Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

Telenursing and telemedicine will only be successful if patients engage in the program. You have been asked by your manager to pilot a program aimed at improving transitions of care using the new telemedicine system recently implemented at your hospital. What are some of the ways that you can encourage both patient and provider engagement to ensure the pilot program success? Citations should conform to APA guidelines. You may use this APA Citation Helper as a convenient reference for properly citing resources or connect to the APA style website through the APA icon below.


Improving Transition to Telenursing and Telemedicine

For patients and caregivers to reap the full benefits of telemedicine, they must wholly embrace the revolutionary technology. The engagement of the patient and care-giver is paramount for the effective use of telemedicine since it relies on the ability of stakeholders to use the system (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Collecting from and providing information to users will increase the involvement of both patients and care providers in the integration of telemedicine.

Educating caregivers and patients on the uses and benefits of telemedicine will increase the engagement in the pilot and subsequent roll out of the program. Dispelling myths, and providing knowledge on how to use the system provides all stakeholders with the required information to practice telehealth. Skepticism on compatibility, fear of losing face to face interactions and security concerns are some of the popular myths among physicians (Dantu & Mahapatra, 2013, 3). Providing information to the stakeholders will encourage them to get more involved because patients and providers have knowledge on how to use the system and understand the potential benefits.

Conducting research prior to designing and rolling out implementation strategies is critical in the adoption of the proposed procedures. The data collected informs on preferences and possible barriers to the acceptance of telemedicine. Collecting data from stakeholders ensures that their views are incorporated in making the pilot thus it is more acceptable. Both providers and patients will participate more knowing that their input is valued and will be included in the execution of telehealth procedures.

Patient and provider engagement can be increased through improving communication to and from stakeholders. Transition of care is an important aspect for the recovery of patients and it can benefit greatly from the use of telemedicine While a pilot program designed to improve the transition of care using telehealth systems is a noble initiative, stakeholders in the medical field must be fully engaged in the process to capitalize on the advantages.


Dantu, R., & Mahapatra, R. (2013). Adoption of telemedicine – challenges and opportunities. Retrieved from

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The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population
Quality Improvement Proposal

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

Identify a quality improvement opportunity in your organization or practice. In a 1,250-1,500 word paper, describe the problem or issue and propose a quality improvement initiative based on evidence-based practice. Apply “The Road to Evidence-Based Practice” process, illustrated in Chapter 4 of your textbook, to create your proposal.

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

Include the following:

  1. Provide an overview of the problem and the setting in which the problem or issue occurs.
  2. Explain why a quality improvement initiative is needed in this area and the expected outcome.
  3. Discuss how the results of previous research demonstrate support for the quality improvement initiative and its projected outcomes. Include a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources published within the last 5 years, not included in the course materials or textbook, that establish evidence in support of the quality improvement proposed.
  4. Discuss steps necessary to implement the quality improvement initiative. Provide evidence and rationale to support your answer.
  5. Explain how the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated to determine whether there was improvement.
  6. Support your explanation by identifying the variables, hypothesis test, and statistical test that you would need to prove that the quality improvement initiative succeeded.

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population


The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

Problem Overview

            Abusing drugs among adolescents is primarily prevalent in the United States. This makes adolescent years a critical window for the development of substance use disorders. Abusing drugs among the youth influence both their social and psychological development primarily cognitive development (Aldridge, Linford, & Bray, 2017). Nurses and physicians need to intervene early before substance abuse leads to cognitive health issues.  According to Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman & Schulenberg, 2013), physicians need to provide both holistic and quality care to their patients. Through the Road to Evidence-based practice, health care practitioners can find the evidence, appraise the evidence, implement the evidence and evaluate the evidence. Through the use of SBIRT as an evidence-based practice, healthcare practitioners can recognize, decrease and prevent harmful and unhealthy ways of substance use and abuse (Aldridge, Linford, & Bray, 2017). This paper develops a proposal for quality improvement through the introduction of screening, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) screening tools, intervention, and intervention procedures to adolescent population affected by substance abuse in a health care institution.

Why a Quality Improvement Initiative is Required

The quality improvement initiatives are required because the use and abuse of drugs have become common among adolescents, which make it a critical public concern. The Healthy People 2020 developed critical objectives aimed to reduce substance use and abuse among teenagers (Healthy People 2020, 2018). In addition, most government agencies, medical institutions and medical professional associations have developed free counseling programs and screenings for youth such as initiatives that involve SBIRT integration within the medical health care system in collaboration with the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, Agency for Health care Research and Quality, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and SAMHSA (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman & Schulenberg, 2013). Besides, the medical professional associations and international and national public health agencies developed recommendations aimed to guide health care professionals to carry out screening and interventions for individuals especially teenagers believed to abuse and use drugs. Therefore, SBIRT is a critical part that can be placed as part of the Affordable Care Act legislation and Patient Protection Act to help deal with the issue of substance abuse among teenagers in the US (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman & Schulenberg, 2013). Besides, based on the Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment statue, each federal government in the US is expected to provide Medicaid screening assessments for both physical and mental development among teenagers.

Results from Previous Research

According to National Institute on Drug Abuse (2014), drugs such as alcohol, tobacco and other illegally prescribed drugs during adolescent are often abused during the adolescent stage. It is estimated that about 70% of students in high school have abused either alcohol or other drugs while 30% might have abused prescribed medications for non-medical reasons (NIDA, 2014). The desire to fit in and faces new experiences, and deal with peer pressure or problems in school are the primary reasons for abusing drugs.

According to Singh et al., (2017) the factors that influence the use of drugs among adolescent youths include peer pressure and the availability of narcotics in the school, community or neighborhood. The family environment is also a critical factor that may influence teenagers to use and abuse drugs. For example, a violent environment, mental illness, physical and emotional abuse, and the use of drugs in the household may influence the child to use and abuse drugs (Singh et al., (2017). Other factors for abuse of drugs includes the beliefs that drugs are cold, mental health conditions such as ADHD, anxiety, and depression, personality traits such as the need for excitement or poor impulse control, and adolescent’s inherited genetic vulnerability.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends providing routine screening for substance abuse among teenagers between 16 years and 17 years. The USPSTF also found that the use of SBIRT among teenagers is a critical area within the nursing practice that needs to be looked into. According to Aldridge, Linford, & Bray, (2017), SBIRT is a public health approach that is integrated and comprehensive to the delivery of treatment and intervention for individuals at risk of developing substance abuse disorder or for individuals who have a substance abuse disorder. The practice of SBIRT as an evidence-based practice involves screening individual’s suspected of substance abuse and encouraging them to change their behavior through motivational interviews and putting them under a treatment plan. Thus, SBIRT is a simple medical practice that is both effective and brief. Evidence from researches shows that cost-effectiveness and efficacy of SBIRT among adults and its help in managing drug use although is useful, it has mixed reaction. A study by Aldridge, Linford, & Bray, (2017), further states that SBIRT is the evidence-based practice that can help the use of drugs among the youths and prevent cannabis use among teenagers.

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

SBIRT, as an intervention, also leads to changes in substance use behaviors among patients who were addicted to drugs and went through the SBIRT tool intervention plan. The large-cohort SAMHSA study in 2017, showed the effectiveness of the SBIRT intervention. The study was quasi-experimental and sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2017). The study sample was about one million individuals, and the study participants were screened for substance abuse disorders, and the SBIRT was used as an intervention plan for five years. The use of SBIRT intervention process was linked with a decrease in substance use among the individuals who were under the SBIRT intervention process (SAMHSA, 2017). SBIRT is a critical intervention tool that is validated to help assess the risk of substance abuse and developing intervention to encourage the reduction of substance use and ensure treatment who have improve both physical and psychological issues resulting from substance use and misuse (Schmidt, 2010). Therefore, SBIRT is a standardized and evaluated screening tool that is effective, patient-centered, evidence-based and an ongoing transition to treatment and care of patients addicted to substance use.

Steps to Implement the Quality Improvement Initiative

            The first step of implementation of SBIRT intervention plan for patients engaged in substance abuse is to train the health care providers and physicians who will participate in the program. The health care providers who will be involved in the study will be reimbursed for every screening (SAMHSA, 2017). The SBIRT will include four steps during the screening process.

  1. The first step: The first step will involve the screening process where the health care practitioners will develop an evidence questionnaire to identify patient admitted for substance abuse ranging from addiction, problematic and riskiness of substance abuse. The screening process is critical in raising awareness to help people reduce substance use and misuse. The risk of substance use can be divided into four patterns: low risk or abstinence involves those who no consumption of alcohol, tobacco or any other drug. Driving risk includes those adolescents who use drug and alcohol and drive or ride with adolescents high on drugs or alcohol. Moderate risk includes individuals who have started using drugs and alcohol. Finally, high risk involves individuals who use drugs and alcohol often.
  2. The second step: This step involves a brief intervention process where teenagers showing mild symptoms get about 15 to 45-minute intervention including motivational interviewing. This helps to develop a behavioral change among teenagers to help reduce substance use and abuse.
  • The third step: The step involves a brief treatment process where adolescents with a score of moderate to severe in substance use and abuse are provided with a treatment plan that requires counseling sessions.
  1. The fourth step: The step involves the referral to treatment where the patients are connected to a physician for behavioral health treatment, comparative health assessment, or a specialty treatment program for substance abuse disorder.

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population

These steps are critical during the implementation of the SBIRT as an intervention plan based on the following essential components: identifying adolescent at risk of substance abuse and disorders, educate adolescents and create awareness on substance abuse by showing the dangers of drinking and using drugs to help adopt a more healthy behavior (Schmidt, 2010). The potential for preventing substance abuse in the United States should not be underestimated. SBIRT is a critical intervention tool that helps in the reduction of substance abuse and its implementation as evidenced-based practices is an economic strategy that can help reduce abuse among teenagers in the US.

The use of SBIRT in Adolescent Population


Aldridge, A., Linford, R., & Bray, J. (2017). Substance use outcomes of patients served by a broad US implementation of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). Addiction, 112, 43–53.

Healthy People 2020. (2018). Increase the proportion of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years perceiving great risk associated with substance abuse. Retrieved from

Johnston, L., O’Malley, P., Bachman, J., & Schulenberg, J. (2013). Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2013. Retrieved from

National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. (2014). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. Retrieved from

Schmidt, C. S., Schulte, B., Seo, H.-N., Kuhn, S., O’Donnell, A., Kriston, L., … Reimer, J. (2010.). A meta-analysis on the effectiveness of alcohol screening with brief interventions for patients in emergency care settings. ADDICTION, 111(5), 783–794.

Singh, M., Gmyrek, A., Hernandez, A., Damon, D., & Hayashi, S. (2017). Sustaining Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) services in health-care settings. Addiction, 112, 92–100.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA]. (2017). About screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Retrieved from



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VARK Learning Styles and Strategies

VARK Learning Styles and Strategies


Learning is a constant process in the life of an individual. However, people have different learning styles that help them to grasp knowledge in an efficient way. This feature has made educator to try to adapt their teaching styles to the way the students understand best. In healthcare, different learning strategies are considered important in helping practitioners to attain suitable skills and knowledge in their profession. With the application of technology, the different learning styles need to be incorporated in the provision of knowledge (Asiry, 2016). The paper tries to establish an individual’s learning style and strategies. It also focuses on determining the impact of learning styles on education and elucidates the importance of understanding learning styles in an educational setting.

Summary of My Learning Style

The Fleming’s model, which is known as VARK Learning Styles and Strategies, individual learners are identified by whether they have a preference for visual, auditory, reading and writing, and kinesthetic. From my VARK test my scores were as follows; – 3 for visual, 5 for auditory, 4 for reading and writing, and 4 for kinesthetic. From the score, my learning style is more aligned to auditory. As an aural learner, it can be observed that I attain more knowledge by hearing information. Therefore, lectures are more important for my learning. My learning style also shows that I am better at remembering what I am told than what I see. However, reading and writing and kinesthetic are also suitable learning styles for my education. This is because the difference in score between auditory and these styles is 1 which is very minimal (Asiry, 2016).

Description of My Learning Strategies

One of the most essential strategies for my learning is engagement with my classmates. This strategy allows me to explain to my classmates and getting efficient explanations from them. In addition, I also begin my learning early to ensure that I am not disturbed by noises from my surrounding. Moreover, I also ensure that I attend s many lectures as possible so that I can get a great understanding of my studies. Another suitable strategy for my studies is the use of recording devices to ensure that can listen to the information more times. This strategy is also used in summarizing my notes (Asiry, 2016).

While looking at the identified learning strategies for my preferred style, I have realized that my strategies align with what I’m required to apply. For instance, it is recommended for auditory learned to hold discussions with their fellow students and with teachers. Attending many classes is also a preferred strategy for the learning style. However, I am also required to read my notes loud for better understand (Asiry, 2016).

Impact of Learning Styles on Education

An individual’s learning style is depicted to affect the learning decisions one makes. As a result, it affects the level of adjustment a learner can make during changes in teaching strategies. In addition, learning styles also affect a student’s motivation during certain teaching activities. For instance, if the teaching does not align with a student’s learning style, he or she may have little motivation in the lesson. Therefore, student’s concentration level is affected by his or her learning style. Moreover, a learning style affects a student’s way of conceptualizing information. From this perspective, it is viewed that some styles need an individual to base on his or her experience to understand some information (McCutcheon et al., 2015).

Also, learning styles are essential in determining the way a student constructs ideas during the learning process.  It is very important for an educator to understand the learning style of an individual because it helps in developing a suitable teaching strategy that meets the individual’s requirements. It also helps the educator to guide the learner in a way that he or she becomes satisfied with the learning environment. Moreover, it also helps the educator to guide the student to move from an unsuccessful strategy to one that suits the student’s style (Mahmoud, Ahmed, & Ibrahim, 2019).

Importance of Understanding Learning Styles

A health promotion environment is full of different stimuli. The educators need to maximize the stimuli for them to get better outcomes. When the educator understands the learning styles of the individual in the promotion, it becomes easier for them to develop a suitable educational environment for the learners. In addition, it helps the educators to improve the quality of health promotion, thereby ensuring that the promotion entails effective learning (McCutcheon et al., 2015).

Learning styles affect the types of interactions between the learner and the educator. These interactions may affect the relationships between learner and the educator, hence affecting the level of understanding for the need of change. For instance, if the learning style requires a personal interaction with the learner, there are higher chances that he or she may consider to change behavior. It is observed that different learning styles may be accommodated by applying different teaching strategies to meet the requirements of every learning style. This act can be enhanced by understanding the different requirements of students and developing strategies that encompass all their needs (McCutcheon et al., 2015).


The paper has covered different issues regarding learning styles of individuals. Using a VARK Learning Styles and Strategies assessment, the individual style identified is auditory. It is shown that learning strategies for an auditory learner needs to focus on his or her learning. Therefore, one is recommended to engage in activities such as discussions and attendance of lectures. The paper also shows that learning styles have great impact in education s it affects features such s the way a learner conceptualizes information and how they develop ideas. Moreover, learning styles are considered to be important in healthcare promotion. Therefore, it is important for educators to align their teaching strategies with the learning requirements of different learners to ensure that there are better health outcomes.


Asiry, M. A. (2016). Learning styles of dental students. The Saudi Journal for Dental

            Research7(1), 13-17.

Mahmoud, H. G., Ahmed, K. E., & Ibrahim, E. A. (2019). Learning styles and learning

approaches of bachelor nursing students and its relation to their achievement. International Journal of Nursing Didactics9(03), 11-20.

McCutcheon, K., Lohan, M., Traynor, M., & Martin, D. (2015). A systematic review evaluating

the impact of online or blended learning vs. face‐to‐face learning of clinical skills in undergraduate nurse education. Journal of Advanced Nursing71(2), 255-270.


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Importance of Nursing Health Assessment

Importance of Nursing Health Assessment

In the realm of healthcare, a nurse’s role extends far beyond administering medications and monitoring vital signs. It encompasses the profound skill of nursing health assessment, a holistic approach that forms the foundation of quality patient care. Imagine a nurse as an investigator, delving into the intricacies of a patient’s health, unravelling clues, and piecing together the puzzle of their well-being. Nursing health assessment serves as the cornerstone of holistic patient care, integrating subjective and objective data to facilitate accurate diagnosis, personalized interventions, and improved patient outcomes. This comprehensive evaluation serves as a crucial foundation for accurate diagnosis, personalized interventions, and improved patient outcomes.

The Importance of Nursing Health Assessment

Nursing health assessment can be defined as the systematic collection of data about a patient’s physical, psychological, and social well-being. It involves the meticulous gathering of subjective information, such as the patient’s symptoms, history, and perceptions, as well as objective data obtained through physical examination, observation, and diagnostic tests. This comprehensive assessment forms the foundation upon which healthcare professionals make informed decisions regarding patient care.

The role or importance of nursing health assessment in healthcare is paramount. It serves as a critical starting point for healthcare providers to understand the patient’s health status, identify potential health issues, and develop appropriate interventions. By assessing both subjective and objective data, nurses can obtain a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s condition, enabling them to identify underlying problems, monitor progress, and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions.

However, what sets nursing health assessment apart is its commitment to a holistic approach to patient care. A holistic approach recognizes that patients are not just a collection of symptoms or medical conditions; they are complex individuals with unique needs, beliefs, and experiences. By considering the patient’s physical, psychological, and social dimensions, nursing health assessment embraces a comprehensive perspective that acknowledges the interconnectedness of various aspects of well-being.

The significance of a holistic approach in patient care cannot be overstated. It allows healthcare professionals to identify not only physical ailments but also psychosocial factors that may impact a patient’s health and well-being. By understanding the patient in their entirety, nurses can address underlying causes, provide individualized care plans, and promote overall wellness.

Moreover, a holistic approach encourages patient engagement and empowerment. It fosters a therapeutic relationship between healthcare providers and patients, built on trust, respect, and collaboration. Patients feel heard, valued, and involved in their own care, leading to better treatment adherence, improved outcomes, and enhanced patient satisfaction.


The Different Components of Nursing Health Assessment

  1. The Initial Nursing Assessment: Unveiling the Patient’s Story

When embarking on the journey of nursing health assessment, the initial assessment serves as the gateway to understanding the patient’s unique story. Like an artist preparing to create a masterpiece, nurses engage in active listening, employing their empathetic skills to unravel the patient’s narrative. By delving deep into the patient’s history, current concerns, and aspirations, nurses gain valuable insights that guide subsequent assessments and interventions.

  1. Subjective and Objective Data Collection: The Yin and Yang of Assessment

Imagine nursing health assessment as a harmonious dance between subjective and objective data. Subjective data, the whispered secrets shared by the patient, provide a glimpse into their inner experiences. Through open-ended questioning and compassionate listening, nurses unravel symptoms, perceptions, and fears, which form the tapestry of subjective data. On the other hand, objective data, the tangible evidence acquired through physical examination, observation, and diagnostic tests, completes the picture. Nurses skilfully wield their assessment tools, tapping into their powers of observation to reveal vital signs, body language, and clinical indicators. The combination of these two realms of data empowers nurses to form a holistic understanding of the patient’s health status.

  1. The Nursing Process: Guiding the Assessment Journey

The nursing process acts as the compass that navigates the assessment journey. This systematic approach encompasses five interrelated steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. During the assessment phase, nurses gather data, analyse it, and synthesize the information to form a comprehensive assessment. Armed with this understanding, nurses proceed to diagnose the patient’s health problems, develop individualized care plans, and implement interventions that address the identified needs. Throughout this process, ongoing evaluation ensures the effectiveness of interventions and guides adjustments to optimize patient outcomes.

  1. Holistic Integration: Weaving a Tapestry of Care

In the realm of nursing health assessment, the true artistry lies in weaving a tapestry of care that embraces the patient’s physical, emotional, and social dimensions. Nurses approach each assessment as a holistic opportunity to understand the unique essence of the individual before them. They consider cultural nuances, spiritual beliefs, and psychosocial factors, recognizing that these aspects intricately intertwine with physical health. By treating the whole person and not merely the symptoms, nurses facilitate healing and nurture well-being.

As we journey through the remarkable landscape of nursing health assessment, remember that its true essence lies in the willingness to understand, support, and advocate for the well-being of our patients. May this knowledge empower you, dear reader, to embark on your own quest for excellence in nursing practice and contribute to the holistic care of those in your charge.

The Nursing Process and How it Relates to Nursing Health Assessment

The nursing process serves as an influential scheme that guides nurses in delivering effective and patient-centred care. It encompasses a systematic approach consisting of five interconnected steps: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Let’s explore how the nursing process and nursing health assessment are closely intertwined.

  • Assessment: The Foundation of the Nursing Process

Assessment forms the foundational step of the nursing process, and nursing health assessment plays a momentous role here. By conducting a comprehensive assessment, nurses gather subjective and objective data to obtain a holistic understanding of the patient’s health status. This data serves as the basis for clinical decision-making throughout the nursing process.

  • Diagnosis: Identifying Health Needs

Following the assessment, nurses analyse the collected data and identify nursing diagnoses. Nursing diagnoses are clinical judgments about actual or potential health problems that nurses are qualified to treat. The data gathered during nursing health assessment informs and guides the identification of these diagnoses, allowing nurses to focus on the specific health needs of the patient.

  • Planning: Tailoring Care to Individual Needs

The planning phase involves developing a care plan that is tailored to the individual patient. The data obtained from nursing health assessment helps nurses identify priority areas of care, set achievable goals, and select appropriate interventions. By considering the patient’s unique needs, preferences, and circumstances, nurses can create a personalized care plan that addresses the specific health issues identified during the assessment.

  • Implementation: Putting the Plan into Action

During the implementation phase, nurses put the care plan into action. This includes providing interventions, treatments, and patient education based on the assessment findings. The data collected during nursing health assessment guides the selection of appropriate interventions, ensuring that they are aligned with the patient’s health needs and goals.

  • Evaluation: Assessing the Effectiveness of Care

The final step of the nursing process is evaluation, which involves assessing the patient’s response to the implemented interventions and determining the effectiveness of the care plan. The data obtained during nursing health assessment serves as a baseline for comparison, allowing nurses to evaluate whether the interventions have achieved the desired outcomes and make any necessary adjustments to the care plan.

Best Practices for Conducting a Nursing Health Assessment

To excel in conducting a nursing health assessment, nurses must possess a diverse set of skills and techniques. Let’s delve into some of the essential practices that ensure a comprehensive and accurate assessment.

  1. Effective Communication and Active Listening Skills

The cornerstone of a successful nursing health assessment lies in effective communication and active listening. Nurses must establish a rapport with patients, creating a safe and supportive environment that encourages open dialogue. Active listening involves attentively hearing not only the words spoken by the patient but also understanding their emotions, concerns, and nonverbal cues. By actively engaging in the exchange of information, nurses can gain valuable insights and establish a trusting relationship with the patient.

  1. Observation and Physical Examination Techniques

Observation is a fundamental skill that allows nurses to assess a patient’s physical appearance, behaviour, and vital signs. It involves keen observation of skin color, posture, facial expressions, and other visual cues that may provide clues to the patient’s health status. Physical examination techniques, such as palpation, auscultation, percussion, and inspection, further aid in gathering objective data about the patient’s body systems. Through thorough observation and physical examination, nurses can identify abnormalities, assess organ function, and detect potential health concerns.

  1. Use of Assessment Tools and Technologies

In the modern healthcare landscape, assessment tools and technologies play a significant role in enhancing the accuracy and efficiency of nursing health assessments. These tools include specialized devices, such as blood pressure monitors, stethoscopes, and thermometers, which aid in obtaining objective data. Additionally, assessment technologies, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized documentation systems, and mobile applications, provide convenient ways to record, organize, and analyse assessment data. By utilizing these tools and technologies, nurses can streamline the assessment process, reduce errors, and facilitate data-driven decision-making.

It is important to note that while these skills and techniques are crucial, they should always be employed with cultural sensitivity, respect for patient privacy, and adherence to ethical standards. Every patient encounter presents a unique opportunity for nurses to demonstrate their expertise, compassion, and commitment to delivering high-quality care.

By mastering effective communication, active listening, observation, physical examination techniques, and utilizing assessment tools and technologies, nurses can conduct thorough and accurate nursing health assessments. These best practices empower nurses to gather comprehensive data, establish a strong foundation for clinical decision-making, and ultimately provide patient-centred care that promotes optimal health outcomes.

Remember, dear reader, that the art of nursing health assessment is not just about gathering information—it is about building meaningful connections with patients, understanding their stories, and advocating for their well-being. Embrace these best practices, and let them guide you on your journey to becoming a skilled and compassionate nurse who leaves a lasting impact on the lives of those you serve.

Role of Nursing Health Assessment in Patient Outcomes

Nursing health assessment plays a vital role in influencing patient outcomes across various dimensions of care. Let’s explore how the thorough and accurate assessment of patients positively impacts their overall well-being.

  • Early Identification of Health Issues

Nursing health assessment allows for the early identification of health issues, enabling timely interventions and treatment. By carefully collecting subjective and objective data, nurses can detect subtle changes in a patient’s health status and promptly address emerging problems. This early identification contributes to the prevention of complications, promotes timely interventions, and improves patient outcomes.

  • Tailored Care Planning

Through nursing health assessment, nurses gain a comprehensive understanding of the patient’s unique needs, preferences, and circumstances. This information serves as the foundation for developing personalized care plans that address individual health concerns. By tailoring interventions to the specific needs of each patient, nurses can enhance treatment effectiveness and improve patient outcomes.

  • Continuity of Care

Nursing health assessment facilitates the continuity of care by providing a baseline of data that can be utilized throughout a patient’s healthcare journey. As patients transition between different healthcare settings or encounter different healthcare providers, accurate and consistent assessment data ensures that their care remains cohesive. This continuity helps to prevent gaps in care, supports effective care transitions, and ultimately improves patient outcomes.

  • Patient Engagement and Empowerment

A thorough nursing health assessment involves active communication and engagement with the patient. By actively involving patients in their care, nurses empower them to participate in decision-making and take ownership of their health. This engagement fosters a sense of empowerment, enhances treatment adherence, and promotes positive patient outcomes.

  • Holistic Approach to Care

Importance of nursing health assessment embraces a holistic approach that considers the physical, emotional, social, and cultural aspects of patient well-being. By understanding the interconnectedness of these dimensions, nurses can develop comprehensive care plans that address the whole person. This holistic approach promotes improved patient outcomes by addressing the diverse factors that influence health and well-being

Importance of nursing health assessment directly influences patient outcomes by enabling early identification of health issues, facilitating tailored care planning, ensuring continuity of care, promoting patient engagement and empowerment, and embracing a holistic approach to patient care. By recognizing the critical role of nursing health assessment in patient outcomes, nurses can effectively contribute to improving the health and well-being of those under their care.

Challenges and Ethical Considerations in Nursing Health Assessment

Here are some potential challenges and obstacles in conducting assessments and ethical considerations such as privacy, confidentiality, and cultural sensitivity.

Challenges and Obstacles:

  • Time constraints: Nurses may face time constraints when conducting assessments, which can limit the amount of information they can gather from patients.
  • Patient cooperation: Some patients may be uncooperative or unwilling to provide information during assessments, which can make it difficult for nurses to gather accurate data.
  • Language barriers: Language barriers can make it difficult for nurses to communicate with patients and gather accurate information during assessments.
  • Cultural differences: Cultural differences can impact the way patients perceive and respond to health assessments, which can affect the accuracy of the data gathered.
  • Physical limitations: Patients with physical limitations may not be able to participate fully in health assessments, which can limit the amount of information nurses can gather.

Ethical Considerations:

  • Privacy and confidentiality: Nurses must ensure that patient information is kept confidential and that patient privacy is respected during health assessments.
  • Informed consent: Nurses must obtain informed consent from patients before conducting health assessments.
  • Cultural sensitivity: Nurses must be culturally sensitive and aware of the potential impact of cultural differences on health assessments.
  • Respect for patient autonomy: Nurses must respect the autonomy of patients and ensure that they are fully informed and involved in the health assessment process.
  • Avoiding bias: Nurses must avoid bias and ensure that health assessments are conducted in an objective and unbiased manner.

By being aware of these challenges and ethical considerations, nurses can conduct more effective and respectful health assessments that lead to better patient outcomes.


Throughout this blog, we have explored the definition and Importance of nursing health assessment, the role of a holistic approach in patient care, the nursing process, best practices for conducting assessments, and the impact of nursing health assessment on patient outcomes. We have also discussed the challenges and ethical considerations that nurses face in this essential aspect of their practice.

As healthcare professionals, it is crucial for us to recognize the immense value of nursing health assessment in providing optimal care. By conducting thorough assessments, we can identify health issues early, tailor care plans to individual needs, ensure continuity of care, promote patient engagement, and embrace a holistic approach that considers all aspects of well-being.

We encourage you, dear readers, to continue exploring the importance of nursing health assessment in patient care. Visit our blog,, for more insightful content, resources, and articles that delve deeper into this crucial aspect of nursing practice. Together, let us strive for excellence in nursing health assessment and empower ourselves to provide the highest quality of care to those we serve.

Thank you for joining us on this journey of understanding the overview of the mportance of nursing health assessment. We look forward to engaging with you further and continuing to share valuable knowledge and information in the world of nursing.

Remember, your commitment to nursing health assessment contributes to better patient outcomes and makes a positive difference in the lives of individuals and communities. Keep exploring, learning, and evolving in your practice.

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The use of Risk Re-evaluation in Safety Management

The use of Risk Re-evaluation in Safety Management

Essay 2: DNP Scholarly Practice Project Essay

Please identify a professional practice issue for which you may pursue as you complete your

doctoral studies. Please include how you envision accomplishing this project and how it will

change nursing practice.  The purpose of this essay is for demonstration of critical thinking

related to a practice or patient problem and strategies to resolve or address the problem.

Completing the essay is not a formal approval of the project or a request that you must

complete this specific project.


  • Identify a professional practice issue and its significance.
  • Identify the project proposal’s, address the following item:

○  Population/Problem:

○  Intervention:

○  Comparison (ie: standard care vs proposed intervention)

○  Expected Outcome:


  • Proposed site(s) to conduct the study:
  • Identify at least one of the AACN DNP Essentials that you may find challenging as you

implement your project and how you might overcome that challenge.


All applicants should review the following additional guidelines and resources prior to writing

the required essays and include them in the essay where appropriate. Your Admissions

Advisor will speak to you in greater detail regarding this. – AACN Essentials for

Doctoral Education. This resource provides a solid foundation of the DNP’s focus and

philosophy.  – The latest white paper on DNP. – National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties

(NONPF NP) Role Competencies and specialty-specific competencies.



Professional Practice Issue and Its Significance

It is common knowledge that in psychiatric mental health nursing, risk aversion has a significant influence, especially in inpatient settings. Safety in mental nursing is not just a goal; it is the priority, especially in inpatient settings. Consequently, nursing care and interventions are overly structured to ensure safety for the individual, other patients, health provider and the environment at large. The overemphasis placed on safety, however well-intentioned and perhaps rightfully so, has resulted in the frequent use of nursing practices, which rather prevents a much-needed development of a therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the client.

The use of Risk Re-evaluation in Safety Management

Across healthcare settings, safety involves concepts that include patient safety, quality improvement and quality assurance. Nowhere is this notion more important than in the nursing practice and more specifically mental health care (Pelto-Piri et al. 2019). Safety in nursing involves protecting patients from harm originating from events in care including lack of staffs, medication errors, lack of effective communication strategies especially during handovers and poor adoption of new technologies (Sherwood, 2015). With limited discussions of patient safety in mental health care institutions, an evidence-based approach that guarantees safety for patients, staff and the public must be developed. To uphold safety, practices that identify risks and take preventive action should constitute the main aim of psychiatric nursing (Slemon, Jenkins & Bungay, 2017). Current psychiatric inpatient settings value safety and maintain it through risk management strategies. In line with this objective, practices are implemented despite availability of evidence refuting their efficacy and patients’ view highlighting harm. Some of these practices include; seclusion, close observations, locking of doors and implementing defensice nursing practices (Slemon, Jenkins & Bungay, 2017). The use of these disputed strategies further emphasizes the need to shift persceptions about safety and risk in care. To offer meaningful treatment to clients, nurses should provide flexible and individualized care that incorporates measures that observe safety. Additionally, nurses should re-evaluate the risk management strategies implemented  to reduce any and all harmful practices.


Safety management in mental health care centers around risk determination and intervention. Safety management also encompasses the assement and mitigation of risks to safety. The main objective of safety risk management is to assess all the risks associated with the identified hazards and to develop effective mitigation strategies (Kaya, Ward & Clarkson, 2018). However, several challenges affect risk management practices in hospitals. Some of these challenges include; lack of transparency, lack of consultation and insuffiecient risk assessment guidelines (Kaya, Ward & Clarkson, 2018). Evaluation of improvement interventions in healthcare is therefore essential to establish whether interventions are beneficial and to understand how they can be replicated (Brewster et al. 2014). But with the existing culture of risk aversion in psychiatric nursing, many restrictive interventions are likely to be utilized even if they may not be therapeutically advantageous for the patient’s recovery. Implementing frequent risks potential re-evaluation and adjusting interventions to create a balance between safety and the development of a therapeutic relationship should become the new priority.

Project Proposal

As a practice issue, poor therapeutic relationship development cannot be underestimated for its value. Building a therapeutic relationship between nurses and clients shouldn’t be sacrificed for safety and viseVersa. Therefore, this project proposes to investigate the usefulness of frequent re-evaluation of the risk potential of clients in inpatient settings. The combination of periodic re-evaluation of risk potential and change of interventions may help cultivate environmental conditions that foster the development of therapeutic relationships.  The PICO questions are as follows;

The use of Risk Re-evaluation in Safety Management

Population/Problem: Mental health clients in inpatient settings experiencing difficulty forming therapeutic relations.

Intervention: Does frequent re-evaluation of potential risk lead to the re-classification of risk level? Also, does the subsequent adjustment of nursing interventions enhance the nurse-client therapeutic relationship?

Comparison: Nurse client therapeutic relations after re-evaluations of risk potential and change in the nursing intervention.

Expected Outcome: Improvement in the nurse-client therapeutic relationship after clients’ risk potential are re-evaluated and nursing intervention changed to promote nurse-client therapeutic interaction

Proposed site(s) to Conduct the Study

Possible places to do this research include Hope House Treatment Center in Laurel, The Maryland Centers for Psychiatry and Oasis: The Center for Mental Health, in Annapolis, Maryland.

AACN DNP essentials that may be challenging in the implementation of the Project and how to Overcome them

The practice issue identified in this project touches on safety and quality. Information systems and technology are at the center of safe and quality patient-centered care (DeCapua, 2016). To prepare for a doctors of nursing practice, nurses should utilize patient care technologies to supplement their decision making process. Understanding new technologies is at the center of healthcare delivery. To ensure compliance with this essential, the project will evaluate existing technologies in safety management practices and investigate how they are implemented in psychiatric care.

The use of Risk Re-evaluation in Safety Management

To actively engage in policy development, DNP graduates must identify problems in healthcare and spearhead legislation to mitigate these problems. additionally, DNP graduates are expected to spearhead legislation by actively advocating for social justice and consensus building. Implementing this essential is challenging. However, the project will reach out to Mental Health America, an organization that advocates for legislation and policies to improve the lives of people struggling with mental health issues (Mental Health America, 2019). Additionally, the project will advocate for the adoption of levels of safety to reduce safety issues in psychiatric inpatient settings (Bayramzadeh, 2016).

To improve patient care and health outcomes, professional collaboration is of the utmost importance. As a DNP graduate, one is expected to lead inter-professional teams in the investigation of practices and issues affecting communication. Likewise, DNP graduates are expected to take up leadership roles in the development and implementation of models in addition to other scholarly projects (DeCapua, 2016)

Nursing Paper Help

To implement the proposed interventions, several members of the healthcare team will need to understand why, when and how the project should be implemented. Timely communication between various team members becomes very crucial since time is of the essence between re-evaluation of a patient’s risk potential and subsequent change in the intervention. Nurses would need to be communicated the changes in re-evaluation results in a timely fashion to allow for the adjustment of treatment interventions. To help facilitate that process considering that critical information may be entered in electronic systems but not necessarily communicated to healthcare providers who make changes to treatment modalities, SBAR, should be used by nurses each time re-evaluation is complete and results reported to healthcare providers.

Essential VI: Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and Population Health Outcomes




Bayramzadeh, S. (2016). An Assessment of Levels of Safety in Psychiatric Units. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 10(2): 66-80. Doi: 10.1177/1937586716656002

Brewster, L., Aveling, E., Martin, G., Tarrant, C. & Dixon-Woods, M. (2014). What to Expect When you’re Evaluating Healthcare Improvement: A Concordat Approach to Managing Collaboration and Uncomfotablle Realities. BMJ Quality & Safety, 24(5). Doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2014-003732

DeCapua, M. (2016). The Essentials of the DNP Program. DNP Nursing Curriculum Planning Solutions. Retrieved from

Kaya, G.K., Ward, J.R. & Clarkson, P.J. (2018). A Framework to Support Risk Assessment in Hospitals. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 31(5), 393-401. Doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzy194

Mental Health America. (2019). Mental Health Policy. Retrieved from

Pelto-Piri, V., Wallsten, T., Hylen, U., Nikban, I. & Kjellin, L. (2019). Feeling Safe or Unsafe in Psychiatric Inpatient Care, a Hospital-based Qualitative Interview Study with Inpatients in Sweden. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(23). Doi: 10.1186/s13033-019-0282-y

Sherwood, G. (2015). Perspectives: Nurses’ Expanding Role in Developing Safety Culture: Quality and Safety Education for Nurses-Competencies in Action. Journal of Research in Nursing, 20(8), 734-740. Doi: 10.1177/1744987115621142

Slemon, A., Jenkins, E. & Bungay, V. (2017). Safety in Psychiatric Inpatient Care: The Impact of Risk Management Culture on Mental Health Nursing Practice. Nursing Inquiry, 24(4). Doi: 10.1111/nin.12199


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The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


  •       This is a Masters level paper.
  •       Follow correct APA format for title page
  •       Times New Roman, Font size 12, double spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers
  •       No running head, in-text citations required, and reference list.



A short introduction with a purpose statement

Body: 4- to 5-page paper addressing the following:

·         Identify the 5 peer-reviewed articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.

·         Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described.

·         Be specific and provide examples.


Reference page (Required Five total at least two course resources)

·         Should be five peer review articles not older than 5 years


To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery.
  • Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”
  • Identify and select 5 peer-reviewed articles from your research.

The Assignment: (4-5 pages)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Be sure to address the following:



The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Clinical systems are integral elements in the healthcare sector. They contribute towards improving the outcomes and efficiencies in service delivery within the elaborate healthcare systems. This paper aims to analyze relevant literature on various clinical systems and how they help in the improvement of outcomes together with effectiveness and efficiency in dealing with health problems.

Rao-Gupta, Kruger, Leak, Tieman, and Manworren (2018) conducted a study on the leveraging of the interactive care technology to bring effective pain management on the patients. The study was primarily to find a way of easing the pain on children while undergoing treatment in the hospitals. The pain management mechanisms in place at the time were unsatisfactory, leading to the development of the clinical care system. The authors were trying to examine how the use of the care system would significantly lead to the improvement of pain management. Consequently, the common understanding is that interactive care technology was integral in easing the pain on the children on its utilization. This led to increased satisfaction in the pain management responses, following the increased effectiveness in the evaluation of treatments and pain assessment.

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The application of the peer-review article by Rao-Gupta et al (2018) brings into perspective the understanding that care technologies are important in making certain care functions manageable. This led to increased overall satisfaction for the families with patient suffering from pain while undergoing treatment. Equally, it is critical for the care facility to be cognizant and sensitive to the pains of both patients and their families as part of the experiences that they give to the general public. This is critical in the appreciation of the role of clinical systems in the management of and support of life. In the study, the use of the pediatric surgical unit patients to conduct the assessment on the effectiveness of the pain management system is vital in bringing a wholesome understanding of the whole perspective. Thus, it goes into record as one creative realization contributing to positive development in the health sector.

The study by Skiba (2017) examines the use of digital systems in the facilitation of healthcare delivery to the public. The digital tools are of critical importance in ensuring that there is an establishment of critical links between care providers and consumers of health services. The clinical systems space provides an avenue for working towards ensuring that health management becomes easy. The assessment of those systems gives a glimpse of what an ideal care system should look like.

The takeaway from the research is that there is an increasing diversity in healthcare courtesy of the invention and innovation of social media and related apps. It has brought effectiveness in health services delivery in the sector. Social media and mobile apps tools have ensured that service delivery takes place across the board. The integration of the applications into the clinical systems has transformed the health sector significantly. A good example of those applications is the myoclonic social media and apps in both Apple and Android stores (Skiba, 2017).

Gabriel, Quaresma, Secca and Vieira (2018) investigated the use of the stereo vision system in conducting an assessment of the spine. The clinical system has overseen the realization of immense changes in the spinal columns, contributing to recovery in the patients. The Vertebra Metrics understanding becomes an essential tool in evaluating the pain aspects. This has led to improvements in dealing with back pains. The clinical system comes an innovation that is contributing to the realization better health. The wholesome understanding of how technology works make the clinical setting effective in the delivery of care.

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The Vertebral Metrics clinical system has been integral in dealing with back pains in patients (Gabriel, Quaresma, Secca & Vieira, 2018). This leads to increased overall efficiency in the offering of health services to patients with issues in the vertebra. The clinical application of the system as a tool for dealing with vertebral issues has brought immense changes in the health sector. The takeaway from the whole undertaking becomes a critical way of gauging the effectiveness of services offered in the health sector, and the far that improvements have come into perspective.

Huang, Goo, Behara and Agarwal (2018) studied the system for the management of COPD-readmission risk. The readmission risk indicator checks on the quality of patient care for those dealing with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Conducting the study using live data made it possible to establish reliable outcomes of the whole process. The whole undertaking enhanced the realization of how the clinical system deals with the issue at hand. In this way, the clinical system goes into records as one of the tools that have managed to achieve its intended purpose in as far as healthcare delivery is concerned.


The primary lesson of the study is that the clinical support system immensely enhances the reduction of readmission statistics for patients’ dealing with chronic illnesses. Consequently, the whole study reaffirms the importance of the clinical support system. Its efficiency in performing its intended function is unmatched. Essentially, the whole undertaking to apply the system in dealing with chronic ailments for patients in several hospitals helps manage the diseases effectively and efficiency. In this way, the improvement of the outcomes is unavoidable, contributing to the growth and development of the entire health sector. This paves way for continuous improvements and innovations to help improve the health sector. In their study, Huang, Goo, Behara, & Agarwal (2018) have found that the readmission risk, which was problematic in the past, has slowly faded due to the clinical system in place.

Safdari, GhaziSaeedi, Masoumi-Asl, Rezaei-Hachesu, Mirnia and Samad-Soltani (2018), in their review study, focus critically on the antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems applicable in the clinical settings. The systems work through the integration of diverse elements. In this way, they are in a position to achieve their functionality largely. This helps put mechanisms in place to deal with the resistance, which is a public health menace in many countries.

The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The study is a success courtesy of the fact that it manages to reveal how the resistance surveillance system help deal with the problem (Safdari, et al., 2018). Essentially, the whole review reveals to a large extent the importance of the antimicrobial resistance surveillance system. In this way, it becomes possible to evaluate other ways of handling the issue at hand. The effectiveness and efficiency that comes with putting in place the right mechanisms for dealing with the problem. This makes innovativeness and creativity in the health sector at its peak.

In conclusion, the review of the relevant literature gives a brief overview of what the authors examine. The subsequent lessons from the study contribute towards the understanding of how the clinical systems are of critical importance in the whole undertaking. This is critical in working towards ensuring that there is a check of the whole health sector to ensure that it offers the relevant services to the intended level. In this way, it becomes possible to appreciate the role of the health sector in enhancing lives.




Gabriel, A. T., Quaresma, C., Secca, M., & Vieira, P. (2018). Development and clinical application of vertebral metrics: Using a stereo vision system to assess the spine. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 56(8), 1435-1446. Doi: 10.1007/s11517-018-1789-0

Huang, C. D, Goo, J., Behara, R. S., & Agarwal, A. (2018). Clinical decision support system for managing COPD-related readmission risk. Information Systems Frontiers, 1-13. Doi: 10.1007/s10796-018-9881-4

Rao-Gupta, S., Kruger, D. Leak, L. D., Tieman, L. A., & Manworren, R. C. B. (2018). Leveraging interactive patient care technology to Improve pain management engagement. Pain Management Nursing, 19(3), 212–221. Doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2017.11.002

Safdari, R., GhaziSaeedi, M., Masoumi-Asl, H., Rezaei-Hachesu, P., Mirnia, K., & Samad-Soltani, T. (2018). Knowledge discovery and visualization in antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems: A scoping review. The Artificial Intelligence Review, 1-38. Doi: 10.1007/s10462-018-9659-6

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation tools to appraise social media and mobile applications. Informatics, 4(3), 32–40. Doi:10.3390/informatics4030032




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Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction

Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction

When selecting a psychotherapeutic approach for a client, you must consider the unique needs and characteristics of that particular client. The same is true when selecting a psychotherapeutic approach for groups. Not every approach is appropriate for every group, and the group’s unique needs and characteristics must be considered. For this Assignment, you examine psychotherapeutic approaches to group therapy for addiction.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate psychotherapeutic approaches to group therapy for addiction

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide on group therapy for addiction.
  • View the media, Levy Family: Sessions 1-7, and consider the psychotherapeutic approaches being used.3-7 dialog included.

The Assignment

In a 2 -page paper, address the following:

  • Identify the psychotherapeutic approach that the group facilitator is using, and explain why she might be using this approach.
  • Determine whether or not you would use the same psychotherapeutic approach if you were the counselor facilitating this group, and justify your decision.
  • Identify an alternative approach to group therapy for addiction, and explain why it is an appropriate option.
  • Support your position with evidence-based literature.



Assignment 1: Psychotherapeutic Approaches to Group Therapy for Addiction


For fear and substance abuse group therapies, practitioners use a variety of models to meet the clients’ needs. An understanding of the groups’ goals and technique is viewed to be a foundation of the approaches chosen for the sessions (Wheeler, 2014). The paper tries to establish the psychotherapeutic approach used in a group therapy case. In addition, it provides an alternative approach that may be suitable for the case. The scenario involves ex-soldiers who have a traumatized experience of their mission in Iraq.

The Psychotherapeutic Approach Used

From the scenario, the therapist used exposure therapy. This approach typically entails the client trying to confront their fear in a suitable manner. One of its essential aspects is the use of emotional processing to enhance control of the clients’ problems. Usually, the practitioner creates a safe environment that allows the client to decrease their avoidance to a problem or fear. Research reveals that the approach is helpful in treating clients with fear-related problems (Skule et al., 2017).


The therapist may have chosen the approach because the clients show fear of an experience in their work as soldiers in Iraq. The incident tends to horrify the clients as they keep on seeing it. To limit recurrence of their fear, they tend to engage in addictive activities such as alcohol intake. The clients also tend to show symptoms for post traumatic stress disorder. The application of systematic desensitization, such as the use of relaxation, is used to help the clients construct better revelations of their past without anxiety (Berardelli et al., 2018).

Viability of the Approach in My Scenario

If I were a therapist in the case, I would have used the same method. This is because I view that the clients tend to be emotional when they recollect their ordeals in Iraq. In that regard, the use of this approach would improve their emotional processing. I view that by using the approach, the clients would have a better position of attaining new beliefs regarding their fear. Therefore, they would be more comfortable in dealing with their problem without engaging in poor health habits such as alcohol drinking. I would also choose the technique because I belief that it will increase the clients’ self-efficacy. This aspect means that the group will realize that they are capable of managing their anxiety (Sundquist et al., 2015).

Alternative Approach for Addiction

The use of psychoeducational approach is alternative for the group. The technique involves the use of structured content that meets the requirements of the group. It often involves use of videotapes or lectures to facilitate a better understanding by the clients. It provides an expansion of awareness regarding behavioral and psychological consequences of addiction. This approach is also aimed at helping clients to get into a recovery-ready stage to facilitate change. (Berardelli et al., 2018).

Research Paper Help

The approach is suitable for the group because the clients are in a contemplative level of change where they have developed a need to get help or seek ways of getting help. It may also help the group to recognize their fear and addiction problems and deepen their knowledge to facilitate a suitable way to recovery. In addition, the approach may help the group to realize alternative resources that may be helpful (Wilson et al., 2018).


The paper tries to show the importance of understanding clients’ needs in the choice of psychotherapeutic approaches. The case scenario reveals that the therapist engages in an exposure approach, which is part of cognitive–behavioral methods. In addition, it reveals that the use of psychoeducational approach may be suitable for the group as it also poses features that can enhance the clients’ recovery.



Berardelli, I., Bloise, M. C., Bologna, M., Conte, A., Pompili, M., Lamis, D. A., … & Fabbrini,

  1. (2018). Cognitive behavioral group therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 399.

Skule, C., Berge, T., Eilertsen, E., Ulleberg, P., Dallavara Lending, H., Egeland, J., & Landrø, N.

  1. (2017). Levels of alcohol use and depression severity as predictors of missed therapy sessions in cognitive behavioural psycho-educational group treatment for depression. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(1), 11-16.

Sundquist, J., Lilja, Å., Palmér, K., Memon, A. A., Wang, X., Johansson, L. M., & Sundquist, K.

(2015). Mindfulness group therapy in primary care patients with depression, anxiety and stress and adjustment disorders: randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 206(2), 128-135.

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2014). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to

            guide for evidence-based practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Wilson, L., Crowe, M., Scott, A., & Lacey, C. (2018). Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A

discourse analysis. International journal of mental health nursing, 27(1), 349-357.



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Major Psychological Theories

Major Psychological Theories

Understanding the theoretical foundations, influential theorists, and demarcation of the three major movements of psychology is essential to having a fundamental knowledge of the discipline. Psychoanalysis; behaviorism; and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE) are recognized as the three primary movements of psychology.  As such, they provide a rich history of human science and form the basis for understanding human experience and the human condition as a whole. In this assignment, you will address this history, synthesize the theories, and consider applications of the theories.


General Requirements:

  • To foster retention of foundational theories in psychology, this assignment requires the incorporation of information from this course and previous courses regarding psychological theories and their applications. Refer to PSY-802, Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theory and PSY-803, Behaviorism to assist with this assignment.
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • This assignment requires that at least ten scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included. Scholarly works encountered in prior doctoral courses may be used in this assignment

Major Psychological Theories


Write a paper (2,250-2,500 words) that demonstrates your understanding of the primary movements in psychology – psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). Your paper should provide a historical perspective for each of the movements, showcase your understanding of the key components of each, and suggest a synthesis and application of the theories. Include the following in your paper:

  1. An overall historical context of all three movements. (Benchmarks C.1.1:  Discuss the history and development of the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and   Humanistic/Transpersonal/Existential (HTE) Psychology)
  2. A rationale for why each movement is/was considered essential to understanding human behavior and experiences.
  3. An analysis of psychoanalysis/psychodynamic theory. What were the primary tenets and perspectives of the theories? Who were the key theorists? How did their work lead them to new ideas including Neo-Freudianism?
  4. An analysis of behaviorism. What were the theoretical underpinnings of the movement? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? Who were the key theorists?
  5. An analysis of humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). From what cultural and historical contexts did the movement emerge? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? How do these tenets and concepts differ across the movement? Who were the key theorists?
  6. A synthesis of these movements. How did these movements enhance the understanding of human behavior, growth, and potential? (Benchmarks C.1.2:  Synthesize the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  7. An evaluation of the applications of the theories that were the basis for each of these movements. To what extent has the application of these theories enhanced treatments in mental health and the helping professions? (Benchmarks C.1.3:  Evaluate the common applications of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  8. A statement of next steps. What comes next in the development of psychological approaches to understanding human behavior and experience



Major Psychological Movements


When psychology initially emerged as a separate science from philosophy and biology, a debate emerged over how to analyze and explain the human mind and behavior. Prior to the 19th century, anyone interested in analyzing the human mind would do so in a philosophical context. However, two men, Wilhelm Wundt and William James, working at this time defied the rules of human physiology to introduce a new field of science referred to as psychology. Over the years, psychology has evolved into several approaches and theories. There may be multiple theories within a specific approach but all share common assumptions and beliefs about human behavior (McLeod, 2014). There are several different psychological perspectives that introduce something different to the understanding of the human mind and behavior. Among the many psychological approaches there are three primary movements in psychology. They include; the theories of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal theory and existential psychology. This paper will provide a historical analysis of psychology and its approaches, it will also synthesize the three primary movements in psychology and lastly, the paper will present the applications of the theories.

Historical Context of the Primary Movements in Psychology

Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism and Humanistic

Behaviorism is a psychological approach that uses scientific methods to investigate stimulus-response behaviors. According to behaviorism, behaviors are acquired through a series of interactions with the environment (Krapfl, 2016).  Early work in behavior psychology begun in 1913 and was championed by John Watson and his article ‘Psychology as the behaviorist views it’. In the article, Watson presented several basic assumptions about behaviorism. Watson claimed that the environment plays a major role in influencing behavior. Additionally, behaviorism focuses on observable behavior and not on internal events. A few years before Watson’s article, Ivan Pavlov carried out an experiment on conditioning after studying digestion in dogs. In 1897, Pavlov published his findings. A few years after Watson’s article, B.F Skinner founded radical behaviorism which claimed that psychology should neither predict nor control behavior (McLeod, 2017). Skinner, like Watson, recognized that internal mental events can be explained in the analysis of behavior. Skinner in 1948 published ‘Walden Two’ where he proposes the development of a Utopian society rooted in the principles of behaviorism. Later on in 1971, Skinner published Beyond Freedom and Dignity where he notes that free will is an illusion. In addition to the work done by Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, other behavioral psychologists have expounded on the idea of behaviorism by publishing books and writing articles. Clark Hull published the principles of Behavior in 1943 (McLeod, 2017). Overall behaviorism states that behavior is simply a stimulus-response feature.

Major Psychological Theories

Owing its origin to the works and theories of Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis is a set of therapeutic techniques and psychological theories whose core idea is the belief that human beings have feelings, desires, thoughts and memories (Wachtel, 2014). By introducing the contents of the unconscious mind into the consciousness, individuals are able to experience catharsis and thus become aware of their current state of mind. Therefore, people find relief from distress and any form of psychological disturbance (Wachtel, 2014). Freud (1856-1939) an Australian neurologist was fascinated by patients with hysteria and neurosis. After observing these patients, Freud theorized that the hysteria arose from the patient’s conscious mind. Based on his observations, he developed psychoanalytical therapy and published his findings in his book A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis in 1922 (Lees, 2008). Gestalt psychology principles were introduced in the United States by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler who were German psychologists immigrating into the United States. According to Gestalt principles, sensory experiences can be broken down into different parts where the parts relate to each other forming a whole. Unlike behaviorism, psychoanalysis is more concerned with understanding inner experiences and how these experiences affect the individual.

Major Psychological Theories

While behaviorism focuses on stimulus-response interactions and psychoanalysis on the effects of the unconscious mind on the conscious mind, humanistic psychology emphasizes on looking at an individual as a free and self-efficient being. Additionally, humanistic psychology helps people maximize their potential and their well-being (Serlin, 2014). This approach emerged in the 1950s as a response to behaviorism and psychoanalysis which had dominated the field of psychology at the time. Carl Rogers, a psychologist was interested in understanding everything that helped humans grow, improve and thrive. According to Rogers, psychology was designed to help people live their best lives and achieve happiness (Serlin, 2014). It was this belief that motivated psychologist Abraham Maslow to develop the hierarchy of human needs. In the late 1950s, Maslow and other humanistic psychologists begun to grow the humanistic approach which focused on creativity, individualism, self actualization and personal fulfillment. In line with these objectives, the American Association for Humanistic Psychology was developed in 1961. The following year, Maslow published Toward a Psychology of Being which highlights the third force in psychology. In 1971, humanistic psychology was introduced as a unique division of the American Psychological Association (Serlin, 2014). The humanistic approach has provided unique perspectives on the way human behavior is understood.

Major Psychological Theories

Transpersonal Psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a field in psychology focused on the spiritual aspects of human life. Transpersonal psychology was initially introduced in 1960 by Abraham Maslow and Victor Frankl. In 1969, the journal of transpersonal psychology was published. Two years later, the association for transpersonal psychology was founded. Additionally, in 1978 the international transpersonal association was created to promote education and research in the field of transpersonal psychology (Stanislav, 2008).  While transpersonal psychology did not formally begin until the 1960s, it owes its roots to the works of psychologists William James and Carl Jung. In addition to applying the principles of psychology to understand spiritual matters, transpersonal psychology provides a richer appreciation and understanding of human beings and strives to help them attain their maximum potential.

Major Psychological Theories

Existential psychology

Existential psychology is a branch of psychology that analyses the way in which people understand the basic concepts of human existence (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology was developed in the early 20th century to reflect on the principles of philosophical anthropology and psychoanalysis. Existential psychology is mainly based on the works of Martin Heidegger’s “Being and Time”. Since its introduction, existential psychology has been closely linked to philosophy since it is majorly based on some aspects of psychological theory of personality and the philosophical understanding of human beings (Tan & Wong, 2012). This form of therapy was developed from the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Soren Kierkegaard. Philosopher Kierkegaard theorized that human internal wisdom can overcome human discontent. Nietzsche on the other hand, developed the principles of existentialism by introducing the concepts of personal responsibility and free will. In the early 1990s, Jean-Paul Sartre explored the role of interpretation in the healing process. Otto Rank actively pursued this filed and was latter joined by Paul Tillich and Rollo May who introduced existential therapy in their writings (“History of Existential Therapy”, 2015). Later on, Viktor Frankl developed logotherapy while other psychologists ventured into humanistic psychology (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology focuses on the underlying factors associated with behavior while also addressing mental health concerns.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Psychoanalysis Theory

Psychoanalytic psychologists believe that psychological problems are located in the mind. Thus, when these symptoms manifest, they are often caused by hidden disturbances. Some of the hidden disturbances include unresolved issues that mainly occur during the development stage or as a result of repressed trauma (Sousa, 2011). According to psychoanalysis, treatment should focus on bringing forward repressed trauma to the conscious mind so that the individual can deal with it. Psychologists use psychoanalysis to treat anxiety disorders and depression. Due to the intricate defense mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the unconscious mind, psychoanalysis is a lengthy process. The theory assumes that when symptoms are reduced they make little to no difference in the wellness of the patient as long as the underlying conflicts are not resolved (Sousa, 2011). Some of the techniques used in psychoanalysis include Rorschach ink blots, Freudian slip and free association. Sigmund Freud had many ideas that were controversial. However, Freud attracted several followers who adopted many of his views but changed several aspects of the theory by incorporating their own ideas, opinions and beliefs. Neo-Freudian psychologist Carl Jung developed the theory of personality and introduced the concept of collective unconscious. Alfred Adler heavily disagreed with Freud’s statement that sex was the primary motivator of human behavior. As such he designed his own approach that placed greater emphasis on interpersonal and social influences. Erik Erikson disagreed with Freud’s beliefs that personality was cemented in early childhood. Erikson believed that development was a life-long journey (Sousa, 2011). Additionally, Erikson noted that not all conflicts were unconscious. Karen Horney was the first woman to receive training in psychoanalysis. She was also the first one to criticize Freud for presenting women as lesser beings to men. Both Freudian and neo-Freudian principles played an intricate role in shaping the field of psychology.


Analysis of Behaviorism

Behavior analysis is a science-based approach that utilizes the principles of behaviorism. Behavior analysis is a behaviorist tradition that utilizes learning principles and investigates how they are used to bring about change in behavior. Behavioral psychology does not focus on mentalistic causes of behavior but analyzes the behavior itself (O’Neil, 2008). Behavior analysis builds the abilities in children and adults increasing their academic performance or employee performance. According to division 25 of the American Psychological Division, behavior analysis occurs through experiments and investigations of behavior and through applied behavior analysis. Behaviorism was established by Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (O’Neil, 2008). While conducting investigations on dogs, Pavlov noticed the occurrence of conditioning reflex. He used his findings to establish classical conditioning. According to classical conditioning, environmental stimuli can stimulate a conditioned response. Watson expounded on Pavlov’s theory and applied it to understanding human behavior. Skinner further expounded on these concepts and introduced operant conditioning. According to Skinner, reinforcements result in desired behavior. There are several techniques and strategies used by behavior analysts (O’Neil, 2008). They include; chaining, prompting and shaping. Chaining is a behavior technique that involves breaking down a task into smaller parts. The simplest tasks are then selected and are taught first. Prompting is the use of prompts to trigger desired responses. Lastly, shaping strategies involve the process of gradually altering behavior. Behavior analysis has been used to help children with autism or children with developmental delays better control their behavior.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Humanistic, transpersonal and Existential (HTE) Psychology

Transpersonal psychology has implicit metaphysical assumptions that there are experiences that transcend human experiences. This concept has been backed by transpersonal theorists like Abraham Maslow, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Stansilov Krippner. Both existential and transpersonal psychology share one thing in common; both of them believe in the human potential and are committed to upholding human dignity. In the 1950s, the two most dominant schools of thought were behaviorist and psychoanalytic. Many psychologists criticized these beliefs and in response, embraced the humanistic approach. Humanistic psychology theorizes that a person’s subjective experience is crucial in behavior (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Additionally, humanistic psychology believes that every person has free will and people naturally strive to maintain a state of self actualization (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Transpersonal psychology introduces new concepts in the field of psychology. Transpersonal psychology includes the influences of spiritual experiences and acknowledges that they is a higher purpose. Transpersonal psychology highly emphasizes on relationships and strives to understand how the mind works based on the person’s relationships with others (Friedman, 2014). Existential psychology believes that man has free will and is self aware, human beings are self-actualizing and have a great capacity to grow, and lastly, individuals and their self-identity. Existential psychology is unique in that it has acknowledged that humans have limitations. Existential psychology analyzes human condition but takes a positive approach towards it.

Major Psychological Theories

In conclusion, there is no right way to study the way people think or act. However, there are several schools of thought that have evolved in the development of psychology and have advised psychologist on the human behavior investigated. Some of the main schools include; psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanist, transpersonal and existential psychology. Some psychologists focus on specific schools of thought including the biological perspective while other psychologists take a different approach where they incorporate new approaches. Overall, as the paper has shown, no perspective is better than the other; each perspective simply highlights different aspects of human behavior.



Bland, A.M. & Derobertis, E.M. (2017). The Humanistic Perspective in Psychology. Researchgate, Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1484-2

Friedman, H., (2014). Finding Meaning Through Transpersonal Approaches in Clinical Psychology: Assessments and Psychotherapies. International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5(1), 45-49.

“History of Existential Therapy”. (2015). East European Association for Existential Therapy. Retrieved from

Krapfl, J.E. (2016). Behaviorism and Society. The Behavior Analyst: Association for Behavior Analysis International, 39(1), 123-129. Doi: 10.1007/s40614-016-0063-8

Koole, S.L. (2011). Existential Psychology. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Doi: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0329

Lees, J. (2008). A History of Psychoanalytic Research. Journal of Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organizations, 11(2), 117-131. Doi: 10.1080/14753630500108042

McLeod, SA. (2014). Psychology Perspectives. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

McLeod, SA. (2017). Behaviorist Approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

O’Neil, W. M. (2008). American Behaviorism: A Historical and Critical Analysis. SAGE Journals Theory & Psychology, Doi: 10.1177/0959354395052008

Serlin, I.A. (2014). The History and Future of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(4), 428-431. Doi: 10.1177/0022167811412600

Stanislav, G. (2008). Brief History of Transpersonal Psychology. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 27(1). Doi: 10.24972/ijts.2008.27.1.46

Sousa, A. (2011). Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A Conceptual Analysis. Mens Sana Monographs, 9(1), 210-217. Doi: 10.4103/0973-1229.77437

Tan, S. & Wong, T.K. (2012). Existential Therapy: Empirical Evidence and Clinical Applications from a Christian Perspective. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3).

Wachtel, P.L. (2014). Psychoanalysis and its Social Context. Psychoanalytic Perspectives, 11(1), 58-68. Doi: 10.1080/1551806X.2014.857991


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Social Structure and Social Interaction

Social Structure and Social Interaction

You’ve learned how important groups, roles, statuses, and social networks are in the structure of society. In this assignment, you will complete a short answer activity in which you’ll demonstrate what you’ve learned by identifying and describing examples from your own life. Use the Assignment 2 template to complete this assignment


a) List five statuses that you currently have.
• Remember: A status is simply a position you fill in society. It may be a job title, but it could also include a position you fill within a family or a community. For more information, review Section 4.3 in your webtext. b) Label each status as either ascribed, achieved, or master.
• Remember: An ascribed status is one you’re born with and have no control over. An achieved status is reached through your own efforts or simply good or bad luck. A master status is so important that it overrides your other statuses. For more information, review Section 4.3 in your webtext.
2) Roles:

a) Choose one status from your list.

b) Describe the role that is associated with the status.
c) Describe how you learned that role.

• Remember: A role is the behavior expected of someone with a certain status. For more information, review Section 4.4 in your webtext.
3) Role Conflict:

a) Describe a time when you experienced a conflict because of the demands of two different roles associated with any of your statuses.
b) How did you resolve the conflict? (Discuss any conversation or social interactions you had.)
c) List any active listening skills you used to resolve the conflict. If you didn’t use active listening skills, then list the skills you could have used to resolve the conflict. • Remember: Refer to the active listening skills checklist in page 2.10 in your webtext.

FORMATTING 4) Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

• Use the Assignment 2 template to complete this assignment.



Social Structure and Social Interaction

1) Status Set
a) List five statuses that you currently have.

  1. Father
  2. Spouse
  • Home owner
  1. Youth leader
  2. Philanthropist
  3. b) Label each status as either ascribed, achieved or master.
  4. Father – achieved
  5. Spouse – achieved

iii.        Male – ascribed

  1. British – ascribed
  2. Teacher – achieved
    2) Roles
    a) Choose one status from your list.

b) Describe the role that is associated with the status.

As a father, the primary role is to model the children in the right way. Through this, the children will be in a position to feel the significance of having a father in their lives. Being part and parcel of the children’s lives becomes integral. The father ensures that the child gets what he needs in life to live a comfortable life. Giving love to the child, teaching the necessary virtues, and providing the basis all make up the fatherly role.
c) Describe how you learned that role.

I learned the fatherly role primarily through observing how my father brought me up as the only son. He always ensured I lived a simple decent life, where basic provisions were met without fail. Taught me the right ways, which I now find important in my achieved status. This demonstrates the understanding that the learning observation right from the time I was young was not in vain.


3) Role Conflict
a) Describe a time when you experienced conflict because of the demands of two different roles associated with any of your statuses.

At one time, I experienced a conflicting arising from the execution of my role, both as a father and a spouse. As a father, I am indebted to the children. However, as spouse, I am attached to my wife. Sometimes it was common to give all my attention to one role, without an idea that I was ignoring the other. For instance, I was torn between having to go out with my wife to fulfill my role as a spouse at the expense of my son who needed my attention. The conflict helped me learn the importance of each role to the relevant party. From then on, I tried to balance my life to ensure that I meet all my roles without fail.

Social Structure and Social Interaction
b) How did you resolve the conflict?

When I experienced the conflict of being both a spouse and father at the same time, I had to come up with a resolution that would not break either my wife or son. In this case, I had to talk to my wife because he understands well enough that I have an obligation to fulfill my role as a father. Thus, it was necessary to postpone the dinner arrangement with my wife to be there for my son as promised earlier. However, I had to inform my child in advance that I was not to be available at a later date to be with him as usual since I had to go out with my wife, his mother. In this way, there was an amicable resolution to the whole problem. Being at peace with both parties was necessary to depict that I have indeed executed my role as intended.

Nursing Paper Help
c) List any active listening skills you used to resolve the conflict. If you didn’t use active listening skills, then list the skills you could have used to resolve the conflict.

The active listening skills that I used to resolve the conflict include demonstrating concern (Hoppe & Center for Creative Leadership, 2014). This was effective in communicating that I recognize each of them and my role in their life. I promised never to fail any of them, although meeting their needs would always have to entail patience form each of them. Equally, the use of brief verbal affirmations was critical (Jahromi, Tabatabaee, Abdar & Rajabi, 2016) in dealing with the conflicting situation. This was of essence depicting the fact that was aware of the concerns of each of them and would address them adequately.



Hoppe, M. H., & Center for Creative Leadership. (2014). Active listening: Improve your ability to listen and lead. Greensboro, N. C.: Center for Creative Leadership.

Jahromi, V. K., Tabatabaee, S. S., Abdar, Z. E., & Rajabi, M. (2016). Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers. Electronic physician8(3), 2123.

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The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

A short introduction about:

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making



Two Opportunities for RNs and APRNs to Participate in Policy-Making

v  An explanation of at least two opportunities that exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy-making.


Challenges These May Present

v  Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present.


How I Might Overcome these Challenges

v  Describe how you might overcome these challenges.


Two Strategies to Better Advocate for to Participate in Policy-Making (provide examples)

v  Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities to participate in policy-making.

v  Be specific and provide examples.



This is a discussion

No tittle pages.

No running heads.

This a Masters level class

APA Format with intext citation

Required to use the reading resources, outside resources SHOULD BE PEER REVIEW

Reference page (Required four at Least three sources)



The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

There are over four million nurses in the United States alone. This means that nurses have the potential to influence policymaking that can transform the healthcare sector and delivery of healthcare (The American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2019). Therefore, RNs and APRNs can function as patient advocates to help shape the standards and practices in healthcare system. This paper analyzes the role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making and the opportunities and challenges they may face.

The significant opportunity for RN and APRNs is the role they can play in influencing the politics and policy at the local, federal and state level.  Nurses can also assume leadership positions and help in formulation of legislations that can improve the healthcare sector (Milstead, & Short, 2019). RNs and APRNs can influence policymaking by joining professional nursing organization (Milstead, & Short, 2019) to become activists and lobbyists on policies regarding healthcare.


The significant challenges faced by RNs and APRNs are time and resources that can help them participate in policy change and politics. Nurses also do not have enough support that leads to lack of awareness and little opportunity for involvement in policymaking and politics (Capitol Beat, 2019). The challenges can be overcome through support from nurses themselves, the nursing schools, and the nursing organization and provision of resources and opportunities that allow them to engage in policymaking at their local, state, and federal levels.

Nurses can participate in policymaking by being at the forefront of transforming and redesigning the nursing sector in the country. However, support must be provided through nursing organizations and boards of nurses to enable them effect policy changes in healthcare sector (Milstead & Short, 2019). The nursing organizations and boards of nurses should also create awareness and educate APRNs and RNs on their role in policy change and making (National League for Nursing, 2019). Collaboration would be critical in policymaking and bridging the gaps in healthcare system.



Capitol Beat. (21 August 2019). ANA Capitol Beat. Nurses are speaking, and Congress is

listening as August recess wraps up. Retrieved from

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

National League for Nursing (NLN). (2019). Workforce. NLN.

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (January 23, 2019) AACN Applauds

Bipartisan Commitment to Support Investments in Nursing Education and Practice. AACN.





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