How to Write a Nursing Reflective Essay

How to Write a Nursing Reflective Essay


Welcome to our blog, where we dive into the world of nursing and explore the significance of reflective essays in the education and growth of nursing students. In this post, we’ll take you on a journey through the captivating realm of nursing reflective essays, unveiling why they hold such paramount importance for those embarking on a nursing career. So, grab a cuppa, settle in, and let’s explore how these essays become the compass guiding aspiring nurses towards professional excellence.

Nursing reflective essays, serve as a splendid conduit for nursing students to delve into the depths of their personal experiences, all the while engaging in critical self-reflection. The allure of these essays lies not only in their ability to encapsulate the essence of a student’s journey but also in their power to ignite transformative growth and sharpen the skills necessary for a nurse’s success.

Why, you may ask, do these reflective essays matter so much in the nursing world? Well, they play a pivotal role in bridging the gap between theory and practice, seamlessly blending the knowledge acquired in lecture halls with the vibrant tapestry of real-life encounters. As nursing students meticulously dissect their interactions with patients, colleagues, and the intricate healthcare system, they unlock a treasure trove of insights into their own strengths, weaknesses, and areas primed for personal and professional growth.

How to Write a Nursing Reflective Essay

Reflective essays allow students to transcend the boundaries of traditional learning and venture into the heart of experiential wisdom. While theoretical knowledge lays the groundwork for nursing education, it is the application of this knowledge in the realms of palpable reality that truly forges a nurse’s competence and compassion. Through reflection, students become architects of their own learning, constructing bridges between theory and their unique experiences, and crafting a profound understanding of the multifaceted nature of the nursing profession.

Beyond this harmonious union of theory and practice, reflective essays serve as catalysts for the development of critical thinking skills. Nursing students are prompted to question, dissect, and evaluate their own practice, keenly scrutinizing the efficacy of their actions, the ethical nuances embedded in their decisions, and the resounding impact on patient outcomes. This process cultivates an insatiable thirst for knowledge, as students discover the gaps in their understanding, identify areas for improvement, and embrace a lifelong commitment to evidence-based practice.

But let us not overlook the subtler facets of nursing reflective essays. They are conduits for self-awareness and emotional intelligence, gently guiding students on an introspective journey. By exploring their innermost thoughts, emotions, and reactions during poignant experiences, nursing students unearth a deeper understanding of themselves, unravelling their biases, and paving the way for genuine empathy and effective communication. These essays become the looking glass through which students peer into their own souls, forging the foundations of therapeutic relationships and collaborative teamwork.

Definition and Purpose of a Nursing Reflective Essay

A reflective nursing essay is a personal essay that allows nursing students to reflect on their experiences and identify areas for improvement. It is a type of essay that requires the writer to describe a situation, share personal feelings, evaluate the experience, reflect on opportunities for learning, and provide a conclusion. The essay is usually based on a true story from a clinical placement or a personal experience related to nursing practice

A nursing reflective essay, serves as a personal journey of introspection and growth, where nursing students weave the fabric of their experiences into a tapestry of self-discovery. It is a literary embrace of one’s own encounters, thoughts, and emotions, carefully penned to illuminate the path towards improvement and excellence. So, settle in and let us embark on a captivating exploration of what truly defines a nursing reflective essay and the profound purpose it serves.

In essence, a nursing reflective essay is an intimate and introspective piece of writing that allows nursing students to traverse the corridors of their own experiences, unraveling the intricacies of patient interactions, clinical procedures, ethical dilemmas, and the nuances of teamwork. These essays serve as windows into the soul of a nurse-in-training, artfully blending personal anecdotes with critical analysis and self-reflection.

Now, let us delve into the profound purpose that underlies the very essence of a nursing reflective essay. You see, these essays are not mere academic exercises but transformative instruments that shape the minds and hearts of nursing students. They serve as vessels of growth, fostering self-awareness, critical thinking, and professional development.

The primary purpose of a nursing reflective essay is to offer students a space for deep introspection, encouraging them to reflect on their thoughts, emotions, and actions during their nursing practice. Through this process, they gain a deeper understanding of their own strengths, weaknesses, and areas primed for improvement. It is within the gentle embrace of self-reflection that students unlock the gateway to self-discovery, embracing the transformative power of their experiences.

Furthermore, nursing reflective essays provide an avenue for students to identify areas for growth and development. By meticulously dissecting their encounters, students can recognize gaps in their knowledge, skills, or attitudes, paving the way for personal and professional improvement. These essays become stepping stones towards excellence, empowering students to refine their practice and evolve into competent and compassionate nurses.

In the broader context, nursing reflective essays serve as a bridge between theory and practice. While nursing education imparts theoretical knowledge, it is the application of this knowledge in real-life situations that truly molds a nurse’s competence. Reflective essays allow students to explore the fusion of theory and practice, unravelling the threads that bind them together. This integration cultivates a deep understanding of the complexities and nuances of the nursing profession, enhancing the delivery of safe and patient-centred care.

Additionally, nursing reflective essays foster the development of critical thinking skills. As students contemplate their experiences, they analyse their actions, decisions, and outcomes. They question the effectiveness of their approaches, delve into the ethical implications of their choices, and navigate the multidimensional aspects of patient care. This introspective journey fuels a hunger for knowledge, propelling students towards evidence-based practice and empowering them to provide the highest quality of care.

Nursing reflective essays paint a vibrant portrait of the transformative power these writings hold for nursing students. With their ability to harmonize theory and practice, ignite critical thinking, and foster self-awareness, these essays become the compass guiding aspiring nurses towards their professional calling. So, join us as we embark on this enlightening voyage, unravelling the secrets of nursing reflective essays and unveiling the transformative potential they harbour for those destined to make a difference in the lives of others.

Elements of a Nursing Reflective Essay:

Now that we have set sail on the captivating journey of nursing reflective essays, let us delve deeper into the very elements that bring these essays to life. Within the tapestry of a well-crafted nursing reflective essay, several key elements intertwine, creating a harmonious composition that captures the essence of the nursing student’s experiences. So, allow me to unravel the intricacies of these elements, painting a vivid picture of their significance.

  1. Introduction

The voyage begins with a captivating introduction, setting the tone for the reflective essay. This opening paragraph serves as an invitation, enticing the reader to embark on a personal and introspective journey. It provides a brief overview of the experience to be explored, creating a sense of anticipation and curiosity.

  1. Description of the Situation

As we venture further, the essay unfolds, presenting a detailed description of the situation at hand. The nursing student paints a vivid picture, capturing the setting, the individuals involved, and any pertinent background information. Through skilful storytelling, the reader is transported into the very heart of the experience, gaining a clear understanding of the context and its significance.

  1. Sharing of Personal Feelings

Like brushstrokes on a canvas, the nursing student weaves their personal feelings and emotions into the fabric of the essay. This element offers an intimate glimpse into the student’s inner world, revealing their initial expectations, fears, joys, or uncertainties. By baring their soul, the student forges a connection with the reader, evoking empathy and fostering a deeper understanding of their journey.

  1. Evaluation of Experience

Moving beyond the surface, the nursing student engages in an honest evaluation of their experience. They assess their actions, decisions, and their impact on patient care. Were their interventions effective? Were there any ethical considerations? What challenges or obstacles did they encounter? By critically analysing their own performance, the student demonstrates a commitment to self-improvement and professional growth.

  1. Reflection

Ah, here lies the heart and soul of a nursing reflective essay – reflection. In this sacred space, the nursing student contemplates the deeper meaning of their experience. They ponder the lessons learned, the implications for their future practice, and the alignment with their personal and professional values. Through introspection, the student unveils the profound wisdom hidden within their journey, gaining insights that will shape their future actions.

  • Opportunities for Learning: Like hidden gems waiting to be discovered, the nursing reflective essay illuminates the opportunities for learning embedded within the experience. The student identifies the strengths and weaknesses revealed, discerns areas for improvement, and charts a path towards ongoing education and professional development. This element showcases the student’s commitment to continuous learning and their dedication to providing optimal care for their patients.

As the essay gracefully draws to a close, these elements intertwine, forming a cohesive narrative that captures the essence of the nursing student’s reflective journey. Each element contributes to the richness and depth of the essay, inviting the reader to ponder their own experiences, embrace self-reflection, and embark on their own path of growth.

So, dear readers, as we immerse ourselves in the elements of a nursing reflective essay, let us celebrate the beauty and transformative power of this introspective practice. Through the careful interplay of storytelling, self-examination, and the pursuit of knowledge, nursing students cultivate the seeds of personal and professional growth. Together, let us honour the journeys undertaken and the wisdom gained as we continue to unravel the mysteries of the nursing reflective essay.

Tips for Writing a Nursing Reflective Essay

Here are some tips for writing a nursing reflective essay:

  1. Choose a topic: Choose a topic that you want to reflect on. This could be a clinical experience, a patient encounter, or a personal experience related to nursing practice.
  2. Focus on personal experiences: Reflect on your personal experiences related to the topic. This will help you to write a more authentic and meaningful essay.
  3. Use descriptive language: Use descriptive language to describe the situation and your personal feelings. This will help to create a vivid picture for the reader.
  4. Be honest and reflective: Be honest about your experiences and reflect on what you learned from the situation. This will help you to identify areas for improvement and growth.
  5. Use a reflective model: Consider using a reflective model such as Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle or Johns’ Model of Reflection to structure your essay. This will help you to organize your thoughts and ensure that you cover all the necessary elements.
  6. Consider ethical considerations: Consider ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity when writing your essay.

Ethical Considerations

  1. Privacy: Safeguarding the privacy of patients and colleagues is paramount. To respect their privacy, avoid using real names or any identifying information that could potentially reveal their identity. Instead, use pseudonyms or generic descriptions. This ensures that the individuals involved remain anonymous and their personal information remains confidential.
  2. Confidentiality: Just as in professional practice, confidentiality is of utmost importance in nursing reflective essays. Refrain from sharing any confidential information that could potentially harm the patient or colleague. Exercise caution when discussing specific cases or situations and ensure that the essay is only shared with individuals who have a legitimate need to know, such as your instructors or mentors.
  3. Cultural Sensitivity: Nursing is a practice that embraces diversity and cultural sensitivity. When writing a nursing reflective essay, it is essential to consider the cultural background of the patient or colleague involved in the experience. Avoid making assumptions, generalizations, or stereotypes based on cultural background. Take into account how cultural beliefs, values, and practices may have influenced the situation and the perspectives of those involved.

By incorporating these ethical considerations into your nursing reflective essay, you demonstrate your commitment to upholding professional standards, respecting privacy and confidentiality, and embracing cultural diversity. These considerations not only ensure the ethical integrity of your writing but also contribute to creating a safe and inclusive environment for patients, colleagues, and readers alike.


As we reach the end of our enlightening journey, we would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude for joining us in exploring the significance of nursing reflective essays. We hope that this blog post has shed light on the transformative power of these essays and inspired you to embark on your own reflective journey.

Nursing reflective essays hold a special place in the realm of nursing education and professional development. They serve as catalysts for growth, allowing nursing students to reflect on their experiences, learn from their actions, and continually strive for excellence in patient care. Through introspection and critical analysis, these essays shape compassionate, knowledgeable, and culturally sensitive nurses who make a positive impact on the lives of their patients.

But, this is just the beginning. There is a wealth of knowledge awaiting you at We encourage you to explore our blog further, where you will find a plethora of insightful content designed to support and empower nursing students like you. From essay writing tips to clinical practice guidelines, our blog is a treasure trove of resources to enhance your nursing education and professional growth.

So, as you venture forth in your nursing journey, remember the power of reflection, the beauty of self-discovery, and the immense value of nursing reflective essays. Embrace the opportunities they present and let them be your guiding compass towards becoming the best nurse you can be.

Once again, we extend our heartfelt thanks for being a part of this exploration. May your nursing reflective essays be the stepping stones to a fulfilling and impactful nursing career. Visit to discover more insightful content and embark on a continuous path of learning and growth.

Wishing you success and fulfilment in your nursing endeavours.

With warm regards, The team

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Qualities of an Effective Nurse Leader

Qualities of an Effective Nurse Leader

Qualities of an Effective Nurse Leader

In today’s rapidly evolving healthcare landscape, the demand for effective nurse leaders has never been greater. These exceptional individuals play a crucial role in shaping the future of nursing and driving positive change in healthcare settings. As the need for competent and compassionate leaders continues to rise, the qualities and skills that define a nurse leader become paramount.

At, we understand the significance of nurse leadership and its impact on patient outcomes and the overall quality of care. Our company stands out as the best choice for your academic needs in the nursing field. With a team of top-class nursing paper writers, we offer comprehensive support and guidance to nursing students who aspire to become outstanding leaders in their profession. distinguishes itself by combining expertise in the nursing domain with a deep understanding of the academic requirements and expectations of students. Our writers possess extensive knowledge and experience in the nursing field, enabling them to deliver exceptional content that meets the highest standards of quality and professionalism.

Qualities of an Effective Nurse Leader

When you choose, you gain access to a wealth of resources, including well-researched articles, comprehensive guides, and expert insights on nurse leadership. Our commitment to excellence extends beyond meeting your academic needs; we strive to empower you with the knowledge and skills necessary to excel in your nursing career and make a positive impact on patient care.

With, you can expect personalized attention, timely delivery, and a seamless customer experience. We take pride in our ability to deliver customized writing services tailored to your specific requirements, ensuring that you receive the support you need to succeed academically.

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Join us at and unlock your potential as a future nurse leader. Together, let’s embark on a journey of academic excellence and professional growth that will shape the future of nursing and healthcare.

What is Nurse Leadership?

Nurse leadership is the embodiment of qualities and skills that enable nurses to guide, inspire, and motivate their teams towards delivering high-quality care in healthcare settings. Nurse leaders play a pivotal role in driving positive change, influencing the culture of care, and ensuring optimal patient outcomes.

At the core of nurse leadership is the ability to inspire and motivate others. Nurse leaders possess a unique blend of empathy, compassion, and effective communication skills, which enable them to build strong relationships with their team members. They create an environment that fosters collaboration, trust, and shared accountability, empowering each member to perform at their best.

The impact of nurse leadership on patient safety cannot be overstated. Nurse leaders establish protocols, monitor compliance, and champion a culture of safety within their units or organizations. By promoting evidence-based practice, adherence to guidelines, and continuous quality improvement, nurse leaders contribute to reducing medical errors, preventing adverse events, and enhancing patient outcomes.

In addition to patient safety, nurse leaders also influence staff morale and engagement. Through effective leadership practices, they recognize and appreciate the efforts of their team members, provide constructive feedback, and create opportunities for professional growth and development. By fostering a supportive and empowering work environment, nurse leaders contribute to higher job satisfaction, reduced burnout rates, and improved retention of nursing staff.

Moreover, nurse leadership plays a pivotal role in organizational success. Nurse leaders collaborate with other healthcare professionals, administrators, and stakeholders to align nursing services with the overall strategic goals of the organization. They advocate for nursing excellence, promote innovative practices, and contribute to achieving positive financial outcomes by optimizing resource utilization and operational efficiency.

The impact of nurse leadership goes beyond the immediate care setting. Nurse leaders influence the profession as a whole by shaping healthcare policies, participating in research initiatives, and driving initiatives that improve healthcare delivery. Their visionary leadership inspires others to strive for excellence and become advocates for patient-centered care.

leaders inspire, motivate, and guide their teams to deliver quality care, positively impacting patient safety, staff morale, and organizational success. Their ability to build strong relationships, foster collaboration, and drive positive change sets the stage for a healthcare system that continuously strives for excellence. At, we recognize the significance of nurse leadership and are committed to supporting nursing students in understanding and developing the qualities necessary to become exceptional nurse leaders

Qualities of a Nurse Leader

  1. Effective Communication

Nurse leaders must possess excellent communication skills to convey complex information to patients, staff, and other healthcare professionals.

  1. Critical Thinking

Nurse leaders must be able to analyse complex situations and make informed decisions that will positively impact patient outcomes.

  1. Emotional Intelligence

Nurse leaders must possess empathy, compassion, and a genuine concern for the well-being of others.

  1. Adaptability

Nurse leaders must be flexible and able to adapt to technological changes, fluctuating payment methods, new treatment modalities, and regulatory and legislative environments.

  1. Passion

Nurse leaders must have a deep passion for nursing and a commitment to excellence in patient care.

  1. Trustworthiness

Nurse leaders must be trustworthy and maintain high ethical standards.

  1. Approachability

Nurse leaders must be approachable and accessible to staff, patients, and other healthcare professionals.

What are common leadership styles?

Successful leadership in nursing recognizes that nursing staff and patients benefit from a cohesive health care team. To maximize staff potential and to optimize patient outcomes, nurse leaders need to understand different leadership styles. Once nurse leaders have a basic understanding of leadership styles, they can take a personal inventory of how they fall into styles and assess which styles could be beneficial in different clinical situations. The American Association of Nurse Assessment Coordination (AANAC) has identified five leadership styles in nursing.

Transformational Leadership in Nursing

Transformational leadership is a management style that focuses on motivating others. Instead of providing a detailed list of tasks, transformational leaders teach people how to think critically, which ultimately leads to internal motivation and innovation. Transformational nurse leaders lead by example but are consistently available for consultation and support.

Qualities of an Effective Nurse Leader

Democratic Leadership in Nursing

Nurses leaders that rely on the democratic leadership style place an emphasis on personal relationships. These leaders encourage communication from their team and strive to make team members feel comfortable voicing concerns, opinions, and ideas. They also listen attentively to feedback and try to incorporate it into the decision-making process.

Laissez-Faire Leadership in Nursing

Laissez-faire leadership, or “hands-off” leadership, is most often seen in new or inexperienced nurse leaders. Laissez-faire nursing leaders try to avoid micromanaging and trust that employees will come to them with questions or concerns. These leaders are not typically strong decision makers, but in environments with a high skill level among the staff it can be an effective leadership style.

Autocratic Leadership in Nursing

In contrast to the laissez-faire leadership style, autocratic leadership focuses on decision making, often without input from staff. Nursing leaders using the autocratic leadership style make firm decisions and do not welcome feedback. This leadership has little tolerance for mistakes and is useful in emergency situations.

Servant Leadership in Nursing

Servant leadership places an emphasis on influencing and motivating others by building relationships and developing their skills. The term servant leadership refers to being motivated to serve others. Servant leadership in nursing is seen in individuals who genuinely care about each team member and try to provide the resources and tools they need to succeed.

Why Nurse Leadership Matters

Nurse leadership is important because it drives positive changes in healthcare legislation and workplace culture. Nurse leaders inspire, influence, and motivate healthcare professionals as they work together to achieve their goals. They have a responsibility to resolve conflicts in order to maximize teamwork, enhance productivity, and increase patient satisfaction. Nurse leadership is also important in promoting education programs for leadership development to prepare nurse leaders at all levels with the leadership acumen to transform the healthcare system.

 Why Choose Nursing Paper Help?

At, we understand the importance of nursing leadership in providing quality care. We are committed to providing top-class academic writing services that meet the needs of nursing students. Our team of experienced writers is dedicated to delivering high-quality papers that meet your academic requirements. We offer a wide range of services, including nursing essays, research papers, and capstone projects, among others. We are committed to excellence in nursing education and are the best choice for your academic needs.

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Emerging Technology Brief – Robotics

Emerging Technology Brief – Robotics

New health care innovations offer the advanced registered nurse an opportunity to apply emerging technologies in practice to improve quality and patient outcomes. For this assignment, research an emerging health care technology that you think has the potential to overcome current or emerging barriers to care.

Write a 500-word brief that provides an overview of the technology, its purpose, and how it would function in a health care setting, including any ethical or legal issues that would accompany the incorporation of the technology. Discuss how this technology could improve access to care and promote patient safety and quality.

Refer to the Topic 6 materials for samples and resources to help you construct your brief.

You are required to cite three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.


Writing an Issue Brief

The issue brief is a short, written document that:

  • states the issue for consideration;
  • indicates a recommendation for action;
  • provides supporting information relevant to the issue and recommendation;
  • lists references for the supporting information and other resources as necessary; and provides contact information.

To be effective the length of an issue brief should be no more than two pages (front and back of one sheet of paper). That is why they are sometimes referred to as one-pagers.

If the issue brief is to be used among members of an organization the information presented in the issue brief should be consistent with and reflect any organizational policy or agenda.

The information presented in an issue brief can be assembled by using the information used in the development of an organizations advocacy agenda.

The Framework of an Issue Brief

Issue State the issue for consideration. Briefly state what is important to you in the context of a current public policy issue and the relevance of the issue to your intended audience.

Recommendation State the action you seek in connection with the above-stated issue. The recommendation may indicate the continuation, elimination, or amending of the issue.

Emerging Technology Brief – Robotics

Current Law List any current law or regulatory framework that authorizes or supports the issue.

Background Provide supporting information relevant to the issue and recommendation:

  • List any organizational policy that supports or is relevant to the issue;
  • List the actions you employ or activities in which you engage in that demonstrate the importance of that issue to you;
  • List the current evidence-base that supports your actions or activities or suggests that these actions or activities lead to a given outcome; and
  • List the evidence-base used to establish the laws or regulatory framework listed above.


  • List the appropriate citations for the evidence-base you provide within the issue brief.
  • List any additional resources that you deem important to support your recommendation.

Contact Information List the individuals the recipient of the issue brief can contact for more information about the issue.



Emerging Technology Brief

One technological advancement that have proven to be highly effective in healthcare is the use of robotics. Robotics are machines designed and engineered to perform automated cognitive and physical functions, and they are used in performing a wide range of activities (Stahl & Coeckelbergh, 2016). In hospitals, they assist in providing quality and safe care, as well as reducing the routine tasks that health practitioners handle in their work environment (Martin, 2016). Most importantly, the use of robots in health centers is significant due to the shortage of personnel. As Stahl and Coeckelbergh (2016) note, one important aspect of providing care is the need to have a safe staff-patient ratio to assist in reducing burnouts and providing personalized care. With the introduction of robots, health personnel are not overworked, and tasks are completed much faster hence reducing congestion in various departments.

Research Paper Help

Different types of robots can be used for different tasks in the health centers. For example, with the introduction of the da Vinci surgical system, surgical processes are done easily, faster, and in a safe manner. Further, since the purpose of health providers is ensuring health, various activities like packaging should be automated to prevent the possibility of increased contamination (Stahl & Coeckelbergh, 2016). For this, some of the robotic technology that can be applied is the use of Cabots; these assist in product packaging and are more preferable since they provide a sterile environment. With such medical processes are not only made safer, but also cost-efficient since it reduces the need for hiring many health providers (Martin, 2016).


Further, to monitor a patient’s vital statistics, robotic medical assistants are placed in different departments to ensure the nurses are notified of any changes in a patient’s room. Unlike focusing on one patient at a time, nurses are able to check on various patients at the same time (Varshney, 2014). In addition to this, the robotic assistants collect patient information and maintain electronic health records. Since the assistants have in different health centers proven effective, one recommendation that can be made is the use of robotic carts to carry food, medicine, and other supplies in hospitals.

Emerging Technology Brief – Robotics

Clearly, the use of robotics in health provision has proven beneficial in varying ways. However, various ethical concerns also arise based on how robots replace labor. In a health care setting, health practitioners are trained to be empathetic and provide warm care (Stahl & Coeckelbergh, 2016). Although robots assist in improving quality and patient safety, they are not emotional and hence, not in a position to provide better care as the one given by human beings. The machines are too mechanical and cannot identify with patient needs and behaviors. Further, compared to human beings, they are not able to reason morally in case of ethical situations and lack autonomy sense (Stahl & Coeckelbergh, 2016). Other ethical issues arise from the objectives of advocating for such technologies in various areas. Although robots improve quality and reduce cost, they are also a challenge since they replace human beings hence reducing employment opportunities (Martin, 2016). Therefore, as organizations enjoy the benefits of such technologies, it is also important to understand the ethical concerns.




Martin, P. O. H. L. (2016). Robotic Systems in Healthcare with Particular Reference to

Innovation in the ‘Fourth Industrial Revolution.’ Journal of International and Advanced Japanese Studies, 8, 17-33.

Stahl, B. C., & Coeckelbergh, M. (2016). Ethics of healthcare robotics: Towards responsible

research and innovation. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 86, 152-161.

Varshney, U. (2014). Mobile health: Four emerging themes of research. Decision Support

Systems, 66, 20-35.



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Greatest challenge for women in the world or in America today

Greatest challenge for women in the world or in America today

It’s an English assignment on Sex trafficking and the Title is

What is the greatest challenge or problem for women in the world or in America today? I attached the instructions as well as the research paper. Please let me know if I need to make corrections or if I need to add more info. She wants it on MLA format

First Quarter Research Paper Assignment

English Composition

1.) You will write a research paper on the following topic: What is the greatest challenge or problem for women in the world or in America today?





5.) The last part of your paper will be to discuss what your opinion is.   You can take any position across the spectrum.  It doesn’t have to be an extreme position either way.  It can be in a middle ground.  THIS PART OF THE PAPER MUST BE YOUR OWN WRITING.  NO SOURCES HERE.  IT IS ALSO NOT YOUR CONCLUSION.  THE CONCLUSION IS A SEPARATE PART, AND WILL PROBABLY BE ONLY ONE PARAGRAPH.

6.) The hardest part of writing a paper is looking through the sources.  You have to develop your own method.  I used to copy potential quotes into my notebook and later my laptop.  Many people use index cards.  Keep track of where you are getting the quotes because you need to cite them in your paper.  Most databases give you all the information you need for your citation.

7.) It is much better to use books, newspapers, and magazines from the library or our databases.  If you use Google, you may only use information from an established news source, as stated above in boldface.

      8.) Your paper must have an introduction in which you introduce all aspects of the

paper.  You must also have a creative, interesting conclusion.

9.) You need at least three sources in total.  The paper should be a minimum of 5 pages, plus a Works Cited page, so the total is really 6 pages.

10.) You must use MLA style. We will go over MLA style in class.

11.) Remember, any idea that is not your own must be cited and listed in the Works Cited      page.



14.) PLAGIARISM – We will discuss this in class, but just in summary – If you plagiarize in your research paper, then you are really intending to cheat and “get one over” on the teacher.  I don’t believe there is such a thing as “unintentional plagiarism.”  This is a research paper.  I know that you are using other sources.  All your teacher wants you to do is cite these sources.  If you leave off the quotation marks and leave off the source, then you are trying to pass off someone else’s writing as your own.



Greatest challenge or problem for women in the world or in America today

In the contemporary world, women are often involved in all parts of the society. However, there are some matters which often affect these women in different magnitude. The challenges ranges from the power for women to vote to reproductive rights as well as yap gap. The consistency of these issues has been addressed in different international platforms to improve the existing challenges that women experience in the world. therefore, it is essential to understand sex trafficking as one of the greatest challenges affecting women in the United States of America.

One of the greatest challenges some women face in the world and in the United States is sex trafficking. Sex trafficking can be described as type of human trafficking which consist of commercial sexual exploitation which takes place in the United States of America and other parts of the world.  Similarly, these activities involve the transportation of people through the means of deception, coercion or even forceful exploitation to other places in the world (Fedina, Celia and Perdue 2360). the people associated with sex trafficking often target women and girls because they are considered to the most vulnerable individuals. Their main in the trade is to obtain wealth and power around the world. as a result, it has been considered to be a big problem for women in the United States and all around the world. substantially this is because they undergo or being drugged, beaten, raped, starved, abused, get sexual transmitted diseases and kidnapped (Fedina, Celia and Perdue 2360). Notably, the background for these victims is that they come from poverty and some girls often escape from their homes to join the activity without intent of knowing what would happen next. In some cases, some women and girls are being sold by their family members into the sex trade business (Fedina, Celia and Perdue 2360). This tradition can be traced from the early slavery trade which took place in Africa where women were caught and being sold to cross through Atlantic to get into the sex trade business. However, it is essential to note that in the U.S. many advocates are trying to end the illegal trade business because many women have become the victim. According to Geoff Rogers, cofounder of the United States Institute Against Human Trafficking, “the United States is the No. 1 consumer of sex worldwide” since the society have become part of the driving force behind its generation (Keiper, Andrew & Perry Chiaramonte, par. 5).


Sex trafficking continues to be a problem with the societies in the global and United States of America due to various measures taken by the involved individuals in the activity. The industry is considered to be a multi-million-dollar business for these involved people. Besides, there returns on the activity has proven to yield more profits than expected ordinary business activities. They are desperate to make money and will do or take any necessary action to achieve their mission (Varma et al. 99). Notably, most of the involved individuals in the sex trafficking are mainly the criminal organizations. The margins for profits are increasingly high for this business. However, despite the involvement of women and girls being trafficked, they don’t make money in this business.  These sex traffickers are evil in regards to their actions since they do not care about the age of girls being used in the trading activity (Varma et al. 103). Many women are victims of this horrific act and it is essential for them to be identified to get support from these criminal gangs misusing their lives.

The traffickers in this business have measures and mechanisms to manipulate the system in their favor. Substantially this is another issue which makes sex trafficking to continue in the contemporary world. further, they know their way into powerful leaders and government officials.  Many sex traffickers are aware of the fact that some women are desperate to make money because their poverty background. Some of the actively involved women would also use or lure other girls to obtain or get favors for nit directly being involved in the activity. As a result, it enables them to continue with the activity in the long run. According to Julie Bindel, “One Albanian woman told me that the only way she could escape her own trafficker after five years in London brothel was to agree to return home and bring back fresh victims. “I had to go to my town and tell the girls there that I knew from school that there were great opportunities in the UK for them, you know, as waitresses and even as dancers,” says Elda” (Bindel par. 8). There are extreme actions which some of these women would use to escape can be harmful when they are caught. There is no win/lose situation for the victim because the trafficker is only thinking about making money. This issue continues to be a problem for women because it’s a multi-billion-dollar industry for the traffickers.

Greatest challenge for women in the world or in America today

The responsible agencies dealing with such cases in the world should develop essential solution to prevent cases of sex trafficking in the world. the concern from the individuals saves from this experience depict hash conditions undergone that needs to be addressed by both the lobbyists and legislatures in most countries in the world (Nichols, and Heil 15). substantially, this is because it is a serious crime and these criminals should be severely punished for life because they are damaging the lives of so many women that are in the industry. There are a few possible solutions that we can prevent sex trafficking in the world.  Learning the indicators of human trafficking is one of the potential measures which needs to be put into consideration. There are different parties who should participate to ensure these indicators are determined accordingly (Nichols, and Heil 15). These may consist of law enforcement agencies, educators, federal workers as well as the entire society suspicious of these activities around their neighborhood. The need to promote education regarding this issue should be the primary focus to detect the possibility of the matter. Nonetheless, the collaboration of these parties would be useful to successfully improve the concern of preventing sex trafficking.Greatest challenge for women in the world or in America today

The establishment of promotional programs within the society is the way to prevent sex trafficking claims.  The benefit of this is to involve people in the communities’ help stop this crime faster. Having more advertisement and also donating to anti-trafficking organizations will push more people to help around the world. We can spread awareness in areas that we feel that sex-trafficking is being targeted the most. The other measure to the solution is to take action on colleges, schools and other institutions to establish awareness campaign on human trafficking which leads to sex trafficking among women and girls (Bryant et al. 19). The involvement of College students will make a difference for young women because people will take them seriously to fight this crime. Once students get involve many parents and family members want to participate in helping the community. Even celebrities can get involve since many people look up to them as role model. Some women are lure into thinking they going to work as models or make a lot of money working for a good company (Bindel par. 12).  The promise given to most young innocent girls deceived for sex trafficking is mainly jobs which would sustain their families. The feeling to know that some people are being used and sold like products is not ethically correct. Therefore, developing these initiatives needs to be implemented to minimize or prevent the situation completely within the society. The U.S need to have more advertising on sex trafficking and they need to educate our children in school districts and at job sites as well (Keiper & Chiaramonte par. 9). Just like we have Amber Alerts we need to have alerts traffickers because this demand is becoming increasing high. The government needs to make this their top priority to stop sex trafficking all around the world

Sex trafficking is not an ethical activity because it violates human rights in the world. Therefore, I feel sex trafficking is a crime and holding someone against their own will is ethically wrong. People should be allowed or given the freedom to do their activities at will or have sex at will. I feel we should all come as a whole and be better advocates of sex trafficking. The media needs to get more involve and we need to have sex trafficking awareness in every community (Bryant et al. 18). The media should hold interviews with woman that have escaped the industry and talk to schools’ officials about how they can help and become more involve. I feel the government should also get involve and reach out to small or big businesses on how they can help to spread the word. There should also be classes taught in all school districts on how to avoid a trafficker if students come in contact with a trafficker. These classes would be helpful to many young students (Bryant et al. 19). We also need to talk to the victims and ask them if they would be interested talking to students in schools’ districts about their experience and alarm them of the red flags when being approach from a sex trafficker

Greatest challenge for women in the world or in America today

The government should provide more employment opportunities to people so that sex trafficking can be minimized in the long run. There are measures which needs to be put into consideration to prevent cases of sex trafficking of women and young girls. The first step is to look at social media and determine ways to stop cases of human trafficking (Bryant et al. 19). The involved criminals should be investigated by the relevant agencies in the world such as the FBI across the world. developing programs which can undercover these operations should be implemented and approved by the government agencies and authorities to help the affected individuals (Nichols, and Heil 15). We should also put our focus on the victim health conditions too because they will need psychological help. These women will need years of intensive treatment to recover from their pain. It’s important that we make sure the victims mental health is not causing them any harm. Experts need to make sure that the women affected by this crime have a normal life as much as possible because the goal is to make them feel protected. It’s a shame to think that human trafficking is considered to be the modern-day slave trade. This problem is so big all across the world and the United States. The government needs to illegalize this crime because this is forced labor. Not much have been done to end this horrific act. No woman or girl should ever be kidnapped from any part of the world to make money. It is an inhumane act and I believe in we should respect our rights in every aspect of our lives. I believe together we can fight sex trafficking and help the victims that are being dragged into this industry. If we can sign into our social media account every day, we should have a page dedicated on social media on women or girls that have been kidnapped (Nichols & Heil 15). Then we should send alerts on our phones to friends and family members to remind them that this industry must end and to help find the victims. Hearing it on the news or just talking about it every now and then is not good enough to spread the word. Not everyone is paying as much attention but uniting a whole will make a difference to end this heinous act. The government needs to protect our citizens and crack down on those involve in this crime.



Works Cited

Bindel, Julie. “Women Sex Trafficking Other Women: The Problem Is Getting Worse.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Apr. 2013

Bryant, Chelsea, et al. “Societal statement on the role of occupational therapy with survivors of human sex trafficking in the United States.” OCCUPATION: A Medium of Inquiry for Students, Faculty & Other Practitioners Advocating for Health through Occupational Studies vol.1, no.1, (2015), pp.18-19.

Fedina, Lisa, Celia Williamson, and Tasha Perdue. “Risk factors for domestic child sex trafficking in the United States.” Journal of interpersonal violence vol.34, no.13, (2019) pp.2653-2673

Keiper, Andrew & Perry Chiaramonte. “Human Trafficking in America among Worst in   World: Report.” Fox News, FOX News Network, 23 June 2019,

Nichols, Andrea J., and Erin C. Heil. “Challenges to identifying and prosecuting sex trafficking cases in the Midwest United States.” Feminist criminology vol.10, no.1, (2015), pp. 7-35.


Varma, Selina, et al. “Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States.” Child abuse & neglect vol.44, (2015), pp.98-105.




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Affordable Care Act Policy Evaluation

Affordable Care Act Policy Evaluation

Program/policy evaluation is a valuable tool that can help strengthen the quality of programs/policies and improve outcomes for the populations they serve. Program/policy evaluation answers basic questions about program/policy effectiveness. It involves collecting and analyzing information about program/policy activities, characteristics, and outcomes. This information can be used to ultimately improve program services or policy initiatives.

Nurses can play a very important role assessing program/policy evaluation for the same reasons that they can be so important to program/policy design. Nurses bring expertise and patient advocacy that can add significant insight and impact. In this Assignment, you will practice applying this expertise and insight by selecting an existing healthcare program or policy evaluation and reflecting on the criteria used to measure the effectiveness of the program/policy.


To Prepare:

  • Review the Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation Analysis Template provided in the Resources.
  • Select an existing healthcare program or policy evaluation or choose one of interest to you and get approval to use it from your Instructor.
  • Review the healthcare program or policy evaluation and reflect on the criteria used to measure the effectiveness of the program or policy described.

The Assignment: (2–3 pages)

Based on the program or policy evaluation you selected, complete the Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation Analysis Template. Be sure to address the following:

  • Describe the healthcare program or policy outcomes.
  • How was the success of the program or policy measured?
  • How many people were reached by the program or policy selected?
  • How much of an impact was realized with the program or policy selected?
  • At what point in program implementation was the program or policy evaluation conducted?
  • What data was used to conduct the program or policy evaluation?
  • What specific information on unintended consequences was identified?
  • What stakeholders were identified in the evaluation of the program or policy? Who would benefit most from the results and reporting of the program or policy evaluation? Be specific and provide examples.
  • Did the program or policy meet the original intent and objectives? Why or why not?
  • Would you recommend implementing this program or policy in your place of work? Why or why not?
  • Identify at least two ways that you, as a nurse advocate, could become involved in evaluating a program or policy after 1 year of implementation.

Affordable Care Act Policy Evaluation

(notes, please use the template).



Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation Analysis


Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation  

Evaluation of The Affordable Care Act (ACA)Policy

Description Patient protection and Affordable Health Care Act, also popularly known as ‘Obama Care’ is a health policy that was signed into law by President Barrack Obama on 23rd March, 2010. At the moment, the policy stands out as the most extensive in the United States’ healthcare system since the approval of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965. The impacts of the policy have been vast and wide. The most significant element of the policy is that it provides subsidies which make healthcare insurance affordable (Blumenthal et Al., 2015). Another aspect of the policy is that it emphasizes on preventive care by improving legislations that govern how the care itself is delivered.



How was the success of the program or policy measured?


The success of the ACA policy can only be effectively measured by considering how much it reduces the number of uninsured people and if it improves the quality of care, whose availability will be at a low cost. Its success will also be quantified by reviewing the federal and state budget s which will take several tears to be noticeable. Basically, it can be said that the policy has been successful at availing affordable care to millions of Americans. This is because, following its introduction, more than 20million people have been able to access healthcare insurance with more medical coverage. In addition, those where poorly insured get a chance to access quality medical insurance at a relatively low cost.
How many people were reached by the program or policy selected? How much of an impact was realized with the program or policy selected?


Before the implementation of ACA, may people were uninsured due to the loopholes in the public insurance system, and inaccessibility to affordable health insurance. The ACA policy has demonstrated the largest gains in coverage in the history of United States’ healthcare. The policy extended medical coverage to low income earners and provided subsidies to the people below 400% of poverty. For instance, after it was signed in 2010, the number of uninsured elderly people reduced from 44 million in 2013 to 27 million in 2016.
What data was used to conduct the program or policy evaluation?


Evaluation of a healthcare policy involves a thorough activity of gathering, examining, and the use of evidence based data to come up with answers to some fundamental questions arising from the policy. Policy evaluations may be of various types such as process and outcome evaluations, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness evaluations, and formative and summative evaluations. In terms of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness, the ACA demands for all insurance companies to scrap off annual and lifetime limits and cover all costs to reduce the unnecessary catastrophic costs for individuals (French et Al., 2016).
What specific information on unintended consequences were identified?


Healthcare providers continue to utilize several strategies to adapt and remain compliant to the requirements of the ACA policy. However, as the policy continues to take root, it yields to unintended consequences. These include continuity of care whereby different organizations are unable to offer consistent care, which often arises from transferring patients from system to system (Dubois, 2015). Another consequence is the outpatient treatment. The policy advocates for 60% outpatient care and 40% in patient, which is a disadvantage since most patients view hospitals as safer places of in case of adverse reactions, a sense of security that they may not have with outpatient facilities.


What stakeholders were identified in the evaluation of the program or policy? Who would benefit most from the results and reporting of the program or policy evaluation? Be specific and provide examples.


The main stakeholders in the ACA policy are patients, insurance companies, healthcare providers, and the government (Weiner et Al., 2017). The patients benefit most from ACA because it minimizes the rise in healthcare costs making it accessible even to low income earners.
Did the program or policy meet the original intent and objectives? Why or why not?



The policy has certainly met its original intent by a considerable percentage. A lot of reforms are evident in the healthcare sector courtesy of the ACA policy. For instance, the number of uninsured people has relatively reduced from 44 million in 2013 to 27 million in 2016.


Would you recommend implementing this program or policy in your place of work? Why or why not?


I would recommend implementation of some of the provisions of the ACA policy like improving communication when dealing with low literacy patients. This assist in improving patient care, and satisfaction thus promoting a good public reputation for the institution.


Identify at least two ways that you, as a nurse advocate, could become involved in evaluating a program or policy after one year of implementation.


As a nurse, I would compare the financial input and outcomes in the organizations utilizing the ACA provisions. I would also look at the labor costs to establish if the healthcare facilities incur positive or negative financial impacts. Secondly, I would also have a look at the patient outcomes before and after implementation of ACA policy provisions.


General Notes/Comments The ACA policy has generally improved the health sector of the United States in terms of accessibility and affordability. Health facilities are encouraged to continue implementing the provisions of the policy to improve patient care and satisfaction.




Blumenthal, D., Abrams, M., & Nuzum, R. (2015). The affordable care act at 5 years.

Dubois, R. W. (2015). The Affordable Care Act: how can we know whether the intended consequences are occurring and the unintended ones are being avoided? Clinical therapeutics37(4), 747-750. Retrieved from

French, M. T., Homer, J., Gumus, G., & Hickling, L. (2016). Key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): a systematic review and presentation of early research findings. Health services research51(5), 1735-1771. Doi: 10.1108/IJHCQA-01-2014-01109

Weiner, J., Marks, C., & Pauly, M. (2017). Effects of the ACA on Health Care Cost Containment. LDI issue brief24(4), 1-7. Retrieved from https://www.bls.lov/ois/oes_emp.htm




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Group Therapy Progress Documentation and Analysis

Group Therapy Progress Documentation and Analysis

Students will:

  • Develop effective documentation skills for group therapy sessions *
  • Develop diagnoses for clients receiving group psychotherapy *
  • Evaluate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for groups *
  • Analyze legal and ethical implications of counseling clients with psychiatric disorders *

Select two clients you observed or counseled this week during a group therapy session. Note: The two clients you select must have attended the same group session (group therapy session about drug addiction)

Then, in your Practicum Journal, address the following:

  • Using the Group Therapy Progress Note (see file downloaded) document the group session.
  • Describe each client (without violating HIPAA regulations), and identify any pertinent history or medical information, including prescribed medications.
  • Using the DSM-5, explain and justify your diagnosis for each client.
  • Explain whether cognitive behavioral therapy would be effective with this group. Include expected outcomes based on this therapeutic approach.
  • Explain any legal and/or ethical implications related to counseling each client.
  • Support your approach with evidence-based literature.



Group Therapy Progress Note American Psychological Association

Client: Mr. JJ and Mr. Q                                                   Date: 21/10/19

Group name:  Achievers                                         Minutes: 45

Group session: 1                                                Meeting attended for this client: 1

Number present in group 2 of 2      scheduled Start time: 10:00 AM           End time: 10:45

Assessment of client

  1. Participation level: ❑ Active/eager ❑ Variable ❑ only responsive ❑ Minimal ❑ Withdrawn
  2. Participation quality: ❑ Expected ❑ Supportive ❑ sharing ❑ Attentive ❑ Intrusive ❑ monopolizing ❑ Resistant ❑ other: _____________________________________
  3. Mood: ❑ Normal ❑ Anxious ❑ Depressed ❑ Angry ❑ Euphoric ❑ Other: _______________
  4. Affect: ❑ Normal ❑ Intense ❑ Blunted ❑ Inappropriate ❑ Labile ❑ Other: _______________
  5. Mental status: ❑ Normal ❑ Lack awareness ❑ Memory problems ❑ disoriented ❑ confused ❑ disorganized ❑ Vigilant ❑ Delusions ❑ Hallucinations ❑ Other: __________________
  6. Suicide/violence risk: ❑ Almost none ❑ Ideation ❑ Threat ❑ Rehearsal ❑ Gesture ❑ Attempt
  7. Change in stressors: ❑ less severe/fewer ❑ Different stressors ❑ More/more severe ❑ Chronic
  8. Change in coping ability/skills: ❑ No change ❑ Improved ❑ Less able ❑ Much less able
  9. Change in symptoms: ❑ same ❑ Less severe ❑ Resolved ❑ More severe ❑ Much worse
  10. Other observations/evaluations: patients are willing to make a change in their lives.

Group Psychotherapy is concerned with various strategies that are used in helping individuals have a safe and trustworthy forum where they would interact with each other and help each other. The group session as made up of people who were battling addiction with a majority of them having an alcohol addiction.

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Description of the Clients

One of the group members was known as Mr. JJ, a 34-year-old man who experiences insomnia. History reveals that he is very worried that he may end up losing his job and he is also unable to control the worry. The worry makes him experience challenges sleeping and therefore he would take alcohol so that he can sleep. He, therefore, began by consuming alcohol as a self-cure for insomnia but he became dependent.

The second client is Mr. Q and he is a 36-year old man who has been experiencing challenges in his marriage for a long time. He describes his wife as nagging and always complaining about the things that he cannot do for her. This makes him prefer to drown his sorrows in alcohol so that he can forget about the treatment at home. He does not want to divorce his wife because his parents had a divorce and it negatively affected him.


Mr. JJ needs a dual diagnosis because he presents mental issues, i.e. depression and anxiety, in addition to alcohol use and therefore has a co-occurring disorder. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), (2013), the diagnostic criterion for insomnia is where there are complains that the patient is not satisfied with the quantity of sleep that they get or the quality. At the same time, Khurshid (2018) establishes that depression can present as insomnia and hence Mr. JJ was screened for depression. People with mental issues tend to take alcohol because of its stimulating effect so that it can help them sleep (Jacobson and Newman, 2014). Mr. Q is diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder because of the stress that he receives at home which makes him want to be away. According to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (2013), post-traumatic stress disorder is said to be present when the patient has experienced an actual exposure to a stressful event. In his case, the trauma is from the divorce that the parents had.


In-session procedures:

For this people Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) will be employed and it involves activities that will aim at exploring the negative thoughts that an individual has and replaces them with thoughts that are positive and that will play a role in creating favorable behaviors and emotions ( Patterson, 2014). Cognitive-behavioral therapy would be effective for the treatment of addiction because it is instrumental in helping them to find the relationship between their actions, thoughts and feelings and how they impact recovery. This is because CBT is based on the idea that the feelings, as well as the behaviors of an individual, are caused by their thoughts. Therefore, while they may not be able to change their circumstances they should be able to change their thoughts about them. The expected outcome is that there will be skills learned on how to cope with the issues that they go through. They will, therefore, not need to use alcohol as a coping mechanism.


  1. To talk with the spouses about the issues that they think they can change
  2. Be more open and spend time at home
  3. Appreciate the spouses more and try to make time to do the things they all used to love

Group Therapy Progress Documentation and Analysis

Other comments:

Legal and ethical issues have been considered.

An ethical requirement for both clients is to ensure that they sign an informed consent form. This means that they will have made an informed decision to be part of the psychotherapy group. It also confirms that their participation is voluntary and rational. This is also important because it helps them to have an increased sense of ownership over the process.

The ethical issue will involve giving both of them a safe and confidential opportunity to express his concerns, fears, and issues. Privacy and confidentiality will be ensured as this is an ethical requirement for psychotherapists. As a result, everything that is discussed will be kept secret and will not be disseminated to any other person


Signatures     …………………………                              Date………/………../……….


Group Therapy Progress Documentation and Analysis


American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, DSM-5. (5th edition). Washington, DC American Psychiatric Association.    ISBN-13: 978-8123923796

Jacobson, N. C., & Newman, M. G. (2014). Avoidance mediates the relationship between

Anxiety and depression over a decade later. Journal of anxiety disorders, 28(5), 437-445. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.03.007

Khurshid K. A. (2018). Comorbid Insomnia and Psychiatric Disorders: An Update. Innovations

in clinical neuroscience, 15(3-4), 28–32.

Levi, O., Bar‐Haim, Y., Kreiss, Y., & Fruchter, E. (2016). Cognitive–behavioural therapy and

psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment of combat‐related post‐traumatic stress disorder: A comparative effectiveness study. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 23(4), 298-307.


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WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

Please review the annotated bibliography handout. Use the academic search complete database–accessible through the college–to find an article related to the position you plan to take in your argument research essay. Remember to follow the library research guidelines for finding a”scholarly journal” article on your topic.

Once you find and read the article, write an annotation which includes the MLA citation and a 100-150 word descriptive and evaluative paragraph.

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FYI: Enclosed is the college’s library website page:


Research essay-article topic/ article webpage: Fake News Outcry is Misguided



WK 8 Assignments – Annotated Bibliography

Harsin, Jayson. “A critical guide to fake news: From comedy to tragedy.” Pouvoirs, 1 (2018):



The author discusses in depth the issue of “fake news” and starts by describing its history and use in comedy. He then presents that fake news has a negative impact on contemporary democracy. It establishes that fake news has the ability to capture the attention of eth audience and consequently the audience views it in a particular light.  Another major issue with fake news is that it produces some form of false belief about an issue and consequently the false belief brings about confusion among the members of society. The author brings out that the fake news detriment, the audience tends to neglect the issue of politicians who choose to create and suppress realities.  The article also suggests ways in which the issue can be addressed including the use of Artificial Intelligence solutions, which would be trained so as to weed out any fake news as soon as it is posted or uploaded.





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Marketing and the Health Care System

Marketing and the Health Care System

Select a health care provided with which you are familiar and write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:  Determine the direct impact of marketing for the health care provider you selected.  Outline a strategy for the health care provider you selected to determine the utilization of its products or services.  Outline a marketing strategy for the health care provider you selected.  Recommend at least three (3) separate ways the health care provider you selected could shape the buying decisions of its customers.  Provide at least three (3) qualified sources, e.g., peer-reviewed journals, professional organization Website, or health care provider Websites.  Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:  This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.  Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow SWS or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.  Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.



Healthcare and Marketing


Marketing has become an essential aspect of healthcare facilities in the recent past. Although the concept is crucial, it is still challenging for facilities, especially when trying to understand the impact of their strategies to the targeted market. It is viewed that marketing is not only about reviewing the purchasing behavior of customers. It involves understanding their behavior in their daily habits. In that regard, the application of educational techniques has become an important aspect of healthcare marketing.  The pharmaceutical industry is viewed to entail customers who make informed decisions when choosing healthcare products. This aspect makes the facilities in the sector to employ effective tactics to enhance their sustainability (Yaaminidevi, 2014). The paper tries to evaluate the direct impact of marketing strategies for Handa Pharmaceuticals, California. In addition, it provides a strategy for utilization of its products and ways to improve customer buying decisions.

Direct Impact of Marketing

Handa Pharmaceuticals needs to develop different marketing strategies for its products. Since the targeted market for the firm’s products is considered to be educated, the firm needs to engage in branding services for its drugs. This act can lead to an increase in product sales. Moreover, there may be an improved customer loyalty to the firm’s products. This perspective shows that the firm’s marketing strategies may try to provide a positive impact. From another perspective, it can be viewed that the firm can employ integrated marketing communication. This move may lead to improved advertisement used by the facility. As a result, more people may become aware of the firm’s brand. Therefore, more people will come to the facility for its products due to an increased awareness (Yaaminidevi, 2014).

Marketing and the Health Care System

The facility may also engage in corporate social responsibility. This aspect involves engagement in actions focusing on the well-being of the community and general society. Some of the efforts involved in this act may include the reduction of its product’s price when a client has been diagnosed. Marketing may provide important information to the customers, thereby saving time that would be used to explain to them at the facility.  In addition, the practice will provide customers with vital information on reliable products that may improve their health. Due to the existence of competition in the pharmaceutical industry, marketing will have a significant impact on the customers because there will be an increased awareness of its products (Sana & Panda, 2015).

Strategy for Utilization of Products

Understanding of how the customers utilize the organization’s products is essential for the management. This aspect will enable the facility to develop a suitable strategy to meet the customers’ needs.  A suitable strategy for evaluating customer utilization of the firm’s products is the analysis of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is opined to be  the perceived value and response towards a product or service. Customer satisfaction in the healthcare industry is focused on the level at which the expectations of a client are fulfilled by the product or service. Therefore, improving customer satisfaction can be opined to be an essential aspect in gaining customer loyalty and improving their desire to buy a firm’s products (Williams et al., 2018).

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Analysis of customer satisfaction may be obtained by studying the records of the firm’s marketing department. The records are opined to provide information on different channels of advertising used, the number of customers that bought the product, and the frequency of purchases done by the market. This feature will enable the management to get a clue of whether the customers were satisfied with the product or not. Another technique to understand customer satisfaction may be the engagement of a marketing research to understand the purchasing trends of the customers. The research may also be used to interview the customers to gain their opinion on how the products meet their needs. Online interaction with the customers on the facility’s website may also be utilized to understand customer satisfaction of the firm’s products (Williams et al., 2018).

Marketing and the Health Care System

Suitable Marketing Strategy

Different marketing strategies may be essential for the organization. However, social media marketing is the most appropriate technique for the marketing of its products. This strategy involves the use of social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook for marketing. It is considered to be one of the latest tactics for promoting healthcare products and services. The technique is suitable because there is advancement in the use of personal computers and smartphones by the targeted market. This feature tries to depict that social media marketing may enable the facility to reach a wider audience (Yaaminidevi, 2014).

It is opined that the targeted market tries to make informed decisions due to its educational level. This aspect shows that the market needs a platform where an interaction between the market and the facility can be enhanced. Through the development of social media pages and groups, the organization can be able to clarify various issues associated with its products.  It can be opined that the connection developed by this type of promotion is suitable in making most of the people in the targeted market to be aware of the organization’s services (Yaaminidevi, 2014).

Ways to Shape Buying Decisions

Since the potential customers for the company’s products are observed to be educated, they need tactical ways to sway their decisions. The following ways are recommended for the firm:-

Use of a reliable communication technique:  Without a suitable communication technique, the marketing process may not be successful. The targeted customers are observed to be formal workers in various sectors. Therefore, it is postulated that most of them will be busy during the week days. In that regard, marketing of the products will require short posts that are straight to the point. This aspect will help save time for the consumers (Yaaminidevi, 2014).


Development of a suitable brand image:  A suitable branding of the firm’s products will act as a sign of confidence for their usage. With a good brand, customers will have positive perceptions of the product’s quality. In addition, the brand will be held in the consumer’s memory and affect his or her overall impression. Since a brand is difficult to be imitated, it will be helpful in maintaining customers who can relate with it. Therefore, the goal of branding for the product will be to develop a consistent perception of the product, hence swaying the consumers’ purchasing patterns (Sana & Panda, 2015).

Use of Pricing Techniques:  The prices of healthcare products are a significant factor in determining purchasing habits. Customers tend to buy products that they perceive are affordable. Therefore, it is essential to develop a pricing technique that may say the customer’s decision regarding the medical products. A suitable way is by reducing the prices to be lower than its competitors’. This feature will improve on customer loyalty, thereby maintaining the firm’s sustainability in the industry (Sana & Panda, 2015).

Marketing and the Health Care System


Marketing is revealed to be an essential issue in the healthcare industry. The pare tries to reveal that a firm can improve on its sales through suitable marketing techniques In the case of the firm, the paper reveals that social media marketing is suitable because of the increase in the usage of smartphones and personal computers. Apart from the marketing strategy, ways such as branding, suitable communication, and pricing techniques are viewed to sway the purchasing patterns of the customers.



Sana, S. S., & Panda, S. (2015). Optimal sales team’s initiatives and pricing of pharmaceutical

products. International Journal of Systems Science: Operations & Logistics2(3), 168-176.

Williams, P. V., Kavati, A., Pilon, D., Xiao, Y., Zhdanava, M., Balp, M. M., … & Hernandez-

Trujillo, V. (2018). Treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization, and spending among Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic Idiopathic/Spontaneous Urticaria in the United States. Dermatology and Therapy8(1), 69-83.

Yaaminidevi, S. (2014). A study on the behavior change communication in the social marketing

of condoms. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing11(2), 181-193.



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Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity


Report on risk and mitigation and the costs and benefits of a proposed initiative.

As a master’s-level health care practitioner, you are expected to consider a number of factors when analyzing the feasibility of a new initiative. For example, you need to keep in mind the various types of risk (such as patient safety, physical plant, financial, or reputation), as well as the present and future value of the service line or economic opportunity into which you are investing resources. You also must balance the competing considerations of your ethical and moral responsibility to provide quality care to patients and populations, while also protecting your care setting’s assets and economic viability in the near and long terms.

Note: Complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

  • Competency 1: Analyze the effects of financial and economic factors (such as cost-benefit, supply and demand, return on investment, and risks) in a health care system on patient care, services offered, and organizational structures and operation.
    • Analyze the opportunities and risks relevant to a proposed economic initiative.
    • Analyze the costs and benefits of a proposed economic initiative over a five-year time horizon.
  • Competency 2: Develop ethical and culturally equitable solutions to economic problems within a health care organization in an effort to improve the quality of care and services offered.
    • Propose potential ways to keep costs under control while maximizing the benefits of an economic initiative and ensuring that it remains ethical and culturally equitable.
  • Competency 3: Justify the qualitative and quantitative information used to guide economic decision making to stakeholders and colleagues.
    • Justify the relevance and value of the quantitative and qualitative economic, financial, and scholarly evidence used to support recommendations throughout a report.
  • Competency 4: Develop ethical and culturally equitable economic strategies to address dynamic environmental forces and ensure the future security of an organization’s resources and its ability to provide quality care.
    • Propose ethical and culturally sensitive solutions to address the risks associated with an economic initiative to ensure the future security of a care setting.
  • Competency 5: Apply various communication methods in order to clearly, effectively, and efficiently relate information to stakeholders and colleagues related to economic data, findings, and strategies.
    • Communicate a business case in a logically structured and concise manner, writing content clearly with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
    • Effectively support a report with relevant economic data and scholarly sources, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.

Assessment Instructions:

In this assessment, you will conduct a risk and mitigation analysis and cost-benefit analysis and report on your findings.


The senior management of your care setting has reviewed your Executive Brief: Proposal of a New Economic Opportunity and has decided that it has merit. As a result, you have been asked to take a more detailed look at the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations of implementing your proposed economic initiative over the next five years. The senior management is looking for a 3–5-page report that builds a business case for your economic initiative by analyzing ways to mitigate the risks associated with your original proposal and a completed cost-benefit analysis using the Cost-Benefit Analysis Template, linked in the Resources.


You have been asked to ensure that your report addresses the following. Note: The bullet points below correspond to grading criteria in the scoring guide. Be sure your work is, at minimum, addressing each of the bullets below. You may also want to read the scoring guide and the Guiding Questions: Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity document, linked in the Resources, to better understand the performance levels that relate to each grading criterion:

Part 1: Risk and Mitigation Analysis

Complete the following:

  • Analyze the opportunities and risks relevant to your proposed economic initiative.
  • Propose ethical and culturally sensitive solutions to address the risks associated with your economic initiative to ensure the future security of your care setting.
Part 2: Cost-Benefit Analysis

Complete the following:

  • Analyze the costs and benefits of your proposed economic initiative over a five-year time horizon.
  • Propose potential ways to keep costs under control while maximizing the benefits of your economic initiative and ensuring that it remains ethical and culturally equitable.

Address Generally Throughout Business Case

Complete the following:

  • Justify the relevance and value of the quantitative and qualitative economic, financial, and scholarly evidence you used to support your recommendations throughout your report.
  • Communicate your business case in a logically structured and concise manner, writing content clearly with correct use of grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
  • Effectively support your report with relevant economic data and scholarly sources, correctly formatting citations and references using current APA style.

Example Assessment: You may use the assessment example, linked in the Assessment Example section of the Resources, to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like.

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should meet the following requirements:

  • Length: 3–5 double-spaced, typed pages. Your paper should be succinct yet substantive.
    • Be sure to include a title page and reference list.
    • Your completed Cost-Benefit Analysis Template should be included as an appendix within your final business case submission.
  • APA format: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style.
  • Resources: Cite 4–5 authoritative and scholarly resources. Be sure to include specific economic data and support as part of your cited resources.

Questions to Consider:

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

  • What kinds of quantitative data can support proposals for change in a health care setting? What kinds of qualitative data can do so?
  • What are the five different types of comparative economic analysis?
  • What are some realistic and feasible recommended alternatives for health care issues and problems that currently impact your work? What would be the costs of pursuing those alternatives? What would be the benefits?
  • When and how are the following methods for valuation best used?
    • Human capital.
    • Risk preference.
    • Contingent valuation.
    • Cost-benefit ratio.



Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity


Mayo Clinic is a healthcare organization in Rochester, Minnesota. The clinic is a multispecialty hospital that integrates research, education and clinical practice. Mayo clinic aims to develop an Express Care Model to provide urgent care to patients. The Express Care Model helps to provide immediate healthcare services to patients in populated regions. The shortage of healthcare practitioners often leads to long queues as the patients wait to be served (Chang, Brundage & Chokshi, 2015). The healthcare institution not only aims to offer routine screening, but also provide treatment for minor injuries, treat illnesses, refer patients and conduct flue tests. Therefore, the business case outlines an economic strategy for five years by evaluating opportunities and risks for the business case and develops ways of reducing the risks associated with the business.

Part 1: Risk and Mitigation Analysis

Opportunities Associated with the Proposed Economic Initiative

To determine the risk and opportunities of the business case, both the microenvironment and microenvironment of the express care model will be examined. There are about 3.8 million people living in Minnesota, and developing an express care strategy can ensure remarkable economic growth for Mayo clinic (US Department of Labor, 2019). Therefore, creating an emergency care facility will help reduce the burden of healthcare provision and overcrowding of patients in ER departments.

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

The ER department often cares for about 250 patients every day. There are also patients who leave without being cared for or leave because the bills are too expensive that they cannot afford (American College of Emergency Physicians [ACEP], n.d.). The Express Care would ensure hospital services are affordable particularly for the low- and middle-income individuals. Most patients in the ER department often do require emergency care and sometimes they are forced to leave without being cared for. The Express Care Model can be used to ensure such patients receive attention of healthcare practitioners to ensure that they are treated appropriately.

Revenues from the emergency department will be critical in providing additional revenue for the Mayo clinic. The local ER departments would be able to get more patients requiring emergency treatment because of the referrals that the facility would get. Providing treatment to the locals would also help develop trust between the clinic and the community.


The Mayo Clinic can handle both minor and critical injuries among patients. This means that the clinic can also offer more assistance to patients to guarantee positive outcomes. Such aspects set the hospital apart from other healthcare institution that provides emergency care or similar services to patients (Gurganious & Greenfield, 2015).  Mayo Clinic will ensure that patients are provided with adequate and quality care in all their healthcare needs. Improving patients’ outcomes leads to satisfaction and loyalty, and the patients would revisit the clinic every time they have a healthcare issue and also refer the clinic to other patients.

Risks Associated with the Proposed Economic Initiative

The use of the Express care model has potential risks. There are several urgent care services provided in Minnesota, and other healthcare institutions have also employed the model in their ER departments. According to the American College of Emergency Physicians (2019), about 72% of emergency physicians care for patients that need urgent care, but sometimes there are no equipment that can ensure efficient delivery of health care services. Such issues are critical that could make patients opt for Mayo clinic that will be well equipped with facilities that could help patients to save costs while attending the emergency departments. Lack of enough healthcare facilities forces many hospitals to refer patients to other healthcare institutions increasing the cost of care for the patients as well as compromising their health due to delayed treatment. Mayo clinic needs to source finances with the help of the organization’s leadership and to involve stakeholders before the initiation of the project.  Availability of equipment and facilities at the clinic would be necessary for ensuring the project is successful.

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

Chances of misdiagnosis is another risk that the hospital needs to consider. Because of the high number of patients being cared for on the same day, the physicians can experience burnout which would affect their efficiency. This can lead to medical errors that may put patients’ lives at risk. Therefore, the clinic needs to develop critical interventions to reduce the problems of misdiagnosis. Employing more nurses will be valuable in improving nurse-to-patient ratio to the required level. Nurses and physicians should be enough to ensure they have enough time to care for each patient. Specialized training is also critical to ensure nurses do not cause medical errors such as misdiagnosis (Sanborn, 2018). Medical mistakes may lead to critical ethical and legal issues that may put the organization’s reputation at risk. Nurses and physicians need to be advised to take breaks in the cause of treatment, report errors, and work for few hours to ensure instances of misdiagnosis due to burnouts do not occur.

Part 2: Cost-Benefit Analysis

Costs and Benefits of the Proposed Economic Initiative

            The express care model has costs and benefits that would be critical to ensure its success. To develop the express care model, the value and advantages of the project have been calculated for the next five years using the 11% discount rate. The discount rate of the present value is determined using the estimated return on that target and the standard capital costs. The capital costs include what will be required to ensure renovation of the care facility as well as the costs for purchasing new equipment and furniture. The cost of operation will consist of employee salaries, insurance, liability, furniture costs, utility costs, and equipment costs. It is projected that the project will cost almost $380,000 and this will also include marketing as well administrative costs.

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

According to Gurganious and Greenfield (2015), the care setting dealing with emergency services should have both part-time and full-time physicians and a part-time physician assistant (PA) or nurse practitioner and a medical assistant (MA). Therefore, Mayo clinic will operate every year based on the community needs and upon review on its performance, employees would be added if the revenue and influx of patients increase. Based on the US Department of Labor (2019), the operation costs in the first year will be $30,000 for a medical assistant, $112,000 for a PA or NP, $230,000 for a physician, and $25,000 for a secretary or patient representative. The Economic Policy Institute (2018) considers that the growth of salaries in the healthcare sector is estimated to be about 2%. Mayo clinic will base its employees’ wages by reviewing the estimated amount of salary growth every year. More funds may be needed in the future in case the organization employs more employees to care for the increased influx of patients.

The utility cost is projected to increase every year, mainly due to the increase in patients coming to hospital for services as well as the increased number of physicians and supporting staff. The present value of the hospital for the five years will, therefore, be approximately $4,649,282.47, as observed in Appendix 1. The net revenue is calculated using the charge or bill of each client. According to Qin, Prybutok, Prybutok, and Wang (2015), the average number of patients who visit the hospital for urgent care is about 60 to 80 patients. Mayo clinic estimates a total of 70 patients being served every day resulting in a cost of $135 per visit. The operation cost for the first year will be about $3,439,800 and it is estimated to increase for the next five years at a rate of 5% p.a. The 11% discount rate in the five year time is expected to be $11,150,769.42. Final calculations indicate that the net benefits for Mayo clinic will be about $6,501,486.95 indicating that the project will make an economic sense and increase revenue for the organization.

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

Ways to Keep Costs under Control While Maximizing the Benefits

The hospital operations need to be economically viable based on the projected net revenue after five years in order for the project to be successful. Regulatory costs control will be maintained through the managing the number of employee as well as cost of care delivery. Overhead costs that are not directly linked to the delivery of care but affects the total cost of service delivery will also be monitored. Other significant expenses that needs to be monitored include essential utilities, insurance, supplies, equipment replacement and repairs, and building maintenance.

Tracking the maintenance records and logs will allow Mayo clinic to reduce sudden breakdown of equipment. Equipment that need attention should be repaired before they completely breakdown. The utilities will be reviewed by the management team every year to ensure the clinic is running efficiently and excessive spending is control. Besides, managing the insurance, internet and phone costs throughout the five years will be critical. Costs will also reduce through monitoring daily operations regularly. Donated supplies will be accepted and reusing office supplies will be considered.  Thus, the project will ensure the facility has best equipment and facilities, and the environment is conducive for proper delivery of health care.

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity


In conclusion, the development of an Express Care Model by Mayo Clinic will help the provision of urgent care to patients. The model will be imperative to provide immediate healthcare services to patients in populated regions with few healthcare practitioners. The Mayo Clinic will provide patients with regular screening and treatment to patient who needs emergency care to help reduce the burden of healthcare provision and overcrowding of patients in ER departments. In order to be successful, the model would require careful implementation and monitoring for next five years. The discount rate, capital costs, cost of operation, utility cost, regulatory control costs, overhead costs, would be critical control of excessive spending. The main risk of the project includes lack of healthcare facilities to ensure the provision of quality care. Having enough equipment and facilities to improve patient health would be necessary to ensure the project is successful.



American College of Emergency Physicians [ACEP] (n.d.) Urgent Care. Retrieved from

Chang, J. E., Brundage, S. C., & Chokshi, D. A. (2015). Convenient ambulatory care —

Promise, pitfalls, and policy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 373(4), 382–388. Doi: 10.1056/NEJMhpr1503336

The Economic Policy Institute. (2018). Nominal wage tracker. Retrieved from

Gurganious, V., & Greenfield, D. (2015). Starting an urgent care center five essentials for success. Medical Economics, 92(11), 47–48. Retrieved from

Qin, H., Prybutok, G. L., Prybutok, V. R., & Wang, B. (2015). Quantitative comparisons of urgent care service providers. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 28(6), 574–594. Doi: 10.1108/IJHCQA-01-2014-0009

Sanborn, B (2018). Urgent care centers grow in number, reach thanks to comprehensive capabilities, convenience, and demand. Business intelligence Journal. Retrieved from

US Department of Labor (2019). Occupational Employment Statistics. Retrieved from



Appendix: Cost–Benefit Analysis over a 5-Year Period


Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity

Business Case for a New Economic Opportunity



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Review of Mr. C’s Health Issues

Review of Mr. C’s Health Issues

Health History and Medical Information

Health History

Mr. C., a 32-year-old single male, is seeking information at the outpatient center regarding possible bariatric surgery for his obesity. He currently works at a catalog telephone center. He reports that he has always been heavy, even as a small child, gaining approximately 100 pounds in the last 2-3 years. Previous medical evaluations have not indicated any metabolic diseases, but he says he has sleep apnea and high blood pressure, which he tries to control by restricting dietary sodium. Mr. C. reports increasing shortness of breath with activity, swollen ankles, and pruritus over the last 6 months.

Objective Data:

  1. Height: 68 inches; weight 134.5 kg
  2. BP: 172/98, HR 88, RR 26
  3. 3+ pitting edema bilateral feet and ankles
  4. Fasting blood glucose: 146 mg/dL
  5. Total cholesterol: 250 mg/dL
  6. Triglycerides: 312 mg/dL
  7. HDL: 30 mg/dL
  8. Serum creatinine 1.8 mg/dL
  9. BUN 32 mg/dl

Critical Thinking Essay

In 750-1,000 words, critically evaluate Mr. C.’s potential diagnosis and intervention(s). Include the following:

  1. Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. C.
  2. Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention.
  3. Assess each of Mr. C.’s functional health patterns using the information given. Discuss at least five actual or potential problems can you identify from the functional health patterns and provide the rationale for each. (Functional health patterns include health-perception, health-management, nutritional, metabolic, elimination, activity-exercise, sleep-rest, cognitive-perceptual, self-perception/self-concept, role-relationship, sexuality/reproductive, coping-stress tolerance.)
  4. Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider.
  5. Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities. Describe what type of patient education should be provided to Mr. C. for prevention of future events, health restoration, and avoidance of deterioration of renal status.
  6. Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients for nonacute care and the type of multidisciplinary approach that would be beneficial for these patients. Consider aspects such as devices, transportation, living conditions, return-to-employment issues.

You are required to cite to a minimum of two sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.



Review of Mr. C’s Health Issues


Obesity refers to a medical condition which makes a person to have excess weight or fat, which may lead to health problems. It is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Medical practitioners usually suggest one is obese basing on their body mass index. Given its critical nature, it is essential for practitioners to have clear understanding of the condition (Pandey et al., 2017).  The paper tries to analyze a case scenario involving Mr. C whose subjective and objective information reveal that he is obese. He also has related issues such as sleep apnea and hypertension

Clinical Manifestation

The scenario’s subjective information reveals that Mr. C has an underlying obesity problem which requires a bariatric surgery. He reveals that the condition has affected him since he was a child, therefore it is persistent. However, his medical history does not reveal any metabolic diseases, though he claims that he has had sleep apnea and hypertension. The objective data reveals that he has high blood pressure and high BMI measurements, which are associated with obesity. His health is also by a high level of cholesterol (Pandey et al., 2017).


Health Risks for Obesity and Suitability of Bariatric Surgery

The condition may lead to heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. This may occur due to overworking of the heart or fat buildup in the blood vessels. Moreover, the condition may lead to persistence of his sleep apnea and hypertension. It can also be suggested that the problem may lead to reproductive abnormalities such as erectile dysfunction. Due to a high glucose level in the body, Mr. C may also develop diabetes. This health risks make it necessary for him to lose weight. However, since his obesity condition has been persistent since he was a child, it may be difficult for him to lose weight by focusing on exercises and a change of diet. This feature makes it necessary for him to undergo a bariatric surgery (Prabhakaran, Jeemon, & Roy, 2016).

Review of Mr. C’s Health Issues

Assessment of Functional Health Patterns

Mr. C. perceives that his health is reasonably bad for his condition. He reveals that he has reduced intake of dietary sodium. This issue reveals that he is striving to control his problem. In addition, Mr. C presents as an older person than his actual problem given that he has developed diseases mostly associated with people above his age. His sleep and rest pattern show that he does not get enough sleep. Moreover, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is high due to his lack of exercises and rest. Although the client tries to engage in management of obesity, he perceives that the practice does not help his condition, hence he feels that he needs a bariatric surgery. Also, due to his high glucose and cholesterol levels, he needs to eat foods low in sugar and cholesterol to reduce further health risks. Lastly, Mr. C is considered to be single and an employee. His job makes him to be associated with other people, thereby developing his relations (Pandey et al., 2017).

Research Paper Help

Staging and Factors Associated with ERSD

ERSD is the end stage of chronic kidney disease. The problem starts with mild damage of the kidneys. In stage 2, there is also mild kidney damage with no symptoms. Thereafter, the kidneys are moderately damaged, which calls for more health concern. At stage 4, the kidneys may be moderately or severely damaged with poor functions. At the ERSD stage, the kidneys are almost failing or are completely failed, requiring a transplant or dialysis.  The problem is associated with factors such as high blood sugar in the body, a poor diet, high blood pressure, and lack of exercises (Tonkin-Crine et al., 2015).

Patient Education on ERSD Management

The patient needs to be given education on suitable dietary plans that may eliminate some of the factors leading to development of ERSD. He should also be made aware of the importance of different treatment plans to ensure that his kidneys are checked and treated well. Self-efficacy education on behavioral change may also be a significant act for the patient as it may motivate him to engage in exercises and other management activities (Tonkin-Crine et al., 2015).

Review of Mr. C’s Health Issues

Resources for ERSD Patients

An essential resource for ERSD patients is health insurance. Since kidney dialysis, transplants, and other medications are expensive, this feature helps many patients. Moreover, clinical trials are essential as they provide information on the safety of certain procedures for a patient. An ERSD patient is also helped by both healthcare providers and family to ensure that he manages the problem. In terms of education, ERSD patients are provided with information on proper ways to monitor their disease. Their grievances are also addressed with models such as self-efficacy used to promote the patients’ health conditions (Tonkin-Crine et al., 2015).



Pandey, A., LaMonte, M., Klein, L., Ayers, C., Psaty, B. M., Eaton, C. B., … & Berry, J. D.

(2017). Relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and risk of heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 69(9), 1129-1142.

Prabhakaran, D., Jeemon, P., & Roy, A. (2016). Cardiovascular diseases in India: current

epidemiology and future directions. Circulation, 133(16), 1605-1620.

Tonkin-Crine, S., Okamoto, I., Leydon, G. M., Murtagh, F. E., Farrington, K., Caskey, F., … &

Roderick, P. (2015). Understanding by older patients of dialysis and conservative management for chronic kidney failure. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 65(3), 443-450.









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