • Autonomy
  • Justice
  • fidelity

Impact of This Ethical Issue on The Nursing Profession

This ethical dilemma has an impact on the nursing profession. It brings about a conflict between the duties of beneficence and respect for autonomy. This brings about a situation where the patient may be allowed to make a free choice, but will instead compromise her health and put their lives in jeopardy.



Bollig, G., Schmidt, G., Rosland, J. H., & Heller, A. (2015). Ethical challenges in nursing

homes–staff’s opinions and experiences with systematic ethics meetings with participation of residents’ relatives. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 29(4), 810-823.

Sawyer, J. (1983). Code Gray. Fanlight Productions

Tuominen, L., Leino-Kilpi, H., & Suhonen, R. (2016). Older people’s experiences of their free

will in nursing homes. Nursing ethics, 23(1), 22-35.



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Health Analysis of Mr. M

Health Analysis of Mr. M

Health History and Medical Information

Health History

Mr. M., a 70-year-old male, has been living at the assisted living facility where you work. He has no know allergies. He is a nonsmoker and does not use alcohol. Limited physical activity related to difficulty ambulating and unsteady gait. Medical history includes hypertension controlled with ACE inhibitors, hypercholesterolemia, status post appendectomy, and tibial fracture status postsurgical repair with no obvious signs of complications. Current medications include Lisinopril 20mg daily, Lipitor 40mg daily, Ambien 10mg PRN, Xanax 0.5 mg PRN, and ibuprofen 400mg PRN.

Case Scenario

Over the past 2 months, Mr. M. seems to be deteriorating quickly. He is having trouble recalling the names of his family members, remembering his room number, and even repeating what he has just read. He is becoming agitated and aggressive quickly. He appears to be afraid and fearful when he gets aggressive. He has been found wandering at night and will frequently become lost, needing help to get back to his room. Mr. M has become dependent with many ADLs, whereas a few months ago he was fully able to dress, bathe, and feed himself. The assisted living facility is concerned with his rapid decline and has decided to order testing.

Nursing Paper Help

Objective Data

  1. Temperature: 37.1 degrees C
  2. BP 123/78 HR 93 RR 22 Pox 99%
  3. Denies pain
  4. Height: 69.5 inches; Weight 87 kg

Laboratory Results

  1. WBC: 19.2 (1,000/uL)
  2. Lymphocytes 6700 (cells/uL)
  3. CT Head shows no changes since previous scan
  4. Urinalysis positive for moderate amount of leukocytes and cloudy
  5. Protein: 7.1 g/dL; AST: 32 U/L; ALT 29 U/L

Critical Thinking Essay

In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mr. M.’s situation. Include the following:

  1. Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. M.
  2. Based on the information presented in the case scenario, discuss what primary and secondary medical diagnoses should be considered for Mr. M. Explain why these should be considered and what data is provided for support.
  3. When performing your nursing assessment, discuss what abnormalities would you expect to find and why.
  4. Describe the physical, psychological, and emotional effects Mr. M.’s current health status may have on him. Discuss the impact it can have on his family.
  5. Discuss what interventions can be put into place to support Mr. M. and his family.
  6. Given Mr. M.’s current condition, discuss at least four actual or potential problems he faces. Provide rationale for each.

Health Analysis of Mr. M

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.



Health Analysis of Mr. M


Critical thinking requires a practitioner to apply a suitable intellectual process in evaluating a situation and developing appropriate decisions. It is very important for practitioner to have critical thinking skills to enhance their accuracy in practice. One of the areas where this concept is needed is in the analysis of a patient’s history and making decisions basing on cases provided (Cazzell & Anderson, 2016). The paper tries to develop a review of a case involving a 70-year-old patient by the name Mr. M. His past medical history associates him with hypertension while the case scenario depicts that he is experiencing memory loss.

Clinical Manifestation

The subjective information depicts that Mr. M. is linked to a hypertensive condition which is being controlled by some drugs. While use of alcohol and cigarettes is denied, the patient shows that he has a low level of physical activities. The data also reveals that the patient is experiencing memory losses and tends to be aggressive and agitated easily. His condition has made him to depend on assistance in doing simple activities. The objective data shows that Mr. M. has a normal body temperature. However, his blood pressure is revealed to be above normal (Cazzell & Anderson, 2016).

Primary and Secondary Diagnoses

The primary diagnosis for the client’s condition is likely to be hypertension. This condition is revealed in the subjective data as the objective data. For instance, his medical history shows that he has been trying to control the problem. Also, results from the practitioner show that he has blood pressure that is above normal. His usage of various different drugs to control the condition shows that it is his major problem.  Mr. P can also be revealed to have sleep problem due to his usage of Ambien. In addition, he may be having anxiety issues due to his usage of Xanax (Cazzell & Anderson, 2016).


Expected Abnormalities

While assessing the patient, it may be found that the subjective data is incorrect. Basing on the client’s memory loss, he may not disclose the right information. From another perspective, his anxiety and agitation may make it easier for the practitioner to overrule other underlying problems and focus only on hypertension and anxiety issues. This feature may make it difficult for the practitioner to diagnose the patient with the right health problem. As a result, the medication given to the patient may be irrelevant (Cazzell & Anderson, 2016).

Physical, Psychological, and Emotional Effects

Mr. P’s current health problem may lead to other physical health issues. For instance, his hypertension may lead to heart disease. This problem is fatal as it may limit his physical abilities and even cause death. Moreover, problems in his endocrine system may lead to development of rare tumors which may deteriorate his health further. The diseases may also affect his appearance, which may affect his emotions. From a psychological perspective, knowledge of his diagnosis may make Mr. M. to develop anxiety. This condition may affect his cognition and general activities. This would make him to be more dependent on his family.  Moreover, he may have more stress due to his conditions. This issue may occur due to his inability to cope up with the situation (Pandey et al., 2017).

Health Analysis of Mr. M

Mr. M is prone to get negative emotions from his conditions. He is bound to continue being aggressive and agitated because of his health since the problems have only developed in a short time. This is because he is not used to the new condition. Therefore, his relationship with people around him will deteriorate due to his emotional issues (Prabhakaran, Jeemon, & Roy, 2016).

Required Support Interventions

An essential support intervention for the patient is the learning and conditioning framework. This intervention is aimed at providing education for the patient and his family to understand various ways of improving Mr. M.’s condition. It will also involve health-related techniques such as reinforcement and modeling of response relationship between the family and the patient. In addition, cognitive social learning is also viewed to be an important technique for supporting Mr. M. This aspect   will ensure that the client learns to change his perspective of the diseases basing on observations of other patients with similar problems (Prabhakaran, Jeemon, & Roy, 2016).

Health Analysis of Mr. M

Mr. M’s Problems

From his current situation, Mr. P. faces memory loss. His condition is affecting with his recall to the extent that he cannot remember his family members. This problem may also affect his decision-making abilities. The client also faces a high risk of threatening his family system. The illness may lead to his family feeling hopeless and distressed, especially when his condition deteriorates. Therefore, he faces the potential of affecting his family negatively. In addition, due to his age, the client may also suffer severe effects of the drugs to his body system. This is because at his age, his body is sensitive to drugs. Lastly, his memory loss may also affect his intake of drugs as he may forget the appropriate times to take the medicines. This issue may deteriorate his problems (Pandey et al., 2017).



Cazzell, M., & Anderson, M. (2016). The impact of critical thinking on clinical judgment during

simulation with senior nursing students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 37(2), 83-90.

Pandey, A., LaMonte, M., Klein, L., Ayers, C., Psaty, B. M., Eaton, C. B., … & Berry, J. D.

(2017). Relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and risk of heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 69(9), 1129-1142.

Prabhakaran, D., Jeemon, P., & Roy, A. (2016). Cardiovascular diseases in India: current

epidemiology and future directions. Circulation, 133(16), 1605-1620.



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Critical Review of Mrs. J.’s Nursing Intervention

Critical Review of Mrs. J.’s Nursing Intervention

Health History and Medical Information

Health History

Mrs. J. is a 63-year-old married woman who has a history of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite requiring 2L of oxygen/nasal cannula at home during activity, she continues to smoke two packs of cigarettes a day and has done so for 40 years. Three days ago, she had sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including fever, productive cough, nausea, and malaise. Over the past 3 days, she has been unable to perform ADLs and has required assistance in walking short distances. She has not taken her antihypertensive medications or medications to control her heart failure for 3 days. Today, she has been admitted to the hospital ICU with acute decompensated heart failure and acute exacerbation of COPD.

Subjective Data

  1. Is very anxious and asks whether she is going to die.
  2. Denies pain but says she feels like she cannot get enough air.
  3. Says her heart feels like it is “running away.”
  4. Reports that she is exhausted and cannot eat or drink by herself.

Objective Data

  1. Height 175 cm; Weight 95.5kg.
  2. Vital signs: T 37.6C, HR 118 and irregular, RR 34, BP 90/58.
  3. Cardiovascular: Distant S1, S2, S3 present; PMI at sixth ICS and faint: all peripheral pulses are 1+; bilateral jugular vein distention; initial cardiac monitoring indicates a ventricular rate of 132 and atrial fibrillation.
  4. Respiratory: Pulmonary crackles; decreased breath sounds right lower lobe; coughing frothy blood-tinged sputum; SpO2 82%.
  5. Gastrointestinal: BS present: hepatomegaly 4cm below costal margin.


The following medications administered through drug therapy control her symptoms:

  1. IV furosemide (Lasix)
  2. Enalapril (Vasotec)
  3. Metoprolol (Lopressor)
  4. IV morphine sulphate (Morphine)
  5. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilator (ProAir HFA)
  6. Inhaled corticosteroid (Flovent HFA)
  7. Oxygen delivered at 2L/ NC

Critical Thinking Essay

In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mrs. J.’s situation. Include the following:

  1. Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mrs. J.
  2. Discuss whether the nursing interventions at the time of her admissions were appropriate for Mrs. J. and explain the rationale for each of the medications listed.
  3. Describe four cardiovascular conditions that may lead to heart failure and what can be done in the form of medical/nursing interventions to prevent the development of heart failure in each condition.
  4. Taking into consideration the fact that most mature adults take at least six prescription medications, discuss four nursing interventions that can help prevent problems caused by multiple drug interactions in older patients. Provide a rationale for each of the interventions you recommend.
  5. Provide a health promotion and restoration teaching plan for Mrs. J., including multidisciplinary resources for rehabilitation and any modifications that may be needed. Explain how the rehabilitation resources and modifications will assist the patients’ transition to independence.
  6. Describe a method for providing education for Mrs. J. regarding medications that need to be maintained to prevent future hospital admission. Provide rationale.
  7. Outline COPD triggers that can increase exacerbation frequency, resulting in return visits. Considering Mrs. J.’s current and long-term tobacco use, discuss what options for smoking cessation should be offered.

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.



Critical Review of Mrs. J.’s Nursing Intervention


In healthcare, critical thinking involves an intellectual process of synthesizing, analyzing, reasoning, and reflecting as guidance towards decision making. This process is essential as it helps practitioners to develop accurate and relevant decisions in difficult scenarios. The paper uses critical thinking to analyze a situation involving a 63 year old patient by the name Mrs. J. She has a health history of cardiovascular diseases and portrays symptoms of heart failure.

Clinical Manifestations

The subjective data reveals that the patient is anxious about her condition. Also, she does not feel pain and has a running heart. She feels exhausted and is unable to drink by herself. This data aligns with the practitioner’s findings about the disease. For instance, the objective data shows irregular heart rate. From another perspective, respiratory problems caused by pulmonary crackle may lead to complications.

Critical Review of Mrs. J.’s Nursing Intervention

Appropriateness of the Interventions

During admission, a patient with heart failure needs to undergo proper assessment. Other important symptoms need to be evaluated. The practitioner needs to increase the patient’s oxygen availability. Application of diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and beta blockers is essential in the control of the disease. In the scenario, the treatment upon admission includes the above measures. Therefore, it can be observed to be appropriate (Komajda et al., 2016).

Rationale for the Medication

IV furosemide is a diuretic. The drug is used to control overflow of fluid. It is also used to minimize heart workload, thereby reducing ventricular filling pressure and improvement in a patient’s condition. Enalapril is an ACE inhibitor. In the scenario, the drug is provided for vascular dilation, which results in improved blood flow and oxygenation of blood to the heart. It is also used to improve heart, kidney and nerve functioning in patients with diabetes type 1. Metrolol is a beta blocker which is applied in reducing a patient’s heart rate (Komajda et al., 2016).


Morphine sulphate is an analgesic that is used for treating pain. It is also essential in improving vasodilation and relaxing the respiratory system. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilator is used for treatment of lung conditions and controlling effects of respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled corticosteroid is used for controlling respiratory conditions such as asthma. Lastly oxygen treatment is used to improve oxygen availability (Komajda et al., 2016).

Conditions Leading to Heart Failure

Arteriosclerosis: This condition involves hardening and narrowing of a body’s blood vessels. It is usually caused by conditions such as diabetes, smoking, and diet high in cholesterol. The condition can lead to poor blood flow to one’s heart, thereby overworking the heart. This feature may cause heart failure. Reduction of cholesterol intake and management of weight can reduce risk of attaining heart failure. Sleep apnea is a condition that involves breathing pauses during one’s sleep. Its obstructive version is associated with obesity Severe sleep apnea may lead to cardiovascular problems such as heart failure.  Sleep apnea can be controlled by being more active (Prabhakaran, Jeemon, & Roy, 2016).

Research Paper Help

Hypertension is a condition where an individual experiences high blood pressure. It leads to increased risk of heart diseases due to increased pressure against the walls heading to the heart. This disease can be controlled by engaging in exercises and reducing weight. Coronary artery disease is a condition which entails formation of plaque inside an individual’s coronary arteries. The condition limits the blood flow to the heart. This condition can be controlled by engaging in exercises and reducing salt intake (Prabhakaran, Jeemon, & Roy, 2016).

Interventions in Multiple Drug Interactions

To eliminate issues caused by drug-drug interactions, a practitioner needs to review, the types of medications taken by the patient. By considering factors such as frequency, dosage, and reason for intake, a practitioner develops a proper way to control challenges caused by the interactions. Moreover, the practitioner may need to maintain an effective communication to ensure that the patient takes the right level of dosage. In addition, the practitioner may offer a warning to the patient to use the drug according to the recommendations. Creating a medication plan is also important. This strategy ensures that the drugs are kept in a safe place (Komajda et al., 2016).

Critical Review of Mrs. J.’s Nursing Intervention

Health Promotion Plan

Self-care education will be suitable in providing knowledge for the patient in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. The plan needs to provide information on early planning of the hospital leave, reinforcement, improvement, and analysis of self-care abilities. Weight monitoring devices, medication monitoring devices will be essential in guiding the patient to get an effective control of her condition (Pandey et al., 2017).

Educational Method

When educating the patient, Abraham Marslow’s ABC’s theory would be applied. This method is essential in helping the patient group her needs depending on the necessity. For instance, teaching about self-care will focus much on taking medication more than engaging in exercise. The main objective of this approach is to ensure that the patient has an effective way of controlling the problem (Pandey et al., 2017).

COPD Risk and Management

Smoking and air pollution present the most common causes of COPD exuberating.  The patient needs to attend stop-smoking groups to get the motivation to reduce smoking. She should also avoid individuals who are smoking to ensure that she does not get tempted to smoke (Pandey et al., 2017).



Komajda, M., Anker, S. D., Cowie, M. R., Filippatos, G. S., Mengelle, B., Ponikowski, P., … &

QUALIFY Investigators. (2016). Physicians’ adherence to guideline‐recommended medications in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: data from the QUALIFY global survey. European Journal of Heart Failure, 18(5), 514-522.

Pandey, A., LaMonte, M., Klein, L., Ayers, C., Psaty, B. M., Eaton, C. B., … & Berry, J. D.

(2017). Relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and risk of heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 69(9), 1129-1142.

Prabhakaran, D., Jeemon, P., & Roy, A. (2016). Cardiovascular diseases in India: current

epidemiology and future directions. Circulation, 133(16), 1605-1620.












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Strengths and Barriers to Health Behavior Change

Strengths and Barriers to Health Behavior Change

1. A three-page (750-word) paper that summarizes the identified assessment data and the positive strengths and identified barriers for that data


a. Select a volunteer.


Select a volunteer from your friends. Identify the client by initials and age.


b. Identify the client’s desired behavior change.


Assess and describe the characteristics of the life span stage, including physical and psychosocial attributes identified in the selected client that support the desired behavior change.


c. Write a paper that analyzes the client’s data.


In your paper, respond to the following prompts:

· Identify the strengths of the client that will contribute to a successful health behavior change. Describe these characteristics of the client and the social support system.

· Identify and explore the barriers of the client that will impact successful achievement of the desired behavior change. Describe the underlying cause of the barriers.

· Describe methods to overcome the barriers in achieving the desired outcome.



Strengths and Barriers to Health Behavior Change


Behavior refers to the way individuals conduct themselves or towards something. In healthcare, behavior is considered a major factor that determines one’s health. Research shows that individuals who engage in positive health behaviors tend to be healthy. Therefore, it is essential for a person to engage in positive health behavior change (Samdal et al., 2017). The paper analyzes the strengths and barriers associated with a volunteer. It also describes ways of overcoming barrier to achieve positive health outcomes. The volunteer’s name is, BN, and he is 20 years old. He needs to develop a positive change of behavior in order to control diabetes type 2.

BN’s Strengths

BN has a strong willpower. This feature makes him to be more determined in anything he engages in. Therefore, he can initiate behavioral change and practice his new ways for a long time. In addition, BN has a positive perception towards life. This character is prone to make him aware of his positive needs. It is also suitable in helping him understand positive behaviors that other people engage in and be able to emulate them without a problem (Samdal et al., 2017).

BN is also observed to have suitable abilities for positive change. For instance, he has suitable strength and coordination for enhancing physical activities. Therefore, he is able to improve on his exercises to improve his health. Moreover, he has a high intellectual ability. This feature is prone to make him to analyze his current behavior and make appropriate changes that can enhance a healthy lifestyle. It also can help him to evaluate different educational methods to enhance behavior change (Vandelanotte et al., 2016).


Moreover, BN has positive emotions towards behavior change. He feels proud of developing a healthy lifestyle as it can help him pursue sports to a higher level. This factor can enable him to participate in behavior change without fear, thereby leading to positive outcomes.  The issue may also elevate his consistency in behavior change. From another perspective, gender favors him. It is depicted that males have a stronger will to change than females. Therefore, BN has a higher chance of making positive decisions that suit his health needs (De Leeuw et al., 2015).

BN’s Barriers

One of the barriers to BN’s behavioral change is his family. He reveals that his family members do not focus on a healthy lifestyle. His efforts to change his dietary habits are usually affected by his family members who view that it is a waste of time. Moreover, BN has some anxiety issues. He fears that if he does not achieve his goals, his preparations would be a waste of time. This feature makes it difficult for him to start making behavioral change plans (Vandelanotte et al., 2016).

Nursing Paper Help

Environmental constraints are also seen to affect the individual. For instance, there are no suitable fields where he can engage in exercises. Also coming from a poor background, it is difficult for BN to engage in a suitable dietary change. In addition, the nature of the disease may make it difficult for BN to achieve a desired outcome. Diabetes type 2 is viewed to be chronic to patients. While change of behavior is desirable, it may not be effective in eliminating the insulin resistance that is experienced by the body. Therefore, behavioral change needs to be accompanied by other measures (Vandelanotte et al., 2016).


Overcoming the Barriers

Motivating BN is a suitable way in which he can overcome his barriers. This approach would make it easier for him to see the benefits of changing his health behaviors. BN can be motivated by showing him cases of people who have overcome similar behavioral barriers to health change. Moreover, the individual may be taught to develop and focus on his values rather than those of people around him. This method will make it easier for him to overcome challenges emanating from his family’s values towards health. To achieve this, a suitable theoretical framework such as Self-efficacy theory may be applied (De Leeuw et al., 2015).

Strengths and Barriers to Health Behavior Change

Provision of resources may enable BN to overcome his financial constraints. Therefore, he will be able to have a stronger control over his behaviors as long as he aligns his change with the resources. In addition, relapse prevention is considered a suitable measure to control high-risk scenarios. This technique is important in enabling BN to cope up with insulin resistance during chronic conditions. Lastly, exposure to people with similar condition will enable BN to reduce his anxiety towards achieving his target. Instead, he will be in a better position to develop rational behavior plans to facilitate his health behavior change (De Leeuw et al., 2015).



De Leeuw, A., Valois, P., Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Using the theory of planned behavior

to identify key beliefs underlying pro-environmental behavior in high-school students: Implications for educational interventions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 128-138.

Samdal, G. B., Eide, G. E., Barth, T., Williams, G., & Meland, E. (2017). Effective behaviour

change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 42.

Vandelanotte, C., Müller, A. M., Short, C. E., Hingle, M., Nathan, N., Williams, S. L., … &

Maher, C. A. (2016). Past, present, and future of eHealth and mHealth research to improve physical activity and dietary behaviors. Journal of Nutrition e

Education and Behavior, 48(3), 219-228.








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