Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Telenursing and telemedicine will only be successful if patients engage in the program. You have been asked by your manager to pilot a program aimed at improving transitions of care using the new telemedicine system recently implemented at your hospital. What are some of the ways that you can encourage both patient and provider engagement to ensure the pilot program success? Citations should conform to APA guidelines. You may use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources or connect to the APA style website through the APA icon below.


Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

For patients and caregivers to reap the full benefits of telemedicine, they must wholly embrace the revolutionary technology. The engagement of the patient and care-giver is paramount for the effective use of telemedicine since it relies on the ability of stakeholders to use the system (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Collecting from and providing information to users will increase the involvement of both patients and care providers in the integration of telemedicine.

Educating caregivers and patients on the uses and benefits of telemedicine will increase the engagement in the pilot and subsequent roll out of the program. Dispelling myths, and providing knowledge on how to use the system provides all stakeholders with the required information to practice telehealth. Skepticism on compatibility, fear of losing face to face interactions and security concerns are some of the popular myths among physicians (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Providing information to the stakeholders will encourage them to get more involved because patients and providers have knowledge on how to use the system and understand the potential benefits.

Conducting research prior to designing and rolling out implementation strategies is critical in the adoption of the proposed procedures. The data collected informs on preferences and possible barriers to the acceptance of telemedicine. Collecting data from stakeholders ensures that their views are incorporated in making the pilot thus it is more acceptable. Both providers and patients will participate more knowing that their input is valued and will be included in the execution of telehealth procedures.

Patient and provider engagement can be increased through improving communication to and from stakeholders. Transition of care is an important aspect for the recovery of patients and it can benefit greatly from the use of telemedicine While a pilot program designed to improve the transition of care using telehealth systems is a noble initiative, stakeholders in the medical field must be fully engaged in the process to capitalize on the advantages.


Dantu, R., & Mahapatra, R. (2013). Adoption of telemedicine – challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from

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Nursing PICOT Study

Unveiling the Nursing PICOT Study: A Journey Towards Evidence-Based Practice

PICOT is a format used to formulate research questions in Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in nursing. It stands for:

  • P: Population/Patient Problem: Who is your patient?
  • I: Intervention: What is the intervention or exposure being considered?
  • C: Comparison: What is the alternative to the intervention or exposure?
  • O: Outcome: What is the desired outcome?
  • T: Time: What is the time frame for the outcome?

The quest for knowledge in the field of nursing is comparable to setting off on an exciting trip. Nurses use evidence-based practice (EBP) like an expert mapper to explore unexplored territory and find vital healthcare-related information. The nursing PICOT study is an essential resource in this endeavour. Similar to how a compass directs an explorer, the PICOT framework directs scientists in the direction of a distinct and narrow path, revealing the way to game-changing discoveries.

Clinicians frequently find themselves enthralled by the astonishing results they see in their practice, like inquisitive travellers poised at the edge of undiscovered territory. These amazing treatment success stories inspire people to learn more and start a research path that will give voice to their personal experiences. It is impossible to resist the pull of the possibility of opening up new vistas of knowledge, both for their own profession and the larger healthcare system. But as these practitioners make their first hesitant steps toward the research community, they could run into a confusing obstacle: the query, “What is your research question?” voiced by seasoned researchers and ringing through the halls of academia. This encounter might end up being a brief one without a compass to help traverse this strange area.

The PICOT question format is a consistent “formula” for developing answerable, researchable questions. The PICOT process starts with a particular case, and the question is couched to develop an intervention or therapy. A clinical question that is composed using the PICO or PICOT format will help you to focus your search and help you to develop your research skills which are essential in finding the best available evidence. Incorporating best evidence into nursing requires a systematic approach.

The PICOT format is a helpful approach for summarizing research questions that explore the effect of therapy:

  • (P) – Population refers to the sample of subjects you wish to recruit for your study. There may be a fine balance between defining a sample that is most likely to respond to your intervention (e.g. no co-morbidity) and one that can be generalized to patients that are likely to be seen in actual practice.
  • (I) – Intervention refers to the treatment that will be provided to subjects enrolled in your study.
  • (C) – Comparison identifies what you plan on using as a reference group to compare with your treatment intervention. Many study designs refer to this as the control group. If an existing treatment is considered the ‘gold standard’, then this should be the comparison group.
  • (O) – Outcome represents what result you plan on measuring to examine the effectiveness of your intervention. Familiar and validated outcome measurement tools relevant to common chiropractic patient populations may include the Neck Disability Index or Roland-Morris Questionnaire. There are, typically, a multitude of outcome tools available for different clinical populations, each having strengths and weaknesses.
  • (T) – Time describes the duration for your data collection.

Here is a brief historical evolution of the PICOT framework

The PICOT framework was first introduced in 2005 by Dr. Gordon Guyatt and his colleagues at McMaster University in Canada

The framework was developed as a way to help clinicians formulate well-built clinical questions for evidence-based inquiry

The PICOT framework has since become a standard format for developing research questions in nursing and other healthcare fields

The framework has evolved over time to include the addition of the “T” component, which stands for Time, to help specify the timeframe for the outcome being studied

The PICOT framework has been shown to be effective in helping nurses to develop focused, well-built, and searchable clinical questions, leading to better patient outcomes and higher quality care.

Developing a strong clinical question for evidence-based inquiry is necessary for developing nurse PICOT research. Using the PICO (T) structure, the initial stage in EBP is rephrasing a clinical patient care concern into a targeted, searchable, and responsive query. In evidence-based medicine, the PICO (T) approach is frequently used to create a targeted, well-structured, and searchable clinical question.

How To Formulate a PICO T Study.

  1. Identify the Population (P): The first step is to clearly define the specific population or group of interest for your study. This could include factors such as age, gender, medical condition, or any other defining characteristics that help narrow down the focus of your research.
  2. Determine the Intervention (I): Next, you need to identify the intervention or treatment that you want to investigate. This could be a specific therapy, medication, procedure, or any other intervention that you believe has the potential to impact the health outcomes of the identified population.
  3. Establish the Comparison (C): To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, you need to establish a comparison group or alternative intervention. This could be a placebo, standard care, or another treatment option that is commonly used in practice. The comparison allows for a meaningful evaluation of the intervention’s effects.
  4. Define the Outcome (O): What is the desired outcome you wish to measure or observe in relation to the intervention? Clearly define the specific outcome you want to assess, whether it is a clinical parameter, patient satisfaction, quality of life, or any other measurable outcome that reflects the impact of the intervention.
  1. Determine the Timeframe (T): Specify the timeframe within which you will conduct your study. This could be a specific duration of treatment, follow-up period, or a defined timeline for data collection. Timeframe considerations are crucial for capturing the temporal aspects of the intervention and outcome


Template for Making PICOT Questions

For an intervention/therapy:

In _______(P), what is the effect of _______(I) on ______(O) compared with _______(C) within ________ (T)?

For etiology:

Are ____ (P) who have _______ (I) at ___ (Increased/decreased) risk for/of_______ (O) compared with ______ (P) with/without ______ (C) over _____ (T)?

Diagnosis or diagnostic test:

Are (is) _________ (I) more accurate in diagnosing ________ (P) compared with ______ (C) for _______ (O)?


For ________ (P) does the use of ______ (I) reduce the future risk of ________ (O) compared with _________ (C)?


Does __________ (I) influence ________ (O) in patients who have _______ (P) over ______ (T)?


How do ________ (P) diagnosed with _______ (I) perceive ______ (O) during _____ (T)?


This is an example of a PICOT question that is wrong in all facets. A dissection of the question will help identify the poorly written components.

In hospitalized geriatric patients more than 65 years of age with dementia (P), how does providing distraction activities (I) compared with providing traditional hospital care (C) decrease agitation (O)?

P: hospitalized geriatric patients more than 65 years of age with dementia

I: providing distraction activities

C: providing traditional hospital care

O: decrease agitation

  1. The terms in this PICO question are too wordy. The words placed into the search database are the exact words the computer is going to scan in the literature, so the more words, the less you will find.
  2. By including the word “providing” in the I and C search, you would miss any study where the title included words such as “implementing” or “utilizing” because the computer would be looking specifically for “providing.”
  3. This PICOT is not written in past tense; as such, it is a research question.
  4. PICOT questions should not include any directional words. They will cause a biased search.

The correctly written PICOT question to yield the most efficient search would be:

In geriatric patients with dementia (P), how did distraction activities (I) compared with traditional care (C) affect agitation (O)?

In summary, the PICOT framework was developed in 2005 as a way to help clinicians formulate well-built clinical questions for evidence-based inquiry. Since then, it has become a standard format for developing research questions in nursing and other healthcare fields. The framework has evolved over time to include the “T” component, and it has been shown to be effective in improving patient outcomes and promoting higher quality care.

Tips for Writing Well-Designed PICOT questions.

PICOT questions should not be wordy.

Instead of a “P” of “hospitalized geriatric patients with dementia,” a “P” that would lead to a better search is “geriatric patients with dementia” OR “geriatric dementia patients” because you want to search for and find all the literature about the “P” (population) of interest. Your intent may be to implement the evidence found on this population when they are in the hospital, but that is your project not your question.

PICOT questions should not include unnecessary words. Instead, PICOT questions should include only the key term(s) you are interested in. Instead of an “I” of “applying a sterile dressing,” an “I” of “sterile dressing” will lead to a better search. Extra words such as “provide,” “implement,” “use,” “deliver,” or “apply” add more words for the search engine to look for that are not important. Only include the key words that matter.

PICOT questions should not be used to find evidence to support the solutions that clinicians have already decided is the right answer.

Instead, PICOT questions should be used to find out what is the best practice. Instead of an “I” of “providing distraction activities,” an “I” that would lead to a better search is “interventions” OR “strategies” because the best practice is often something that you (and your committee or task force or council) did not know about or consider. For instance, what if the best intervention for addressing agitation in dementia patients is music therapy? You would never discover the right answer if you only searched for something that you had already decided on. This critical error leads people to search for evidence to support their idea, and it may not be—and often is not—the best idea. This mistake can be made inadvertently or with true intention. In the first scenario, you do not realize that you are making the mistake. In the second scenario, you intentionally look for evidence to support your idea and intentionally do not look for anything else. Either way, this problem needs to be avoided.

PICOT questions are always written in the past tense. You are searching for things that have already occurred. Research questions, on the other hand, are written in the present tense.

PICOT questions never include a directional term such as “increased” or “improved.” Once a directional term is included, the search is biased; if you only look for studies where a particular intervention “increased” an outcome of interest, you will miss all the articles where the intervention “decreased” that outcome. This is a dangerous mistake.

PICOT questions cannot be changed once you have started searching. More PICOT questions can be written for the same inquiry, but you cannot change a question that you have already used. That question is already part of your EBP adventure and needs to be included in your story.

Your PICOT question does not always match the change project or initiative you originally imagined or planned. That is because a well-written PICOT question leads you to the best practice to answer your inquiry, not the answer you were thinking about or for which you had hoped.

It is critical to invest time in writing a great PICOT question, as it is the gateway to an efficient, effective search and, ultimately, to making robust, evidence-based recommendations with confidence to assure the best decision-making possible and to improve care and outcomes.

The PICOT framework is a valuable tool in nursing research that offers several benefits. Here are some advantages and benefits of using the PICOT framework:

  1. Promotes clarity and precision
  • The PICOT framework promotes clarity and precision in formulating research questions. By specifying the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time of the study, researchers can avoid vague, broad, or untestable questions that may lead to inconclusive or irrelevant results
  1. Focuses research questions
  • The PICOT framework helps to focus research questions on specific patient populations, interventions, and outcomes. This focus can lead to more meaningful and impactful studies that can guide evidence-based practice and improve patient outcomes
  1. Provides a structured search strategy
  • The PICOT framework provides a structured search strategy that is derived from a clinical scenario and provides a framework for asking well-worded questions. This structured approach can assist in identifying the best available evidence to improve healthcare outcomes
  1. Translates evidence to practice
  • The PICOT framework can help clinicians translate evidence to practice by assisting with the decision-making process. Findings from research using the PICOT framework could ultimately lead to changes in a patient’s treatment for a particular condition, an alteration of his or her lifestyle choices, or to a better quality of life.
  1. Real-life impact
  • By gathering the best literature through a clinically-driven search strategy, research using the PICOT framework can have real-life impact. The PICOT framework can help researchers identify the terms to be used to search for the best evidence to answer a research question

What are Some Common Challenges in Formulating a Nursing PICOT Study?

  • Defining each component of the PICOT question:

One of the challenges in formulating a nursing PICOT study is defining each component of the question, including the population or patient problem, intervention, comparison, outcome, and timeframe.

  • Cost and feasibility:

Many research questions are costly, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct, especially with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study design. Therefore, it is important to consider the cost and feasibility of the study before formulating the PICOT question.

  • Lack of knowledge:

Not knowing how to correctly write a PICOT question can be a challenge, especially for novice researchers.

  • Difficulty in identifying appropriate search terms and databases:

Identifying appropriate search terms and databases to use in the search for evidence can be a challenge, especially for those who are new to evidence-based practice.

  • Lack of clarity in the research question:

Lack of clarity in the research question can be a challenge, as it can lead to difficulties in identifying relevant evidence and conducting a thorough analysis.

Overcoming Challenges in Formulating a Nursing PICOT Study:

Formulating a nursing PICOT study can be challenging, but there are ways to overcome these challenges. Here are some tips based on the search results:

  1. Clearly define each component of the PICOT question:
  • To create a well-built and focused clinical question, each component of the PICOT question must be clearly defined. This includes the population or patient problem, intervention, comparison, outcome, and timeframe.
  1. Consider the feasibility of the study:
  • Many research questions are costly, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct, especially with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study design. Therefore, it is important to consider the feasibility of the study before formulating the PICOT question.
  1. Seek guidance from experts:
  • If you are struggling to formulate a PICOT question, seek guidance from experts in the field. This could include nursing professors, clinical experts, or librarians who specialize in evidence-based practice.
  1. Use available resources:
  • There are many resources available to help nurses formulate PICOT questions, including online guides, videos, and databases. These resources can help you identify appropriate search terms and databases to use in your search for evidence.
  1. Practice:
  • Formulating a well-built PICOT question takes practice. The more you practice, the easier it will become to identify the key components of a clinical question and develop a focused and searchable research question.

By following these tips, nurses can overcome the challenges of formulating a nursing PICOT study and develop well-built clinical questions that can guide evidence-based practice and improve patient outcomes.


As we conclude this discussion, we would like to express our gratitude to our esteemed partner,, for their support in bringing you this informative content. Their dedication to empowering nurses and promoting excellence in nursing research has made this exploration possible.

Remember, as William Shakespeare once said, “We know what we are, but know not what we may be.” With the nursing PICOT study as our guide, we have the potential to transform the future of nursing, unlocking new horizons and embracing the endless possibilities of evidence-based care.

We encourage you to continue exploring our blog posts, where you will discover a treasure trove of valuable insights, practical tips, and engaging discussions on various topics related to nursing and evidence-based practice. Whether you’re a seasoned nurse, a nursing student, or a healthcare professional seeking to expand your knowledge, we have something for everyone.

Stay tuned for upcoming articles that delve deeper into specific aspects of nursing research, offer expert advice, and provide inspiration for your professional journey. Together, let’s embrace the power of knowledge, fuel our passion for nursing, and strive for excellence in evidence-based practice.

Thank you for joining us on this enlightening exploration of the Nursing PICOT study. We look forward to embarking on many more learning adventures with you. Happy reading!

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Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making. A critical component of any policy design is evaluation of the results. How comfortable are you with the thought of becoming involved with such matters?

Some nurses may be hesitant to get involved with policy evaluation. The preference may be to focus on the care and well-being of their patients; some nurses may feel ill-equipped to enter the realm of policy and political activities. However, as you have examined previously, who better to advocate for patients and effective programs and polices than nurses? Already patient advocates in interactions with doctors and leadership, why not with government and regulatory agencies?

In this Discussion, you will reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

To Prepare:

  • In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making.
  • Review the Resources and reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

By Day 3 of Week 9

Post an explanation of at least two opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review. Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present and describe how you might overcome these challenges. Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities. Be specific and provide examples.



Policy review opportunities for RNs and APRNs

Opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review

Policy reviewing involves key stakeholders who are involved in decision-making processes to determine their interest in policy proposals and development (Milstead & Short, 2019).  For RNs and APRNs, they have various opportunities in which they can participate in when it comes to policy reviewing and development. First, they can participate by ordinarily taking part in unit developmental meetings and engage in policy introduction processes (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). For instance, for a health center that seeks to introduce new technologies, RNs can participate by presenting their expectations and proposing new ideas since they are mostly involved with the patients compared to other stakeholders.

Another opportunity is by becoming members and collaborating with other professionals in organizations such as the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP); this will ensure they participate in every step of policy analysis and implementation (Capitol Beat, 2019). For instance, during the design of the affordable care act, RNs and APRNs were encouraged to take part in the evaluation processes and the different phases of implementation (National League for Nursing, 2019). By taking part in such a proposal, RNs and APRNs help inform policymakers’ decisions and participate in reviews.


Challenges that these opportunities may present and how to overcome these challenges

As RNs and APRNs have access to various opportunities to take part in policy reviews, it is important to be aware of the possible challenges that such opportunities present. For instance, in policy implementation and review, they may be required to work with other lawmakers and professionals from different areas of specialization, with whom they might have differing opinions (Capitol Beat, 2019). In such cases, other groups may not be as receptive to the nurses’ ideas since it is believed their opinions majorly revolve around the healthcare system, and they might not be well informed on other important aspects of policy reviews like availability of finances. To overcome this challenge, nurses can broaden their knowledge of what is required for policy formulation and all the other aspects involved (National League for Nursing, 2019). They can also work together to empower one another in providing evidence-based opinions. In the case of the unit council meetings, during the introduction of a new policy, some of the participants, including other nurses, might challenge the policy simply because of fear of a change (Milstead & Short, 2019).  To overcome such challenges, nurses need to prepare ahead by providing awareness of the new policy (including costs analysis and the expected outcomes) to other coworkers to gain support in case they may need a vote.

Two strategies to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities

For nurses to be able to access the opportunity provided regarding policy review, it is also necessary to ensure that there is enough awareness. Various strategies can be used to communicate the existence of these opportunities. Such may include the use of social media and seminars (Milstead & Short, 2019). Since social media has become a highly appreciated means of communication in the modern world and a reliable tool that can be used to communicate important information to RNs and APRNs (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). With network groups formed in platforms such as Facebook, news on new opportunities can be easily spread and reach a larger group. Further, the information can also be spread through seminars where nurses can participate in policy reviews. These can also be used for creating awareness in case of new opportunities.



Capitol Beat. (21 August 2019). ANA Capitol Beat. Nurses are speaking, and Congress is

listening as August recess wraps up. Retrieved from

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

National League for Nursing (NLN). (2019). Workforce. NLN. Retrieved from

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (January 23, 2019) AACN Applauds

Bipartisan Commitment to Support Investments in Nursing Education and Practice. AACN.



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WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

Please review the annotated bibliography handout. Use the academic search complete database–accessible through the college–to find an article related to the position you plan to take in your argument research essay. Remember to follow the library research guidelines for finding a”scholarly journal” article on your topic.

Once you find and read the article, write an annotation which includes the MLA citation and a 100-150 word descriptive and evaluative paragraph.

Nursing Paper Help

FYI: Enclosed is the college’s library website page:


Research essay-article topic/ article webpage: Fake News Outcry is Misguided



WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

Harsin, Jayson. “A critical guide to fake news: From comedy to tragedy.” Pouvoirs, 1 (2018):



The author discusses in depth the issue of “fake news” and starts by describing its history and use in comedy. He then presents that fake news has a negative impact on contemporary democracy. It establishes that fake news has the ability to capture the attention of eth audience and consequently the audience views it in a particular light.  Another major issue with fake news is that it produces some form of false belief about an issue and consequently the false belief brings about confusion among the members of society. The author brings out that the fake news detriment, the audience tends to neglect the issue of politicians who choose to create and suppress realities.  The article also suggests ways in which the issue can be addressed including the use of Artificial Intelligence solutions, which would be trained so as to weed out any fake news as soon as it is posted or uploaded.





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Client Termination Summary

Client Termination Summary

Assignment 1: Practicum – Client Termination Summary

Although termination is an inevitable part of the therapeutic process, it is often difficult for clients. However, by discussing termination throughout therapy, you can better prepare your clients for life without you. Once a client has achieved his or her therapeutic goals, termination sessions should be held and documented in a client termination summary. For this Assignment, you have the opportunity to practice writing a termination summary for a client with whom you have worked during your practicum experience.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Develop client termination summaries

To prepare:

  • For guidance on writing a client termination summary, review pages 693–712 of Wheeler (2014) in this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Identify a client who may be ready to terminate therapy.

The Assignment

  • Identifying information of client (e.g., hypothetical name and age)
  • Date the client initially contacted therapist, date therapy began, duration of therapy, and date therapy will end
  • Total number of sessions, including number of missed sessions
  • Whether termination was planned or unplanned
  • Presenting problem
  • Major psychosocial issues
  • Types of services rendered (e.g., individual, couple/family therapy, group therapy)
  • Overview of treatment process
  • Goal status (goals met, partially met, unmet)
  • Treatment limitations (if any)
  • Remaining difficulties and/or concerns
  • Recommendations
  • Follow-up plan (if indicated)
  • Instructions for future contact
  • Signatures

With the client you selected in mind, address in a client termination summary (without violating HIPAA regulations) the following:



Termination Summary

Client Name: John Edward

Client Age: 46 Years

Client Number: R456798

Date of Report: 10/20/2019

Date of Initial Contact: 8/10/2019

Duration of Therapy: 9 weeks

End of Therapy: 10/22/2019

Total Number of Sessions: 18 sessions (missed 4 sessions)

Viability of the Termination: Termination was planned by the practitioner since the client showed signs of steady recovery from his anger issues (Cohn, 2014).

Presentation of the Problem: Edward depicted difficulties in anger management and interpersonal relations. His problem is revealed to have started during his childhood. He was eager to engage in the individual therapy which involved self-efficacy techniques (Silva, Siegmund, & Bredemeier, 2015).

Major Psychosocial Issues: The client showed poor interaction levels with people around him. He also depicted to have a short temper.

Type of Services: The client underwent an individual therapy.

Overview of the Treatment Process: The process involved evaluation and challenging psychological thoughts. It also developed the use of role play to enable the client get more assertive. During the process, the client understood the emotions and painful thoughts that were brought by his anger. He was able to improve on his aggressive behavior (Simon & Willick, 2016).


Goal Status: The treatment goals have been met

Remaining Concerns: John needs to continue working actively on his developing skills to enhance better management of anger and interpersonal relationship problems. He also needs to monitor his way of communication to ensure that his assertiveness is well developed.

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Recommendations:  The client needs to monitor his progress. In case of any problems, he needs to come for consultation at the clinic. He also needs to increase his socialization to enhance better interpersonal skills.

Instructions for Future Contact:  The client should be ready for any individual therapy sessions. A different therapeutic method may be used.


AKD                                                                                                      FNB  

Therapist                                                                                         Supervisor




Cohn, A. S. (2014). Romeo and Julius: A narrative therapy intervention for sexual-minority

couples. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 25(1), 73–77.

Silva, J. A. M. D., Siegmund, G., &Bredemeier, J. (2015). Crisis interventions in online

psychological counseling. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy37(4), 171-182.

Simon, R. A., & Willick, D. H. (2016). Therapeutic privilege and custody evaluations: Discovery

of treatment records. Family Court Review54(1), 51-60.


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Community Health Promotion

Community Health Promotion

A two-page (500-word) paper that summarizes the resources that are available in your community and recommendations for future programs


a. Write a paper that focuses on resources.


Address the following prompts in your paper:


· Describe the resources that promote health promotion that are available in your community.

o Include the level of community participation.

o Explain the specific health promotion resources that are available across the lifespan.

o Include the level of participation for and any particular characteristics of the populations that use the resources.


· Recommend a health promotion idea or ideas that may be developed into a health promotion program or programs in your community.

Identify the targeted populations with rationale to support the choice.



Community Health Promotion

Health promotion is the process through which the well-being of individuals within a community is improved and protected. Health is regarded as a resource that is essential for everyday living. As a result, the emphasis on increasing control and enhancing the concept of health is not only the responsibility of the health sector but also the people of a given community. Comprehensive achievement of physical, social, and mental well-being requires the individuals in the community to understand and evaluate their health needs, and how they can be satisfied. Community participation forms the basis of successful health promotion. It reduces the vulnerability to disasters and promotes a quick response as well as improved planning in preparedness for calamities. The paper focuses on the community in Florida, which is highly regarded as the gateway city to Latin America.

The community has various resources that facilitate public participation in health promotion. They include the Dade Area Health Education Center (HEC), children’s homes societies, services for the elderly, and mental health programs, among others. The AHEC facility promotes easy access to affordable healthcare services, important health education to the residents, and recruitment and training of healthcare providers for the community. The facility mainly focuses on marginalized groups like the uninsured, economically undeserving, and patients with critical illnesses to provide them with improved access to comprehensive care (El-Amin et Al., 2016). AHEC also offers a wide range of academic programs to the students from within and outside the community to incorporate health-enhancing behaviors, achieving health literacy, and promoting the health of others.


The Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese also assists in health promotion within the community. The program is involved in providing adult day care services to the elderly. The program accepts adults diagnosed with medical, mental, or psychological disabilities, and provides them with an environment where they can interact with their loved ones and other patients with similar conditions. The program provides them with food, local field trips, and professional nursing care accompanied by counseling. The patients are engaged in activities like games and exercises to help in stimulating their mental functionality (Barrueco et Al., 2016). To be enrolled in Catholic Charities, one has to be a disabled adult of about 60 years or older and probably demonstrating signs of mild stages of Alzheimer’s. The eligibility is not dependent on a patient’s nationality, gender, religion, or political beliefs.

The Douglas Gardens Community Mental Health Center is another resource that aids in health promotion. The center offers extensive behavioral healthcare programs and services to people with mental illness. The resource has medical professionals with the necessary skills to handle individuals struggling with substance abuse and assist them in their management and recovery journey. The treatment processes in the center use assessment tools and Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) modules to manage the symptoms and help the patients to live comfortably within the community (Graham et Al., 2018). Interestingly, most of the services within the center are covered by private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid.

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One of the recommendations that can be offered to the community would be to include smoking sensation programs detailing the adverse side effects of smoking. The plans may revolve around quit activities and brief interventions through written and audio-visual resources. The program would be of tremendous help because smoking of tobacco products is one of the leading causes of premature deaths globally. The targeted population for the program will mostly be high school students (who constitute 10% of the smoking population) and adults between 45-65 years old (who form 18% of the smoking population).



Barrueco, S., Wall, S. M., Mayer, L. M., & Blinka, M. (2016). Addressing the Needs of Young Children and Families: Early Childhood Education and Services in Catholic Schools and Catholic Charities. Journal of Catholic Education20(1), n1. Doi:10.2337/dc13-2195

El-Amin, S., Suther, S., Kiros, G. E., &Zaw, K. (2016). Practice Patterns for Sexual History-taking among Florida Nurses. Florida Public Health Review13(1), 17. Doi: 10.7748/nm.21.6.13.s14

Graham, R., Hodgetts, D., Stolte, O., & Chamberlain, K. (2018). Community meal provision and mental well-being. The Handbook of Mental Health and Space: Community and Clinical Applications. 10(E26). Doi: 10.5888/pcd10.120180



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Writing Activity 2-Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

Writing Activity 2-Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice


Writing Activity 2 has four sections to complete. You will use the writing templates in your Webtext to complete them. Once you complete all templates, you will be able to download your work and submit it to Blackboard. The Webtext will guide you through the process.

Section 1 Outline

Create an outline. The outline is the plan for what to include in your essay. See chapter 4 of your Webtext for information on how to create a great outline.

Section 2 Working Thesis Statement

This is a one-sentence statement summarizing the main idea of your essay. It should tell your reader what your topic is, what your position is on the topic, and how you will support it. Use the template in chapter 4 of your Webtext to write your working thesis statement.

ENG215 Writing Activity 2 (rev. 2018-12) 2

Section 3 Starting Draft

Use the Webtext writing templates to set up your essay and write the first two paragraphs. Chapter 5 of the Webtext will provide you with guidance.

Section 4 Feedback Reflection

Use the writing templates in chapter 5 of the Webtext to: 1. List the feedback you received on writing activity one 2. Explain how you used feedback from writing activity one to write activity two 3. Discuss how the feedback on writing activity one will help you with future writing.



Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

Part 1: Outline

  • Introduction
  • History of Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice
  • Crimes that required capital punishment
  • Capital punishment today across different parts of the world
  • Capital punishment in America today and methods used
  • Justification for capital punishment
  • Position against capital punishment
    • Capital punishment is morally wrong
    • Capital punishment however denies the offender the opportunity of rehabilitation
    • capital punishment process is also expensive
    • errors in capital punishments present irreversible consequences on innocent people
  • Conclusion

Chapter 2: Working Thesis Statement

The argument for capital punishment is that it serves as a deterrent to others who would want to engage in similar crimes, that argument is often tempered by some more critical factors.

Starting Draft

Capital punishment also referred to as the death penalty is a justice system where the offenders, when found guilty are killed. Several justifications have been made for the penalty and against it and the debates have advanced with time. In most cases, there have been more debates about the justifications and they seem to have taken center stage over the capital punishment issue itself. The main argument that surrounds the topic is the ability of the capital punishment penalty to effectively serve as a deterrent to crime. The idea behind capital punishment is that when criminals are punished by being put to death, potential criminals will be discouraged from crime. Although the pro-death crusaders argue that it serves as a deterrent to others who would want to engage in similar crimes, the argument is often tempered by some more critical factors.


Since time immemorial, criminals have been executed as a punishment for the crimes that they have committed (Rice, 2017). The death penalty dates back to Eighteenth Century B.C. in the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for different crimes. The reasons for the penalty varied among different societies and they included sexual crimes, blasphemy, magic as well as a violation of religious obligations among others (McFeely, 2019). In the Tenth Century A.D., hanging became the usual method of execution in Britain. In the following century, William the Conqueror would not allow persons to be hanged or otherwise executed for any crime, except in times of war. In the Sixteenth Century, under the reign of Henry VIII, the punishment was offered for capital offenses as marrying a Jew, not confessing to a crime and treason (Paternoster, 1991). In the USA the punishment has been used for treason, murder, and people involved in the use of spies by governments to obtain political and military information Vila and Morris, 1997)

Part 4: Feedback Reflection

The feedback received in the writing activity 1

  • Provides more citations for some of the information provided.
  • Provide appropriate Punctuation in compound intense
  • Work on the incomplete sentences
  • Provide more information on statistics or constitutional laws that support your argument.

The feedback will be useful in writing activity 2 because I will be keener on how I structure the sentences so that they can pass the message more coherently and effectively. The feedback is also useful in my research as I will delve into more research so that I can expand my knowledge to help me gain a better position on the topic and support my position more.

Writing Activity 2-Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

The feedback is also beneficial for the future as I will incorporate the lessons into other different writings including those that are academic and those that are not. In doing so, I will be a more credible writer.



Binder, G., Fissell, B., & Weisberg, R. (2016). Capital punishment of unintentional felony

murder. Notre Dame L. Rev., 92, 1141.

McFeely, W, S. (2019). Trial and Error: Capital Punishment in U.S. History. Retrieved


Rice, S. K. (2017). Darkness to Light: Procedural Injustice as Crisis for Capital

Punishment Legitimacy. Seattle Journal for Social Justice, 15(3), 13.

Paternoster, R. (1991). Capital punishment in America (p. 20). New York: Lexington Books.

Vila, B., & Morris, C. (Eds.). (1997). Capital Punishment in the United States: A documentary

history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.






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Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

Discuss some of the possible problems or issues that could affect intervention studies.

Use the main book of the class to make the paper, include it in the references, please.



Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

The validity of interventional research is based on the theoretical framework, underlying hypothesis, and support for the conception level. The validity of the intervention studies is made during the intervention study design, which is made up of the construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Burns & Groves, 1997).  Any factor that reduces the validity of the study is a threat is the main limitation of the study.

The construct validity is often due to the flaws in the study design linked to the intra-study social considerations, selected measurements, and imprecise operational definitions (Grove, Burns, & Gray, 2012).  However, the significant threats to construct validity include: inadequate preoperational clarification of constructs, confounding constructs and level of constructs, mono-operational bias, interaction of different treatment, interaction of testing and treatment, hypothesis guessing within the experimental conditions, evaluation apprehension, novelty effect, and compensatory rivalry (Burns & Groves, 1997).


Internal validity is based on changes in the dependent variable caused by the actions of independent variables. The major threats include history threat that affects the value of independent variable, maturation that happen due to the changes that occur as a function of time, testing that happens due to pretest on subsequent posttest scores, and the statistical regression towards the mean that arise due to the display of the extreme scores.

External validity is based on the study results that may have been generalized back to the population. The major threats of external validity include design-dependent decisions in sampling strategy, which reduces the generalization of results, subject attrition, Subject refusal to participate, selection-treatment interaction, testing-intervention interaction, high differential attrition and reactive arrangements (Burns & Groves, 1997).

The statistical conclusion validity is the researcher’s correct decision on the statistical tests used in the study. Its significant threats include false data analysis conclusion that leads to low statistical power, type II error, and fishing or error rate problem (Burns & Groves, 1997).

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In summary, the validity of interventional research is the truthfulness of the study. It helps to address the study designs used during the study. However, the threats of interventional studies often decrease the validity of the study. The limitations of the intervention study always lead to threat validity (Munhall, 2012).  Thus, researchers need to scrutinize the threats that may arise during interventional researched.



Burns, N., & Groves, K. (1997). The practice of nursing research. Philadelphia, PA: WB

Saunders company.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal,

synthesis, and generation of evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Munhall, P. (2012). Nursing research. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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Identify the Fallacy-Good Democracy

Identify the Fallacy-Good Democracy

VERY IMPORTANT: It requires 100-150 words count per answer for each question.


Please answer the following questions. (need answers only, no heading page need it)


1-Identify the fallacy and explain:

Male immigrants crossing into the U.S. may be illegal, but what other option do they have t support their family?

2-From the debate, what seems to be McNamee’s primary rhetorical appeal? Use evidence from the debate video to support your observation.

3- Identify the fallacy and explain your answer:

Americans who don’t stand for the pledge of allegiances absolutely hate democracy!

4- From the article “Facebook is now a vital part of our democracy” what do we learn is unique about Generation Z and Millennials and their political action?



1-Identify the fallacy and explain:

Male immigrants crossing into the U.S. may be illegal, but what other option do they have to support their family?  

The rhetorical question depicts that immigration into the U.S. is the only option that male immigrants have to support their families. This view tries to show that the places where the immigrants come from do not offer opportunities for people to support their families. This point of view is wrong because pursuit for economic opportunities is not the only reason for illegal migration. Some people cross over to reunite with their families. In addition, others try to run away from political and religious persecution. From another perspective, the depiction is also wrong because it draws the picture that people without families do not cross the border.


2-From the debate, what seems to be McNamee’s primary rhetorical appeal? Use evidence from the debate video to support your observation.

From the debate, McNamee mainly persuades the audience using an ethos rhetoric appeal. This feature involves development of information that can be seen as credible by the audience. For instance, he reveals his experience of social media. He also tries to bring out the view that he understands the problems caused by social media towards democratic development. He cites an incident where Russia is perceived to have been involved in a manipulation of the last Presidential elections. Since the act is known by many Americans, his perspective can be viewed to be credible by the audience.

Identify the Fallacy-Good Democracy

3- Identify the fallacy and explain your answer:

Americans who don’t stand for the pledge of allegiances absolutely hate democracy!

The view that not standing for pledge of allegiance is a show of hatred for democracy is a wrong perspective. While the stand reveals that one is patriotic to the flag and the nation, an individual need to fully understand the meaning of the pledge.  From this notion, it can be argued that some people may not understand the pledge of allegiance because they have not been educated about it. From another perspective, democracy may mean the freedom to choose. Therefore, individuals who tend to focus on other issues of American liberty may still have a strong belief on democracy.

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4- From the article “Facebook is now a vital part of our democracy” what do we learn is unique about Generation Z and Millennials and their political action?

The article reveals that people from these two generations have become active through social media usage. The author reveals that platforms such as Youtube, Twitter, and Facebook have enabled these people to socialize more. Unlike past generations, these cohorts tend to organize their protests on social media platforms. They are also depicted to interact with politicians through these sites. This revelation shows that these young people do not actively seek for news. Instead, they depend on news finding them. This perspective postulates that the young people do not engage in cumbersome forms of attaining news as they solely depend on social media to practice their democracy.





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