Components of a Well-Written Dissertation

Components of a Well-Written Dissertation and Why You Should Seek Help from Professional Writing Services

Components of a Well-Written Dissertation


Writing a dissertation or thesis is a significant milestone in one’s academic journey. It requires meticulous research, critical thinking, and the ability to articulate ideas coherently. In this blog post, we will explore the essential components of a well-written dissertation and discuss why seeking assistance from professional writing services can enhance the quality and effectiveness of your research. We are pleased to introduce, a trusted and reliable writing company specializing in nursing academic assistance. With our expertise, we aim to support nursing students in achieving excellence in their studies by providing high-quality dissertation writing services.

What is a Well-Written Dissertation?

A well-written dissertation in the field of nursing is a comprehensive and scholarly piece of work that showcases the student’s ability to investigate, analyse, and contribute to the nursing discipline. It encompasses in-depth research, critical evaluation of literature, rigorous data collection and analysis, and the ability to draw meaningful conclusions. A well-written dissertation in nursing demonstrates a deep understanding of the subject matter, a mastery of research methodologies, and an ability to apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations.

Excellence in Nursing Studies

A well-written dissertation plays a vital role in achieving excellence in nursing studies. Firstly, it allows students to explore specific areas of interest within the nursing field, fostering a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Through extensive research and critical analysis, students can contribute new knowledge, challenge existing practices, or propose innovative approaches to nursing care.

Furthermore, a well-crafted dissertation helps students develop essential skills that are highly valued in the nursing profession. The research process enhances critical thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills, which are crucial in evidence-based nursing practice. Writing a dissertation also cultivates effective communication skills, as students must clearly articulate their ideas, findings, and recommendations in a scholarly manner.

In addition, a well-written dissertation demonstrates a student’s commitment to academic excellence and professional growth. It showcases their ability to independently plan, execute, and manage a research project, which is a valuable skill for nurses who may be involved in research or evidence-based practice initiatives in their careers.

How Enhances Dissertation Excellence

At, we understand the unique challenges faced by nursing students when it comes to writing a dissertation. Our team of experienced writers, who possess advanced degrees in nursing and related fields, are well-equipped to provide comprehensive support throughout the dissertation writing process.

When you choose, you gain access to expert guidance and assistance from professionals who have a deep understanding of nursing research and academic writing conventions. Our writers can help you with various aspects of your dissertation, including formulating research questions, conducting literature reviews, designing rigorous methodologies, analysing data, and structuring your findings and discussions.

Moreover, our writing services ensure that your dissertation adheres to the highest standards of academic integrity, ensuring originality and plagiarism-free content. We are committed to delivering well-researched, well-structured, and well-written dissertations that meet your specific requirements and academic standards.

A well-written dissertation should have the following Components of a Well-Written Dissertation:

  • Title page
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Figures and Tables
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Glossary
  • Introduction
  • Literature review/ Theoretical framework
  • Methodology
  • Results and analysis
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion and recommendations
  • Bibliography or references
  • Appendices

Title Page

The title page is the first impression of your dissertation. It should capture the essence of your research in a concise and engaging manner, while also providing necessary information such as your name, degree program, and submission date. A well-crafted title page not only grabs the attention of readers but also reflects the professionalism and significance of your study.


The acknowledgements section is usually optional, and gives space for you to thank everyone who helped you in writing your dissertation. This might include your supervisors, participants in your research, and friends or family who supported you.


The abstract is a concise summary of your dissertation, typically ranging from 150 to 300 words in length. It is generally written at the end of the entire dissertation, once all other sections have been completed. Within the abstract, you should aim to:

  • Clearly state the main topic and objectives of your research.
  • Provide a brief description of the methodology employed in your study.
  • Summarize the key findings and results obtained from your research.
  • Present the main conclusions or implications derived from your study.

Although the abstract is a brief section, it holds significant importance as it serves as the initial and sometimes sole piece of your dissertation that readers will peruse. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure its accuracy and effectiveness. If you find it challenging to craft a compelling abstract, we recommend consulting our guide on how to write an abstract, which can provide you with valuable insights and assistance.

The abstract serves as a snapshot of your entire dissertation, summarizing the key points and conclusions in a succinct manner. It acts as a hook to pique the interest of readers and provide them with a quick overview of what to expect. A well-written abstract conveys the main objectives, methodology, key findings, and implications of your research, enticing readers to delve further into your dissertation.

Table of Contents

The table of contents in a dissertation serves as a comprehensive roadmap, providing readers with an organized overview of the structure and content of the document. It lists all the chapters, sections, and subheadings, along with their corresponding page numbers. By including the table of contents, readers can easily navigate through the dissertation and locate specific information of interest.

Every Components of a Well-Written Dissertation should be included in the table of contents, ensuring that all chapters, sections, and even appendices are accounted for. This allows readers to gain a deeper understanding of the overall structure and flow of your research.

One convenient aspect is that you can generate a table of contents automatically using word processing software such as Microsoft Word. This feature saves time and ensures the accuracy of the table of contents, as it updates automatically if any changes are made to the document’s structure.

List of Figures and Tables

If you have used a lot of tables and figures in your dissertation, you should itemise them in a numbered list. You can automatically generate this list using the Insert Caption feature in Word.

Components of a well-written dissertation

List of Abbreviations

If you have used a lot of abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetised list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily look up their meanings.


If you have used a lot of highly specialised terms that will not be familiar to your reader, it might be a good idea to include a glossary. List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition.


The introduction serves as a critical section that sets the foundation for your dissertation. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and content of your research, allowing readers to navigate through the document seamlessly. The introduction encompasses all chapters and subheadings, including appendices, and presents them in a clear and organized manner within the table of contents.

The introduction is the gateway to your research and sets the stage for the entire dissertation. It should provide a clear and concise overview of the topic, highlighting its importance and relevance to the field of study. Engage your readers by presenting an intriguing opening statement or sharing a compelling anecdote that sparks curiosity and establishes the context for your research.

In the introduction, you set up your dissertation’s topic, purpose, and relevance, and tell the reader what to expect in the rest of the dissertation. The introduction should:

  • Establish your research topic, giving necessary background information to contextualise your work
  • Narrow down the focus and define the scope of the research
  • Discuss the state of existing research on the topic, showing your work’s relevance to a broader problem or debate
  • Clearly state your objectives and research questions, and indicate how you will answer them
  • Give an overview of your dissertation’s structure

Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. By the end, the reader should understand the whatwhy and how of your research. Not sure how? Read our guide on how to write a dissertation introduction.

Literature Review

The literature review is like a treasure hunt, where you explore the existing body of knowledge on your topic. It involves analysing and synthesizing relevant sources to identify the gaps or limitations in previous research. This section showcases your ability to critically evaluate scholarly work, and by doing so, you lay the foundation for your own research by identifying the research questions that will contribute to the field. The literature review is a critical components of a well-written dissertation that involves an in-depth exploration of existing academic work relevant to your research topic. Before embarking on your own study, it is essential to collect and evaluate various sources, including books, journal articles, and other scholarly publications. Through a meticulous analysis and critical assessment of these sources, you can identify key themes, patterns, conflicts, and gaps in the existing literature.

The purpose of the literature review goes beyond summarizing previous studies. It requires you to develop a well-structured and cohesive argument that establishes the basis and justification for your own research. This can be achieved by demonstrating how your study addresses a gap in the literature, adopts a novel theoretical or methodological approach, proposes solutions to unresolved problems, advances theoretical debates, or contributes new data to enhance existing knowledge.

Moreover, the literature review serves as the foundation for constructing a theoretical framework. Within this framework, you define and analyse the key theories, concepts, and models that frame your research. This section allows you to answer descriptive research questions by exploring the relationships between different concepts or variables.

By conducting a comprehensive literature review and developing a robust theoretical framework, you situate your research within the broader scholarly context, highlighting your understanding of the existing knowledge in your field. This not only establishes the significance and relevance of your study but also provides a solid platform for your own research objectives, methodology, and analysis.


The methodology section is the roadmap of your research journey. Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research.

Components of a well-written dissertation

In this section, you need to address two critical questions:

Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?

Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills. Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. It’s natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

Results and Analysis

Following the completion of your research, the next section of your dissertation is dedicated to reporting the results. The structure of this section can be organized based on sub-questions, hypotheses, or specific topics related to your research. It is important to include only the results that are directly relevant to your research objectives and questions. The presentation of results can vary depending on the disciplinary conventions of your field.

In qualitative research, such as in-depth interviews, it is common to integrate the presentation of data with the subsequent discussion and analysis. On the other hand, in quantitative and experimental research, it is advisable to present the results separately before delving into their interpretation and meaning. To determine the appropriate structure for your research, it is beneficial to consult with your supervisor and refer to sample dissertations within your field.

While presenting the results, consider the most effective ways to visually represent your data. Incorporating tables, graphs, and charts can enhance the clarity and impact of your findings. However, it is essential to ensure that these visual aids add value to your text and provide additional information beyond what is already described. Avoid including tables or figures that merely duplicate the information already presented in writing.

In some cases, it may be appropriate to include full versions of your data, such as interview transcripts, as an appendix. This allows readers to access the complete dataset and offers transparency and credibility to your research.

By thoughtfully presenting your results, using appropriate visual aids, and considering the best structure for your research, you can effectively communicate your findings and contribute to the overall understanding of your topic. The results and analysis section is where your research findings take centre stage. Present your data in a clear and organized manner, using tables, graphs, or visual aids to enhance comprehension. Analyse and interpret the data, identifying patterns, correlations, or significant findings, and relate them back to your research questions or hypotheses. This section not only showcases your analytical skills but also highlights the impact of your research on the existing knowledge in your field.


In the discussion section, you have the opportunity to unpack the meaning and implications of your research findings. Analyze the results in light of the existing literature, pointing out similarities, discrepancies, or new insights that your study brings. Address any limitations or challenges encountered during the research process and propose potential avenues for future research. Engage readers by highlighting the practical applications or theoretical contributions of your study, emphasizing its significance in advancing the field.

Conclusion and Recommendations

In the conclusion, summarize the main findings of your research and reiterate their significance. Emphasize the contributions your study has made to the existing body of knowledge and highlight any practical recommendations that emerge from your research. Encourage readers to consider the implications of your findings and explore further research possibilities. A well-crafted conclusion leaves a lasting impression and reinforces the value and impact of your dissertation.

Bibliography or References

The bibliography or references section provides credibility and allows readers to explore the sources you have consulted. Ensure that you follow the appropriate citation style recommended by your institution. A comprehensive and accurate list of references demonstrates your thoroughness in acknowledging and citing the works of other scholars, reinforcing the scholarly nature of your dissertation.


Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation (such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures) can be added as appendices.


  • The title page should include the title of the dissertation, the author’s name, the degree program, and the date of submission.
  • The abstract should be a brief summary of the dissertation, highlighting the main points and conclusions.
  • The introduction should provide background information on the topic and state the research questions or hypotheses.
  • The literature review should summarize the existing research on the topic and identify gaps in the literature.
  • The methodology should describe the research design, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • The results and analysis should present the findings of the research and analyze them in relation to the research questions or hypotheses.
  • The discussion should interpret the results and relate them to the existing literature.
  • The conclusion should summarize the main findings and provide recommendations for future research.

Finally, the bibliography or references should list all the sources cited in the dissertation.

It is important to note that the exact structure and formatting of a dissertation may vary depending on the institution and the field of study. However, the key components of a well-written dissertation listed above should be included in any dissertation. It is also important to proofread and edit the dissertation for grammar and clarity, and to follow the formatting and referencing guidelines provided by the institution.

Why seek help?

  1. Expertise and Experience

Professional writing services employ a team of highly skilled writers who possess expertise in various academic disciplines. They have extensive experience in writing dissertations and are well-versed in the specific requirements and standards of academic institutions. By availing their services, you can benefit from their knowledge and proficiency in producing high-quality dissertations.

  1. Customized and Original Content

Professional writing services understand the importance of producing unique and original work. They ensure that each dissertation is meticulously crafted from scratch, tailored to your specific research topic and requirements. These services employ writers who conduct thorough research and employ critical thinking to generate well-structured and original content for your dissertation.

  1. Time and Efficiency

Writing a dissertation is a time-consuming task that requires dedicated effort and extensive research. By seeking help from a professional writing service, you can save valuable time and focus on other important aspects of your academic journey. These services are equipped to handle deadlines and deliver your completed dissertation within the specified timeframe, ensuring efficient progress in your studies.

  1. Language and Grammar Excellence

Professional writing services have stringent quality control measures in place to ensure that the language, grammar, and writing style of your dissertation are impeccable. They employ skilled editors and proofreaders who meticulously review and refine your work, eliminating any grammatical errors or inconsistencies. This attention to detail enhances the overall clarity and professionalism of your dissertation.

  1. Confidentiality and Privacy

Reputable writing services prioritize the privacy and confidentiality of their clients. They have strict policies in place to protect your personal information and ensure that your engagement with their services remains confidential. This provides you with peace of mind and reassurance that your work is in safe hands.

  1. Ongoing Support and Revisions

Professional writing services often offer ongoing support and revisions to accommodate any feedback or changes required in your dissertation. They work closely with you to ensure that the final product meets your expectations and satisfies the academic standards set by your institution.


A well-written dissertation is an essential component of nursing studies, contributing to academic excellence and professional growth. By seeking assistance from, you can avail yourself of expert guidance and support throughout the dissertation writing process. Our team of experienced writers will work closely with you to ensure that your dissertation showcases your research skills, critical thinking abilities, and deep understanding of the nursing discipline. Trust us to help you achieve excellence in your nursing studies and make a significant contribution to the field through your well-crafted dissertation.

We hope this blog post has provided valuable insights into the components of a well-written dissertation and emphasized the importance of seeking professional assistance from Good luck with your research endeavour and your pursuit of excellence.



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Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

You have been asked to conduct an analysis of your care setting that will result in two potential pathways toward a strategic plan to improve health care quality and safety in your organization, department, team, community project, or other care setting. To accomplish this, you will take two approaches to the analysis:

  1. Complete the discovery and dream phases of an appreciative inquiry (AI) project.
  2. Conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis.

To help ensure that your analysis is well-received, the requester has suggested that you:

  • Present your analysis results in four parts:
    • Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream.
    • Part 2: SWOT Analysis.
    • Part 3: Comparison of Approaches.
    • Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills.
  • Your analysis should be 4–7 pages in length.

Note: Remember, you can submit all, or a portion, of your draft plan to Smarthinking for feedback before you submit the final version for this assessment. However, be mindful of the turnaround time for receiving feedback, if you plan on using this free service.

Analysis Requirements

Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide, so at a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Writing, Supporting Evidence, and APA Style
  • Communicate professionally when conducting interviews and collecting data.
  • Write clearly, with professionalism and respect for stakeholders and colleagues.
  • Integrate relevant sources of evidence to support your assertions.
    • Cite at least 3–5 sources of scholarly or professional evidence.
    • Include relevant interview information.
  • Format your document using APA style. The APA Style Paper Template and associated tutorial, linked in the Resources, are provided for your use. Be sure to include:
    • A title page and reference page. An abstract is not required.
    • A running head on all pages.
    • Appropriate section headings.
    • Properly formatted citations and references.
  • Proofread your writing to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it more difficult to focus on the substance of your analysis.
Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream
  • Synthesize stories and evidence about times when a care setting performed at its best with regard to quality and safety goals.
    • Collect stories from your care setting. You may collect stories through interviews or conversations with colleagues or provide your own.
    • Explain how your stories are related to quality and safety goals.
    • Describe the evidence you have that substantiates your stories.
    • Identify the positive themes reflected in your stories.
    • Describe other evidence (for example: data, awards, accreditations) that validates your care setting’s positive core.
  • Propose positive, yet attainable, quality and safety improvement goals for your care setting.
    • Explain how accomplishing these goals will lead to ethical and culturally-sensitive improvements in quality and safety.
    • Explain how your proposed goals align with your care setting’s mission, vision, and values.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Part 2: SWOT Analysis
  • Conduct a SWOT analysis of your care setting, with respect to quality and safety goals.
    • Provide a narrative description of your analysis.
    • Identify the assessment tool you used as the basis of your analysis.
    • Describe your key findings and their relationships to quality and safety goals.
  • Describe one area of concern that you identified in your SWOT analysis—relevant to your care setting’s mission, vision, and values—for which you would propose pursuing improvements.
    • Explain how this area of concern relates to your care setting’s mission, vision, and values.
    • Explain why you believe it will be necessary and valuable to pursue improvements related to this area of concern.
Part 3: Comparison of Approaches

Compare the AI and SWOT approaches to analysis and reflect on the results.

  • Describe your mindset when examining your care setting from an AI perspective and from a SWOT perspective.
  • Describe the types of data and evidence you searched for when taking an AI approach and a SWOT approach.
  • Describe the similarities and differences between the two approaches when communicating and interacting with colleagues.
Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills

Analyze the leadership characteristics and skills most desired in the person leading potential performance improvement projects, taking both an AI and SWOT approach.

  • Explain how these characteristics and skills would help a leader facilitate a successful AI-based project and a successful SWOT-based project.
  • Comment on any shared characteristics or skills you identified as helpful for both AI and SWOT approaches.




As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

One key aspect to being an effective leader, manager, or administrator is an awareness of your leadership strengths, weaknesses, and style.

  • How would you assess your general leadership, communication, and relationship-building skills?
  • How would describe your leadership style?

Imagine the future for a care setting that is your place of practice or one in which you would like to work.

  • What aspirational goals can you envision that would lead to improvements in health care quality and safety?
  • How well do these goals align with the mission, vision, and values of your care setting?



Care Setting Environmental Analysis


Conducting an environmental analysis in the healthcare system is an essential part of the strategic planning process of an organization. This tool helps in identifying the possible external and internal elements that may influence the organization’s operations. It also focuses on determining the risks and opportunities that may be available for the organization and the findings from the analysis are considered during the decision-making process (Phadermrod, Crowder, & Wills, 2019). The environment in which the healthcare sector operates has continuously evolved overtime. Various strategic tools can help to analyze the microenvironment of a business. The primary analysis tools include the PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, business tool analysis, and microenvironment analysis. All these tools are critical for the accomplishment of the business. This paper analyzes the ABC Health Clinic based on its strategic development, including the discovery and dream phases of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) project and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the healthcare institution.

Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream

Appreciative Inquiry (AI) represents one of the critical change methods that promise to energize quality management in the healthcare sector. According to MacCoy (2014), whatever the situation one encounters, the first step is always to discover and disclose the situation’s positive capacity. The aim of this stage is to find emphasis and highlight all factors that have led to success in similar cases. The best way to discover the best method is to first look at the peak experiences. However, one should also look at what touches his or her heart and spirit and what motivates him or her to view reality from a different perspective (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). On the other hand, dreaming entails the act of focusing on the possibility of what could be, rather than the limiting factors. In dreams, a person is focused on seeing and understanding things in a new way.


In healthcare organizations, quality management often seems more like a burden than an opportunity for growth. Such is the situation at ABC Health Clinic. Interviews were conducted among the clinic’s staff who gave their stories about their journey in the hospital. Most of the doctors, nurses, and other hospital staff, about 82 percent, indicated that they were satisfied with their departments of work and the duties assigned to them. They further stated that they were motivated to work in the hospital. Some of the factors that they highlighted as their motivators to work in the hospital included remuneration, working conditions, engagement by the management, and flexible work schedules.

It was reported that nurses at ABC cannot do their jobs without collaboration. When they assign beds and the floors push back, it delays the patients from getting to their assigned room. When discharge orders are not made earlier in the day, beds don’t become available until later in the day. All of these factors have to be done in a timely way for ABC to help improve patient flow.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Nurses also engage with each other and other departments. There are multiple tasks that are split among nurses. Services such as Cardiac, Surgery, Medicine, and Oncology all have to be distributed among several nurses to make sure the hospital’s entire bed board is covered. For patients that are being admitted, nurses work closely together to ensure the patients get appropriate services. Therefore, in order to ensure efficient patient flow, nurses work together. Although each nurse may have individual tasks to perform, the tasks are interrelated and a lot of time they have to collaborate to ensure everything runs smoothly and avoid delays.

In the Dream phase of AI analysis, the findings provided an outlook on the future of ABC on its commitment to patient safety goals. The future of ABC improvement processes is ongoing. The organization will be switching over to a new EMR, which is supposed to make interdepartmental data tracking and patient charting seamless. ABC is also looking to increase staffing and possibly changing locations to a larger office.

Part 2: SWOT Analysis

ABC Health Clinic is a healthcare establishment in which many people in Area B seek medical services. The clinic was established in 1991 and has experienced growth since then. The institution has various units such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the emergency department, burn center, the pediatric department, and many others. People in the area visit the hospital to seek emergency services and other small health issues. Outstandingly, the hospital has some of the most experienced doctors in the area who deliver competent medical attention and treatment plans to their patients’ satisfaction.

ABC’s SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis is a standard study tool used to determine the internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization, as well as its external opportunities and risks (Phadermrod et al., 2019). The strengths of any organization account for the positive aspects of the brand. For instance, in our case, ABC’s strengths make it one of the most favorable hospitals in the area.


ABC has many capabilities that gives it a huge advantage over the other health care organizations in the state. Examples include the following:

Reputation: The hospital is a nationally recognized healthcare center and exceeds many national benchmarks for safety. This is because of the quality care that ABC offers its’ patients. ABC analyzes trends, such as how long it takes a patient to be admitted, how long physicians spend with patients and the average response time for a transport order. This has positively impacted the emergency department and the organization’s patient safety goals for decreasing wait times and patients leaving without receiving medical care.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Highly qualified and experienced doctors and staff- Doctors and other staff in the hospital are what make the facility the most preferred choice for the people in the area. The hospital has a very complex employment process, which ensures that it hires the most qualified doctors and other hospital staff. This strength is one of the most critical factors that distinguish ABC from other hospitals, not only in the area but also in the entire region.

Brand name- ABC has, over the years, established itself as the most desirable hospital in the area since 1991. It has become popular, not only among the local people but also across the whole region. People travel for hundreds of kilometers to seek medical services at ABC. This brand name has been built through many years of hard work and dedication.

High-quality medical services-This is another positive aspect of the ABC Health Clinic. The two departments that have contributed to this popularity are the emergency department and outpatient section. Most of the emergences in the region are referred to as the ABC Clinic, including road accidents and burns. Other departments have contributed to this popularity, including the ICU, pediatric, and cancer departments.


According to Phadermrod, Crowder, and Wills (2019), weaknesses refer to the downside in a brand’s services. Although ABC does not have many shortcomings, it has some significant ones that can affect its performance.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

A decentralized organizational vision for throughput limits ABC’s goal for improving patient flow for patient safety in the emergency department. Patient flow is not only reliant on ED processes, but is also greatly dependent on occupied inpatient beds. Earlier discharges would alleviate extended wait times for patients in the ED. Until patient flow becomes a central idea to the organization, patient safety due to the long length of stay will remain an unresolved issue.

The high cost of medical services-One of the critical weaknesses of the healthcare facility is its high cost of medical services. Since the clinic has been operational for many years, it is supposed to have addressed the problem of high prices. Even though it provides high-quality services, it should give them at an affordable cost. Some of the services, such as cancer treatment, are provided at costs that are unreachable by many people in the area. This is an issue that the clinic may consider with utmost seriousness since it is located in an area where most people are medium-income earners.

Inadequate staff – Another weakness is that the clinic has inadequate staff. Considering the number of people that visit the hospital in a day, the ratio of doctor to patients is 1:50. Since there are some patients whose medical conditions require a considerable amount of time, the number of doctors in the hospital cannot adequately cater for all patients.


Many hospitals do not offer some of the services that are offered at ABC Health Clinic. This is most likely the reason why many people travel for long distances to seek medical services at ABC clinic. Some of the services offered include cancer treatment and gynecological services. In order for patient flow to work successfully, ABC needs to change the hospital’s current culture of viewing throughput as the responsibility of the ED to one of a hospital-wide responsibility. Throughput needs to be a system-wide objective of every department involved in patient care from admission to discharge. In order for a culture change to be successful, the management should introduce the changes and train the frontline staff how to follow the new process which would enable the hospital transformation.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system


In an organization, threats are the external obstacles that stand on the path of its success. The only significant threat for ABC is the new emerging hospitals that are likely to be its competitors in the years to come. Hospitals in the region are increasingly investing in new medical technologies and inventions, and are advancing in terms of service provision. This implies that ABC has to draft strategies to improve its operations and to remain relevant and competitive in the near future. Threats to any healthcare organization with below-average scores in patient safety can affect insurance reimbursement and leave the organization at risk for malpractice lawsuits. A commitment to patient safety is key to avoiding these threats.

Part 3: Comparison of Approaches

The organizational outcomes when SWOT analysis and when AI is used are entirely different. SWOT analysis has a deficient level of engagement compared to AI. The latter collects information by asking questions regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the organization or the issue at hand. It takes into account each set of questions by focusing on more specific areas when collecting diverse perspectives from different members of the team. AI is more result-oriented because it stimulates and encourages positive outcomes (Bertram et Al., 2016).The assumption in this comparison is that the threats and weaknesses are overpowered by the strengths, and that the SWOT analysis in the ABC Clinic is applied the way it is described. The bias in the AI analysis is that it does not consider what the organization should avoid in order to fully uncover the available opportunities.

On the contrary, SWOT is more of a balanced analysis that usually generalizes. Also, the model focuses more on the failures than the achievements. For ABC Clinic, focusing on the negatives may deprive it of its confidence, thus destroying the inspirational vision to work (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). The data collected in the AI approach has led to the focus on positive aspects of the departments as well as on how the staff felt about their job and their contribution to patient safety goals. ABC aims to create a command center, Patient Placement Operation Center (PPOC), a nurse-driven department and serving as patient flow specialists that identify where beds are free and where incoming patients should be placed. These specialists will oversee housekeeping to ensure new beds are ready for patients and coordinate with the transport team tasked with moving patients around the hospital where staff members can more efficiently oversee patient flow. Thus, ABC would reduce patient long wait times and patients leaving without receiving medical attention which creates quality and safety issues for the patients. The patient safety throughput initiatives will ensure improvements in quality care, patient satisfaction and financial returns.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Moreover, with the growing emphasis on evidence-based practices (EBP), uncertainty has become a major factor affecting the healthcare setting. Uncertainty is the main drive for medical researchers, patients’ pursuit for medical care, and medical interventions. However, despite its impact on healthcare, there is still minimal knowledge on how to address the effects it has on the stakeholders of the health sector. These knowledge gaps include the uncertainties encountered by patients and clinicians, the effects of communication barriers, and how to assist them in dealing with the uncertainties. A fundamental way to address the knowledge gaps would be drafting an empirical evidence framework that integrates the concept of uncertainty from various disciplines.

Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills

Leadership is an important aspect, especially in healthcare organizations. Although it is not fundamentally taught in medical schools, hospital leaders are expected to demonstrate high-quality leadership skills to lead their healthcare organizations to success (De Zulueta, 2016). ABC Health Clinic recognizes the importance of engaging its staff in leadership roles. During the interviews, one of the nurses at ABC indicated that every staff in the clinic could lead a team in his or her respective area. This was because the management of the hospital had an obligation to provide its staff with opportunities to develop their leadership skills.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Team leaders were found to have high-quality leadership skills, primarily through their communication. Communication skills promote an understanding between the leaders and their subordinates and between the management and employees (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). ABC staffs are also trained in team-building skills. The group meetings that were conducted to obtain information for the present paper revealed that no staff member dominates others during conversation, implying that each staff member has excellent team-building skills.


The target market for every organization keeps evolving on a daily basis. Technological advancement and the environment are the critical situational factors that mostly determine the outcomes and relevance of an organization against its competitors. Therefore, organizations such as the ABC Health Clinic may incorporate either the AI or SWOT analysis tools to assess its internal and external factors, and draft the best strategies that will aid in realization of objectives. ABC has an opportunity to expand its operations and open branches in other areas to take its services closer to consumers.  However, the organization needs to increase the number of staff to reduce burnout and stress among nurses.  Other motivators for nurses that should be maintained by the company include remuneration, working conditions, engagement by the management, and flexible work schedules.




Bertram, R., Gilbert, W., & Culver, D. (2016). Using appreciative inquiry to create high-impact coach learning: Insights from a decade of applied research. Practitioner. Retrieved from

De Zulueta, P. C. (2016). Developing compassionate leadership in health care: an integrative review. Journal of healthcare leadership8, 1. Doi:10.2147/jhl.s68068

Phadermrod, B., Crowder, R. M., & Wills, G. B. (2019). Importance-performance analysis-based SWOT analysis. International Journal of Information Management44, 194-203. Doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.07.001

MacCoy, D. (2014). Appreciative Inquiry and Evaluation – Getting to What Works. Retrieved from



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The Inclusion of Nurses in the SDLC

The Inclusion of Nurses in the SDLC

Brief introduction with a purpose statement

v  A description of what you believe to be the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.

v  Provide specific examples of potential issues at each stage of the SDLC and explain how the inclusion of nurses may help address these issues.

v  Then, explain whether you had any input in the selection and planning of new health information technology systems in your nursing practice or healthcare organization and explain potential impacts of being included or not in the decision-making process.

v  Be specific and provide examples.



Reference List


Please Note

  •       This is a discussion
  •       No tittle pages.
  •       No running heads.
  •       This is a Masters level class
  •       APA Format with intext citation
  •       Required to use AT LEAST TWO references from the reading resources. Total of three.
  •       Outside resources should be peer review Articles



The Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life Cycle

Nurses are important members of the hospital staff and failing to involve them in the entire process of Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) will result in ineffectiveness in its application. According to Qin et al (2017), nurses are best positioned to understand what is required in order to address any underlying issue. Therefore, failure to involve the nurse will mean missing out on important information, which in turn will make any system ineffective or less effective in achieving the goal for which it was supposed to achieve. This discussion explains the importance of including nurses in the systems development life cycle.

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Nurses should be involved in all stages of systems development life cycle analysis, design, development and testing. In a project such as introduction of Barcodes, nurses best understand units where there is noncompliance as they are the ones that usually interacting with the system (Saleem, Steel, Gercek, & Chandra, 2017). Therefore, they can help in ensuring that the testing for the new system is done and any systems strength and weaknesses noted so that system problems can be addressed. During the implementation phase, nurses are best positioned to provide crucial feedback on areas of strength and weaknesses of a system. Their involvement in the evaluation phase is also vital (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2017). Using the barcode system example, nurses can best offer information on whether issues noted in the system were unit specific or whether they were involving the entire system.


At my work place, I was included in a team that was supposed to select of a new health information system that would collect, store, manage and transmit a patient’s electronic medical record (EMR) efficiently. My involvement in the process as well as the involvement of other nurses was important. This is because we were interacting with the old system daily and we knew the weaknesses especially regarding to its functionability and how it led to time wastage due to constant breakdown. According to Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (n.d), in order to successfully implement health information technology (health IT) in an organization, it is important to recognize the impact it has on both the clinical and administrative workflow. Therefore, we were able to insist on the specific feature that the new system should have in order to best serve the hospital.



Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.b). Workflow assessment for health IT toolkit. Retrieved from

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Qin, Y., Zhou, R., Wu, Q., Huang, X., Chen, X., Wang, W., … Yu, P. (2017). The effect of nursing participation in the design of a critical care information system: a case study in a Chinese hospital. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s12911-017-0569-3

Saleem, N., Steel, D., Gercek, G., & Chandra, A. (2017). Significance of User Participation in a Hospital Information System Success. The Health Care Manager, 36(2), 199-205. doi:10.1097/hcm.0000000000000156


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Sociological inquiry at an African wedding ceremony

Sociological inquiry at an African wedding ceremony

Snapshot of what to do:

1- Pick a location/event to attend to observe social behaviors among people for at least 30 minutes. (Dog park, park, church, grocery store, pool, baseball game etc.) – ANY EVENT WHERE YOU CAN SIMPLY SIT BACK & OBSERVE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS AMONG PEOPLE.

2- At the location/event you should take notes. Look for common behaviors (what everyone does-Normal social behavior) and look for outliers or abnormal behaviors (things that seem odd or out of place-what we would thing is typically not normal behavior for that setting).

3- Write up your paper. To do this you need to  follow the directions in the assignment description and rubric because those are the components I am looking for when I grade.

*First, start by writing a few sentences about the activity itself – what the event was, how long you observed, and why you chose it.

*Next, summarize your observations using sociological inquiry. Discuss your thoughts on the common social interaction patterns between the people.

*Describe any behaviors that stand out.

Note: Your writing should illustrate your understanding of the content from Units 1 and 2, and it should use 2-3 relevant concepts from those units. This means that I should see you referencing the OpenStax book and infusing that information with what you observed.
Your paper should be without grammar and spelling mistakes and have a references page at the end.


The purpose of this assignment is to identify common patterns of social behavior within a specific social event or a social setting. Your writing will illustrate your ability to interpret human interactions via a social lens, using the content from units one through four.



Conduct a participant observation procedure by observation a group/social event. The event could be a trip to a theme park, enjoying a play at a theater, or a dinner with family at a restaurant. It could also be attending a religious gathering, hanging out with friends at a coffee shop, attending a sports event like a baseball or a basketball game, celebrating a cultural holiday, or attending a meeting at your workplace.

The paper should have a title page in APA format. First, start by writing a few sentences about the activity itself – what the event was, how long it was, and why you chose it. Next, summarize your observations using sociological inquiry. Discuss your thoughts on the common social interaction patterns between the people. Describe any behaviors that stand out. Your writing should illustrate your understanding of the content from Units 1-3, and it should use 2-3 relevant concepts from those units. Your paper should be without grammar and spelling mistakes and have a references page at the end.



Sociological inquiry at an African wedding ceremony in our community

The activity that was selected was a wedding ceremony that took place at the community center. The wedding was between two individuals of African ancestry. Their origin was determined by the different aspects such as the dressing code that was mainly African and the music that was played as well as the cuisine. Although there were other guests of other races including Whites and Indians, there was a heavy presence of Africans among the guests. The event involved the wedding itself, where the groom and bride took their vows and swore to be together through different circumstances and the people in the audience served as witnesses to the bond that was created. The exchange of vows was followed by a reception that took place at the same venue.

I chose the wedding mainly because weddings are diverse and also involve a wide range of people as compared to other events such as cooperate meetings that would have people of similar characteristics. Also, weddings are events that take so much effort in the preparations such as the decorations, food, music as well as the party and they would serve as a heightened example of front stage behavior. Weddings are also social performances and involve several aspects of performance. They include the guests who come to witness the marriage, and the wedding party made up of the couple getting married, their parents and bridal party. Also, there is the priest or person who officiates the marriage and the performance also has costumes that come out as differing based on the roles that people are playing. In addition to the host and the party, there are several other people such as the associates and friends who represent different things.

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I attended the reception because by the time I arrived, the exchange of vows was over and the procession was heading towards the reception ceremony. This session of the event involved eating and drinking as well as music and dance as well as different presentations aimed at entertaining the newly married couple as well as the guests. I was at the event for about one hour and I was able to observe different behaviors among the people in the event.

There was a mix of different behaviors and included both normal and deviant behaviors. One of the norms of weddings is the attire that people wear to weddings. The majorities of the guests had decent attires and were all dressed to impress. There was clear evidence of elegance among the guests and especially the ladies. However, amid the guests was one lady that was putting on ripped jeans, T-shirt, and flip-flops. At any point that she passed, people stared and beckoned others to see her, indicating that the outfit that she was wearing was not suitable for the kind of event that she was in.


During the ceremony, there were opportunities to offer congratulations to the bride and groom. Many people visited them at the point where they were standing and would spend a few minutes with them and pave way for others to take a turn to offer the congratulatory messages. One thing that struck my attention as a particular woman that visited the couple and seemed to hog them. She kept talking to them, and wiping the bride’s face and adjusting the groom’s tie and kept hugging them for longer than what others took. The people that were behind her in the line were getting agitated and some of them began going back to their seats. It took the intervention of the mother of the bride, who politely asked her to leave but a scuffle ensued as she was taken away from the couple creating an awkward moment.

Sociological inquiry at an African wedding ceremony

The ceremony involved dance and people took different turns to dance to their favorite tunes and also entertain the couple by joining them. Most of the people kept o the rhythm and engaged in graceful moves in line with the beats of the traditional songs that were playing. Out of the blues, there came a group of four youths who joined the dance and started showing their moves. They took turns outdoing each other as the rest of the audience cheered them on. This went on for a while until a point when the dance moves seemed to be inappropriate as was evidenced by the response from the audience. Many of the women started covering their eyes in shame and the cheering reduced. They danced in a manner that was explicit and involved moves made by throwing or thrusting their hips back or shaking their buttocks, often in a low squatting stance. This made the majority of the guests and especially the elderly to appear uncomfortable. One of them walked up to the deejay and asked him to switch off the music and play something “decent” and “appropriate” for the ceremony.

Another behavior that came out during the ceremony was the way people enjoyed the drinks. There was champagne around every corner and consequently, it was difficult to resist a celebratory cocktail. Some people were clam about it and were able to sit calmly, while others drank as they mingled with others happily. However, some got so drunk and they made fools of themselves. Some of them became too emotional and started shouting and crying and this made everyone uncomfortable.

Sociological inquiry at an African wedding ceremony

In conclusion, the exercise made me realize that weddings have various sociological meanings about how people should behave and the meanings of certain rituals. Some of the behaviors that were seen as deviant included, a wardrobe malfunction, excessively drunk relatives and friends, guests that hogged the time spent by the couple as well as the group that danced inappropriately. However, the majority of the guests conformed to the norms of a wedding and everyone was very happy for the couple.





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Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction

Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction

When selecting a psychotherapeutic approach for a client, you must consider the unique needs and characteristics of that particular client. The same is true when selecting a psychotherapeutic approach for groups. Not every approach is appropriate for every group, and the group’s unique needs and characteristics must be considered. For this Assignment, you examine psychotherapeutic approaches to group therapy for addiction.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate psychotherapeutic approaches to group therapy for addiction

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide on group therapy for addiction.
  • View the media, Levy Family: Sessions 1-7, and consider the psychotherapeutic approaches being used.3-7 dialog included.

The Assignment

In a 2 -page paper, address the following:

  • Identify the psychotherapeutic approach that the group facilitator is using, and explain why she might be using this approach.
  • Determine whether or not you would use the same psychotherapeutic approach if you were the counselor facilitating this group, and justify your decision.
  • Identify an alternative approach to group therapy for addiction, and explain why it is an appropriate option.
  • Support your position with evidence-based literature.



Assignment 1: Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction


For fear and substance abuse group therapies, practitioners use a variety of models to meet the clients’ needs. An understanding of the groups’ goals and technique is viewed to be a foundation of the approaches chosen for the sessions (Wheeler, 2014). The paper tries to establish the psychotherapeutic approach used in a group therapy case. In addition, it provides an alternative approach that may be suitable for the case. The scenario involves ex-soldiers who have a traumatized experience of their mission in Iraq.

The Psychotherapeutic Approach Used

From the scenario, the therapist used exposure therapy. This approach typically entails the client trying to confront their fear in a suitable manner. One of its essential aspects is the use of emotional processing to enhance control of the clients’ problems. Usually, the practitioner creates a safe environment that allows the client to decrease their avoidance to a problem or fear. Research reveals that the approach is helpful in treating clients with fear-related problems (Skule et al., 2017).


The therapist may have chosen the approach because the clients show fear of an experience in their work as soldiers in Iraq. The incident tends to horrify the clients as they keep on seeing it. To limit recurrence of their fear, they tend to engage in addictive activities such as alcohol intake. The clients also tend to show symptoms for post traumatic stress disorder. The application of systematic desensitization, such as the use of relaxation, is used to help the clients construct better revelations of their past without anxiety (Berardelli et al., 2018).

Viability of the Approach in My Scenario

If I were a therapist in the case, I would have used the same method. This is because I view that the clients tend to be emotional when they recollect their ordeals in Iraq. In that regard, the use of this approach would improve their emotional processing. I view that by using the approach, the clients would have a better position of attaining new beliefs regarding their fear. Therefore, they would be more comfortable in dealing with their problem without engaging in poor health habits such as alcohol drinking. I would also choose the technique because I belief that it will increase the clients’ self-efficacy. This aspect means that the group will realize that they are capable of managing their anxiety (Sundquist et al., 2015).

Alternative Approach for Addiction

The use of psychoeducational approach is alternative for the group. The technique involves the use of structured content that meets the requirements of the group. It often involves use of videotapes or lectures to facilitate a better understanding by the clients. It provides an expansion of awareness regarding behavioral and psychological consequences of addiction. This approach is also aimed at helping clients to get into a recovery-ready stage to facilitate change. (Berardelli et al., 2018).

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The approach is suitable for the group because the clients are in a contemplative level of change where they have developed a need to get help or seek ways of getting help. It may also help the group to recognize their fear and addiction problems and deepen their knowledge to facilitate a suitable way to recovery. In addition, the approach may help the group to realize alternative resources that may be helpful (Wilson et al., 2018).


The paper tries to show the importance of understanding clients’ needs in the choice of psychotherapeutic approaches. The case scenario reveals that the therapist engages in an exposure approach, which is part of cognitive–behavioral methods. In addition, it reveals that the use of psychoeducational approach may be suitable for the group as it also poses features that can enhance the clients’ recovery.



Berardelli, I., Bloise, M. C., Bologna, M., Conte, A., Pompili, M., Lamis, D. A., … & Fabbrini,

  1. (2018). Cognitive behavioral group therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 399.

Skule, C., Berge, T., Eilertsen, E., Ulleberg, P., Dallavara Lending, H., Egeland, J., & Landrø, N.

  1. (2017). Levels of alcohol use and depression severity as predictors of missed therapy sessions in cognitive behavioural psycho-educational group treatment for depression. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(1), 11-16.

Sundquist, J., Lilja, Å., Palmér, K., Memon, A. A., Wang, X., Johansson, L. M., & Sundquist, K.

(2015). Mindfulness group therapy in primary care patients with depression, anxiety and stress and adjustment disorders: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(2), 128-135.

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to

            guide for evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Wilson, L., Crowe, M., Scott, A., & Lacey, C. (2018). Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A

discourse analysis. International journal of mental health nursing, 27(1), 349-357.



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Labor Management

Labor Management

Part 2: Objective information:Fetal heart tones are 130, with minimal variabilityVaginal exam is 4 cm/90%effaced/ -1 stationShe is complaining of pain – 8/10 on a numerical scale.An IV has been started with an 18 gauge catheter with 1 liter of Lactated Ringers at 150 ml per hr in left forearm.

How can you provide non pharmacological comfort to this patient?What are the pharmacological methods to use?Without prenatal records or history GBS is unknown. What must you provide?Contractions are 5 minutes apart and you receive an order to augment labor – what non pharmacological methods can you employ (or ask the MD to provide?)Pitocin is ordered, please include at what rate you will start Pitocin, and how often you titrate. What equipment is needed to hang and run Pitocin IV?



Labor Management

The pain of labor is a phenomenon that is recognized universally and is brought about by the contractions of the uterus. Both pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacotherapy options can be considered to help the laboring woman to cope with the pain as well as build confidence in the process (Dhakal, Shah, and Singh, 2017). The non-pharmacological technique that would be employed for this patient involves Breathing techniques and massage which have been established as useful in pain management but also helps in increasing the likelihood of continuing breastfeeding (Adams, et al. 2015). The pharmacological method that would be used includes the administration of pain killers to help manage the pain that the laboring woman is in.

Labor Management

The GBS of the patient is not known because the medical history of the patient is unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to take samples of the laboring woman and carry out tests such as the VDRL, serology, blood group, urinalysis among other basic tests.  It is important to also provide information such as the fetal NST and also any decelerations or any tachycardia or bradycardia.


With contractions about five minutes apart, the non-pharmacological option that would be used is the Lamaze technique. This is a technique that is used in the labor process and it involves exercises and breathing control to give pain relief without drugs (Parthasarathy, and Doula, 2018). The main aim of the process is to help the mother’s confidence to improve and also reassure them that they are capable of going through the natural process.  This psycho-prophylactic method helps the woman to gain a better understanding of how to cope with the pain of childbirth and most importantly, facilitates labor and promotes comfort. The main strategies involved include relaxation techniques, as well as movement and massage.

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Pitocin, synthetic oxytocin, is a natural hormone that helps your uterus contract during labor and has been recommended for this patient. The use, in this case, is to augment labor because the contractions are not moving fast enough and therefore, present the risk of infection and other problems. 10 to 40 units of Pitocin will be added to 1,000 mL of a non-hydrating diluent and run at a necessary rate



Adams, J., Frawley, J., Steel, A., Broom, A., & Sibbritt, D. (2015). Use of pharmacological and

non-pharmacological labour pain management techniques and their relationship to maternal and infant birth outcomes: examination of a nationally representative sample of 1835 pregnant women. Midwifery, 31(4), 458-463. Doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2014.12.012

Dhakal, A., Shah, S., & Singh, B. (2017). Assessment of knowledge on non-pharmacological

methods of pain relief during labour among nurses working in maternity and children hospital, Nepal. Journal of Chitwan Medical College7(3), 25-28. Doi: 10.3126/jcmc.v7i3.23691

Parthasarathy, S., & Doula, P. (2018). Beyond Lamaze: Are We Missing the Key to Unlock

Women’s Potential? The Journal of Perinatal Education, 27(1). Doi: 10.1891/1058-1243.27.1.6

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Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems

Assignment: Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

New technology—and the application of existing technology—only appears in healthcare settings after careful and significant research. The stakes are high, and new clinical systems need to offer evidence of positive impact on outcomes or efficiencies.

Nurse informaticists and healthcare leaders formulate clinical system strategies. As these strategies are often based on technology trends, informaticists and others have then benefited from consulting existing research to inform their thinking.

In this Assignment, you will review existing research focused on the application of clinical systems. After reviewing, you will summarize your findings.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery.
  • Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”
  • Identify and select 5 peer-reviewed articles from your research.

The Assignment: (4-5 pages)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 5 peer-reviewed articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
  • Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Be sure to address the following:·   Properly identify 5 peer-reviewed articles selected.·   Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.



Transforming Nursing and Healthcare through Technology


Technology has played an instrumental role in changing healthcare. With an evolving healthcare system, nurses face the challenge of learning new skills and integrating them into practice. From unique interventions like tablet computers to radio frequency identification-enabled devices, the healthcare field is becoming more efficient. Nurses are now using technology to update patient records, schedule care and navigate online systems (Thimbleby, 2014). Long gone are the days when patient information was stored in handwritten charts. Now, patient’s data is safely and efficiently stored in electronic health records thus transforming the nursing profession. In addition, technology has improved communication between medical personnel during emergencies. Technology has made nursing work easier and as a result, increased the number of patients that nurses are likely to attend to. While technology improves communication and work efficiency, there can be several challenges when new technology is implemented. Nurses and other care givers report experiencing difficulties in effectively communicating patient information. Additionally, there is a high privacy risk associated with using technology devices to record patient data (Thimbleby, 2014). The use of technology in healthcare is expected to rise in the future. When it comes to nursing, technology advances will improve the ability of nurses to offer quality, accurate and efficient care to patients.

Use of Health Information Technology for Older Adults Care

In recent years, health information technology (HIT) has been used to improve care for the elderly. With the introduction of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, more research is being conducted to analyze the impact of electronic health records (EHR) and health information technology on the quality of care offered to older patients. Dowding and colleagues (2014), analyzed the impact of using EHR to improve outcomes such as the rate of elderly falls and pressure ulcers. The study investigated 29 hospitals and analyzed how their EHR systems affected documentation of patient information. According to the study, EHR systems were associated with improved documentation of pressure ulcers and falls in the hospitals investigated. Additionally, using EHR reduced pressure ulcers rates by 13%. However, the fall rates were not affected by the introduction of EHR systems. The study concluded that for effective change to be established and for successful EHR system to be installed, collaboration, teamwork and supportive leadership must be maintained.


Impact of Bar-Code Medication Administration (BCMA) on Patient Harm

Medical errors pose serious risks to hospitalized patients. Medication errors are among the most common medical errors in healthcare facilities. These errors are categorized into prescribing errors, transcribing errors, dispensing and administration errors. Historically, several techniques have been developed to reduce administration errors. Barcode verification technology mitigates human errors by automating five key areas-patient, drug, dose, route and time-and alerts nurses to any violation. Thompson et al (2018) sought to evaluate the impact of implementing barcode medication administration technology on the rate of medical errors more specifically medication administration errors that result in patient harm. From March, 2007 to September, 2013 the study analyzed adherence to BCMA technology and tracked the number of actual errors during the study period. According to the results, there was a 43.5% reduction in medical administration errors after BCMA technology was introduced. The rate at which harmful medication errors were administered decreased from 0.65 per 100,000 to 0.29 per 100,000 medications. Overall, the use of BCMA technology significantly reduces medication administration errors.

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems

Intravenous Smart Pumps

With over 90% of hospitalized patients receiving medication intravenously via infusion pumps, intravenous smart pumps are among the most used technologies in hospitals and healthcare facilities. Smart pump technologies have been proven to be profitable in intensive care units as they save costs and prevent medication errors. Rosas and colleagues (2018) evaluated the economic impact of implementing smart infusion pumps in the administration of intravenous drugs and solutions in the intensive care unit (ICU). The retrospective observational study analyzed patterns of consumption of intravenous solutions pre-implementation and post-implementation of smart pumps. The results show that the implemented smart pumps reduced the annual consumption of intravenous solutions by 18% units and by 22.3% liters. Additionally, the study observed that the smart pumps lowered the cost of IV administration by 17.1% when compared to conventional infusion systems. The results therefore prove that smart infusion pumps save costs specifically for the administration of intravenous solutions in the intensive care unit.

Intelligent Healthcare Data Management System (IHDMS)

With the increase in the development of intelligent healthcare systems, come more novel approaches that rely on Nanosensors and smart phone technologies. Patients are now using intelligent healthcare data management systems to access healthcare services including emergency management services and diagnosis services. IHDMS with nanosensors involves the use of wearable nanosensors, individual applications that are executed on smart phones and medical or healthcare servers (Dorj et al. 2017). In recent year, nanosensors have been utilized to solve human problems and treat diseases. Intelligent healthcare data management systems have also been used to maintain medical equipments. Hamdi et al (2014), developed a novel software system and applied it in the maintenance management of medical technologies. The researchers sorted medical maintenance requests and calculated priority indexes for the requests. Additionally, model performance was assessed by analyzing maintenance requests. The results showed significant improvements in equipment downtimes based on healthcare delivery capacity. This ultimately improved patient outcomes. The results conclude that IHDMS improves medical equipment reliability, safety and maintains cost efficiency.

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems

Automated Medication Dispensing Cabinets (AMDC)

Automated medication dispensing cabinets are designed to provide computer-controlled storage, dispensing of medication and tracking at the point of care. AMDC offers several benefits to users and to patients. These cabinets provide nurses with total access to medication; they provide control of medications and greatly reduce medical errors. Moreno et al. (2014), sort to estimate the return on investment of an AMDC taking into account its role on the reduction in drug consumption. The study compared drug consumption rates in two separate wards with similar medicine use characteristics. The two wards used ADC model OmniSupplier and an inventory of the medication used was analyzed. The results showed a significant difference in the total cost of medication consumed by the control ward and the two test wards. The results showed a 16.3% reduction in drug consumption. Additionally, there was a median stock reduction of 56.5%. When the investigators compared the results, they observed a consistent reduction in the consumption of medicines. The study concludes that installation of automated medication dispensing cabinets reduce drug consumption, improve efficiency and save on medication costs.

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems


New technology is changing the way people live their lives. And now more than ever before, technological advancements are impacting the healthcare industry in unique ways. In the healthcare industry, new technologies are used to improve patient care and ensure quality nursing care. Many new medical technologies help nurses with routine processes. For example, automated medication dispensing cabinets help nurses decrease human mistakes, improve efficiency and reduce medication consumption rates. Smart pumps on the other hand, have been used in ICUs to administer IV substances and medications. Electronic health records reduce medical errors and increase the time nurses allocate to each patient. While technology and innovation improve quality of care, all nurses agree that it should not replace day-to-day human interactions.



Dorj, U., Lee, M., Choi, J., Lee. Y. & Jeong, G. (2017). The Intelligent Healthcare Data Management System Using Nanosensors. Journal of Sensors, 9. Doi: 10.1155/2017/7483075

Dowding, DW., Turley, M. & Garrido, T. (2014). The Impact of n electronic Health Record on Nurse Sensitive Patient Outcomes: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 19(4), 615-620. Doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000504.

Hamdi, N., Oweis, R., Zraiq, H. A. & Sammour, D. (2014). An Intelligent Healthcare Management System: A New Approach in Work-Order Prioritization for Medical Equipment Maintenance Requests. Journal of Medical Systems, 36(2), 557-567. Doi: 10.1007/s10916-010-9501-4

Moreno, M.M. et al. (2014). Return on Investment for Automated Dispensing Cabinets. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 19(2). Doi: 10.1136/ejhpharm-2012-000074.3014

Rosas, EP. Et al. (2018). Impact of Implementing Smart Infusion Pumps in an Intensive Care Unit in Mexico: A Pre-Post Cost Analysis Based on Intravenous Solutions Consumption, 54(13): Hospital Pharmacy. Doi: 10.1177/0018578718786943

Thimbleby, H. (2014). Technology and the Future of Healthcare. Journal of Public Health Research, 2(3). Doi: 10.4081/jphr.2013.e28

Thompson, K.M et al. (2018). Implementation of Bar-Code Medication Administration to Reduce Patient Harm. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes, 2(4), 342-351. Doi: 10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2018.09.001


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Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

As you might recall from Week 5, there are significant differences in the applications of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for families and individuals. The same is true for CBT in group settings and CBT in family settings. In your role, it is essential to understand these differences to appropriately apply this therapeutic approach across multiple settings. For this Discussion, as you compare the use of CBT in group settings and family settings, consider challenges of using this approach with your own groups.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for groups to cognitive behavioral therapy for families
  • Analyze challenges of using cognitive behavioral therapy for groups
  • Recommend effective strategies in cognitive behavioral therapy for groups

Use of CBT in Groups Verses family settings

To prepare:

  • Reflect on your practicum experiences with CBT in group and family settings.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the Post to Discussion Question link and then select Create Thread to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!

By Day 3

Post an explanation of how the use of CBT in groups compares to its use in family settings. Provide specific examples from your own practicum experiences. Then, explain at least two challenges counselors might encounter when using CBT in the group setting. Support your response with specific examples from this week’s media.



Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Group Settings versus Family Settings

            Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) be described as a practical, hands-on approach psychotherapy intervention aimed at improving mental health. The objective of CBT is changing the behavior and patterns of thinking behind the difficulties that individuals, groups, or families experience. Furthermore, it is important to note there are considerable differences in the application of CBT inn family and in group settings (Dobson & Dobson, 2018).

Research Paper Help

Group CBT tends to involve a simultaneous interaction with people who are typically not in the client’s familial or social network. These people may be considered as relative strangers. Furthermore, a group can either bee homogeneous or heterogeneous. When heterogeneous, the clients tend to have similar issues, but when heterogeneous, the clients to have diverse issues. On the other hand, CBT in family settings tends to be solution-focused and brief (Knell, 2016).  Additionally, it involves supporting the family members to think and to act in a manner that tends to be more adaptive as well as learning to make choices that enhance the relations between family members (Zettle & Hayes, 2015). An example from practicum experience is a family that had some members who had drinking disorders, which resulted in chaos in the family.


Some of the challenges when using CBT inn group settings is the lack of commitment from some of the clients. For these clients to benefit, they need to be fully committed and to undertake any activities as instructed by the therapist. Lack of commitment reduces the efficacy of CBT in group settings. Furthermore CBT in group settings may not be effective since some of the clients may be having learning difficulties, whereas others may have problems that are more complex (Dobson & Dobson, 2018).




Dobson, D., & Dobson, K. S. (2018). Evidence-based practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Knell, S. M. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral play therapy. Handbook of play therapy, 118-133.

Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (2015). Rule-governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. In The Act in Context (pp. 33-63). London, United Kingdom: Rutledge.

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Trends and Best Practices in “Best Hospitals”

Trends and Best Practices in “Best Hospitals”

I have attached the peer posts below that need to be responded too.

Alittle Background:

It is important for health care leaders to be aware of industry trends and best practices that might impact their organizations. By strategically implementing these trends and best practices, organizations can improve patient health outcomes and remain competitive within the industry. For this Discussion, you examine the trends and best practices hospitals implement for organizational excellence, information technology, and informatics.

Response 1

Hi Latisa,

I enjoyed reading your post. The use of information technology has revolutionized the healthcare sector. IT has helped the healthcare sector to ensure quality healthcare delivery, increased patient safety, decreased medical errors as well as strengthening the interactions of between healthcare providers as well as between healthcare providers and patients. In addition, IT has enabled the development of system for healthcare record that is reliable and affordable which is paramount for quality healthcare delivery. The use of information technology in the healthcare sector has improved the quality of healthcare that is delivered by providing accurate patient records and allows doctors to better understand the patient’s medical history. Having a comprehensive patient history empowers doctors to more accurately treat ailments (Campione, Mardon & McDonald, 2018). Without the use of technology that keeps medical records, physicians would depend on the patient’s memory, which can lead to inaccurate medical history.


Campione, J., Mardon, R., & McDonald, K. (2018). Patient Safety Culture, Health Information Technology Implementation, and Medical Office Problems That Could Lead to Diagnostic Error. Journal of Patient Safety, 1. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000531


Response 2

Hi Tyler,

I agree with you that Mayo Clinic has been able to incorporated operational excellence in its culture. By doing so, the hospital is able to identify problems in its systems and processes, and encourage and empower its staff to develop and implement solutions that address the root causes of the problems. This kind of system helps in ensuring continuous improvement within the hospital. In addition, technology’s role in the hospital has expanded exponentially due to technological advancements. The hospitals are now able to store, share and analyze health information by the use of technology. The use of technology increases provider capabilities and patient access while improving the quality of life the patients (Marcotte et al, 2015). Nowadays, physicians are able to help patients remotely and accurately diagnose a patient’s problems through telemedicine. Thus, technology has greatly to impacted the healthcare industry and the society as a whole.


Marcotte, L., Kirtane, J., Lynn, J., & McKethan, A. (2015). Integrating Health Information Technology to Achieve Seamless Care Transitions. Journal of Patient Safety11(4), 185-190. doi: 10.1097/pts.0000000000000077



Week 8 Discussion: Trends and Best Practices in “Best Hospitals”

Peer 1

Latisa McConico,

According to the 2019 U.S. News & World Report, the NYU Langone Hospital in New York, NY is ranked No. 9 on the Best Hospital Honor Roll. The facility ranks #14 in adult specialties and rated high performing in 1 adult specialty and 9 procedures and conditions. The NYU Langone Hospital is a general medical and surgical facility. NYU Langone Medical Center’s main facility in Manhattan is Tisch Hospital. Tisch hospital, formerly named University Hospital , was established in 1963 at its current site (U.S. News, 2019).

The hospital was founded in 1882 as New York Postgraduate Hospital and merged with New York University Medical Center in 1948 (U.S. News, 2019). NYU Langone Health has received the global Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Enterprise Nicholas E. Davies Award of Excellence for healthcare technology innovations that improve patient outcomes. NYU views technology as a critical element in connecting their patients and providers, and transforming care (NYU Langone, 2017).

Health IT has been foundational to their organizational success as they were the first and only health system in the state of New York to achieve inpatient and outpatient “Stage 7” electronic medical record adoption status recognized by HIMSS Analytics, which represents the highest level of electronic health record implementation and data analytics to improve care, as measured by the Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model. Clinical, IT, and operational leaders from NYU Longone presented case studies demonstrating the institution’s strategic use of health IT to improve patient outcomes. The organization showcased the value-based management (VBM) program, paperless registration, and the Total Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Care Initiative which uses IT systems to help in coordinating a patient’s care before,after, and during elective surgery to replace knee and hip joints (NYU Langone, 2017).

Trends and Best Practices in “Best Hospitals”


NYU Langone Awarded HIMSS Enterprise Davies Award for Excellence in Health Information      Technology. (2017). Retrieved from

2019-20 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Medical Specialties Rankings. (2019). Retrieved from


Peer 2

Tyler Hill,

The number one hospital from the “best hospital report” is Mayo Clinic based in Rochester, Minnesota.  Mayo clinic owns 19 hospitals  with 57 research centers.  The variety of this health care organization leads this facility to be considered the best hospital report.  In order to be ranked as best hospital, the organization must be excelling in care for the sickest patients and must be skilled for inpatient care (Mayo Clinic, 2019).  Also, death rates provide a ranking and gives insights to potential patients.  Being a best hospital does not mean that it excels in all other services provided.  Some hospitals have higher ranking in other specialties versus other hospitals


The Mayo Clinic does well with within their financial report.  In 2018, the total current assets were 2,427 and total current liabilities in 2,281 in millions (Mayo Clinic, 2018).  This constitute as a best hospital as well because there are more assets than liabilities, which allows money to provide services and equipment for the patients without being in debt.  There are certain  trends to become the best practice hospital, which is to implement operational excellence, information technology and health care informatics.  The implementation  of health information technology improves the quality of health care, prevents medical errors and reduce health care cost (Shahi, Sadoughi & Ahmadi, 2015).  This improves the operations of health care because it cuts out a lot of middle man activity and allows patients to connect with physicians online.  Operational excellence is only implemented gradually and starts by addressing staff practices and analyzing leadership behaviors (Bach, 2017).  Healthcare informatics informs the facility of their numbers and what they should improve on. Taking a gradual action to these three practices will assist the hospital with becoming ranked for the best hospital reports.


Bach, N. (2017, October 5). Creating An Operational Excellence Strategy For Hospitals. Retrieved October 14, 2019, from

Mayo Clinic (2018, December 31). Consolidated Financial Report. Retrieved from//

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Retrieved October 14, 2019, from

Shahi, M., Sadoughi, F., & Ahmadi, M. (2015).  Information technology governance domains in hospitals: A case study in Iran. Global Journal of  Health Science,7(3), 200-209. Retrieved from






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Approach to Care

Approach to Care

Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care

The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health care needs of an individual and provide personalized care.

Write a paper (1,750-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

  1. Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
  2. Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
  3. Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.
  4. Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?
  5. Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
  6. Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.

You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.



Approach to Care

Cancer is regarded as one of the leading causes of deaths globally. According to the center for diseases control and prevention (CDC), it is the second leading cause of deaths in America. Further, in 2018, the American cancer society approximated an increase of 1735350 for new cancer diagnoses and over 600000 deaths resulting from the disease. The condition has been identified as one that affects everyone regardless of the age group, lifestyle, or social status. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and avoiding a sedentary life is necessary to avoid prolonging or worsening the condition. For health providers, providing quality patient-centered care is the first step in preventing deaths that result from the condition. This may be achieved with many approaches because every patient is unique and individualized (Mosher et al., 2014). As such, it is necessary for health providers to understand vital factors such as the diagnosis process, cancer stages, complications resulting from the condition, treatment side effects, and how they can be reduced.

The Diagnosis of Cancer

Although research is still being done on the causes of cancer, it is believed that it is caused by genetic and epigenetic alterations that causes abnormal multiplication of cells. Unlike normal cells, which divide, grow, and later die, cancer cells grow continuously and finally develop into a tumor. This may occur in different parts of the body, hence the various forms of cancer. According to the study conducted by the National Cancer Institute (2015), mo0re than 100 types of cancer have been identified, and these are categorized based on the location of the affected organ or tissue, which are also used in diagnosis.

Approach to Care

Various methods can be used to detect cancer, including routine examination, or screen test. The diagnosis is made based on the affected cell (Neal et al., 2015). Cancer is diagnosed based on the signs and symptoms that the patient presents. Other factors like degree, type and location of the cancer are first established before a diagnosis is conducted. Although the symptoms can be used in cancer detection, other methods like screening are more effective since the symptoms may take more time to develop. For a patient whose condition has progressed, the general symptoms include fatigue, fever, skin change, and unexplained weight loss. However, different forms of cancer present specific symptoms like bowel changes for cancer affecting the bowel (Mosher et al., 2014). Other symptoms to also look for include the inability to coordinate, coughing blood, seizure, and loss of sensation. After identifying the symptoms, the primary care provider also conducts further examination by obtaining family history, conducting lab work, physical examination, and scanning procedures. Early detection is highly advocated since it helps to save lives.

Staging of Cancer

After diagnosis, cancer staging is conducted depending on its severity and the percentage of the original tumor. Staging is an important step since it assists the doctor in developing the most effective treatment plan and correctly approximates the prognosis. It is also deemed significant by researchers and health providers who use the data from staging to communicate patient information and make necessary conclusions. Based on the anatomic positioning of the tumor, clinical staging is normally conducted by classifying it into one of the four stages which range from 0 to 4. Stage 0 is classified as cancer in situ; stage 1 is a localized tumor growth, stage 2 has a limited spread in a local area, while at stage 3, it is spread extensively, and stage 4 is a metastasis. The stage 0-4 classification is mostly applicable in Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cervical cancer (Neal et al., 2015). Another classification is the TMN system, which shows the local extent of the tumor using three parameters; (T) Size and invasiveness, (N) number of lymph nodes affected by cancer, and (M) to represent metastasized cancer. Other means of staging the magnitude of cancer involve the use of MRI and CT (National Cancer Institute, 2015). After diagnosis and staging, the health provider now goes ahead to discuss with the patients and family, the prognosis and complications of the condition.

Approach to Care

Cancer Complications and Side Effects During Treatment

Cancer complications vary depending on the patient’s health and may result from either the condition itself or the treatment process. Such complications resent both physical and psychological effects and mostly affect organ systems such as respiratory, digestive, excretory, circulatory, nervous, endocrine, integumentary skeletal, reproductive, and immune systems (National Cancer Institute, 2015). Depending on the type and diagnosis, some systems will be more affected compared to others.

The main complications resulting from cancer include pain metastasis and depression. As noted earlier, cancer complications can be classified as physical and psychological. For physical, pain is regarded as the most frightening complication; pain results from the tumor spreading to other nearby tissues exerting pressure to nearby nerves and eventually leading to nerve injury. After identifying the cause of pain, treatment is administered using opioids such as morphine and other pain medication. Patients may also experience other physical complications such as disability, metastasis, fatigue, and health impairment (American Cancer Society, 2018). Depression is also another complication that increases the patient’s risk of committing suicide. As such, cancer patients also undertake treatments for depression such as antidepressant medication. Besides depression, another dangerous cancer complication is metastasis. This occurs as a result of cancer cells spreading to other body parts through the lymphatic system. As noted in the reports by American Cancer Society, deaths related to cancer occur due to the cells spreading to other vital body organs like bones, lungs, liver and brain.


Early detection is normally advocated to ensure patients begin the treatment process as early as possible. However, although treatment procedures are significant, patients experience severe side effects from chemotherapy and the radiation used in curing cancer. Radiation therapy involves using radiations that are directed through the skin to kill cancerous cells. These might result in temporary side effects such as irritated skin, itching, hoarseness and throat pain. In most cases, patients are likely to develop serious long-term effects (Mosher et al., 2014). For instance, patients undergoing chemotherapy are likely to experience side effects. For instance, one may experience hair loss, vomiting, nausea, and weak immune system. In addition to these, women also experience vaginal dryness, amenorrhea, and hot flushes. Although temporary side effects may disappear after treatment, patients still have to experience such tough effects as a result of cancer. Recommendations to lessen the side effects include medication, seeking support from family and friends, and maintain normalcy.

The Role of ACS

The ACS has a significant role in creating awareness regarding cancer prevention, symptoms, and treatment. The organization is regarded as a nationwide community-based voluntary health provider that is dedicated to developing cancer elimination programs to save lives. It can provide education and support by conducting research and advocacy activities at the community level. Further, since the organization has collaborative partnerships with other major organizations like the ASCO, it is also able to contribute by developing other programs that advocate for cancer prevention.

Further, the ACS can also provide service by educating health professionals and physicians on how to provide care to cancer patients. Some of the ACS services that I would recommend include their research program, which involves three major components, supporting other cancer research institutes, developing cancer centers throughout the country, and conducting intramural research. I would also recommend the voluntary services provided by the organization in caring for cancer patients and providing support to their families.

Approach to Care

The Nursing Process

Nursing process is a tool used in promoting evidence-based practice as nurses examine and address each patient’s conditions. The process is also applied in cancer identification and treatment. It involves five phases; assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. (Mosher, 2014) For cancer patients, the first step involves systematically collecting and analyzing physiological and psychological data. For instance, if the patient is experiencing pain, the assessment phase would involve identifying the physical cause and manifestation of the pain.

The diagnosis phase involves the clinical judgment regarding a patient’s response to the health condition in question. For cancer, diagnosis also reflects the root cause of the problem and provides a basis for the nursing care plan. Based on the first two phases, the health provider is able to set measurable short and long-term goals in the planning phase. Depending on the cancer stage, planning may range from activities like maintaining adequate nutrition to pain management through medication. This forms a basis for the implementation phase, which involves assuring continuity of care for the patient when in hospital and when preparing for discharge (Neal et al., 2015). The final phase involves continuously evaluating the patient’s status and the effectiveness of the nursing care plan for regular modification.

Approach to Care

Linking Liberal Arts and Science Studies with Nursing Education

Liberal education courses have significantly contributed to medical and nursing education, hence becoming a necessary component in the nursing profession. The modern world poses daunting challenges that result from a wide range of factors like growing clinical knowledge, scientific advancement, patient diversity ethics, justice, and technology advancements. The nursing profession has, therefore, go beyond just understanding the need for care, to also identifying the significance of other elements of liberal arts.

As Neal et al. (2015) argue, the integration of humanities is a curricular approach that supports critical thinking within humanistic perspectives and enhances the professional and personal development of a nursing professional. With the growing complexities of healthcare, nursing student is required to be well informed, compassionate, competent empowered, and professional nurses with broadened knowledge in different areas (Neal et al., 2015). Further, with the different conflicting influences, liberal learning in higher education is necessary for preparing students to meet the challenges imposed in their profession. For instance, by incorporating social studies, nursing students are able to learn distinct concepts of evaluation methods and learning strategies in providing care and employing the nursing process



American Cancer Society. (2018). Cancer Facts & Figures 2018 | American Cancer Society.

Retrieved from

Mosher, C. E., Ott, M. A., Hanna, N., Jalal, S. I., & Champion, V. L. (2014). Coping with

physical and psychological symptoms: a qualitative study of advanced lung cancer patients and their family caregivers. Supportive Care in Cancer, 23(7), 2053-2060. DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2566-8

National Cancer Institute. (2015). What Is Cancer? Retrieved from


Neal, R. D., Tharmanathan, P., France, B., Din, N. U., Cotton, S., Fallon-Ferguson, J., … &

Macleod, U. (2015). Is increased time to diagnosis and treatment in symptomatic cancer associated with poorer outcomes? Systematic review. British journal of cancer, 112(s1), S92.


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