50 Good Research Topics for Nursing Students

50 Good Research Topics for Nursing Students


Welcome to, your go-to resource for nursing students seeking guidance and support in their academic journey. In this blog post, we aim to provide you with 50 good research topics for nursing students, along with valuable insights on how to choose the best topic for your research endeavours.

Finding and choosing a strong research topic is the critical first step when it comes to crafting a high-quality dissertation, thesis or research project. If you’ve landed on this post, chances are you’re looking for a nursing-related research topic, but aren’t sure where to start. Here, we’ll explore a variety of nursing-related research ideas and topic thought-starter.

At, we understand the significance of research in the nursing field. Nursing research not only contributes to evidence-based practice but also enhances patient care, promotes innovation, and drives positive outcomes. By undertaking research projects during your academic journey, you will not only expand your knowledge but also develop critical thinking, analytical skills, and a deeper understanding of the nursing profession.

Why are these topics important?

The topics we have curated for you hold great importance in the field of nursing. They address current challenges, emerging trends, and areas that require further exploration and understanding. By engaging in research on these topics, you can contribute to the advancement of nursing knowledge, influence policy decisions, and ultimately make a positive impact on patient care.

Each research topic has been carefully selected to cover a wide range of nursing sub-disciplines, ensuring that you can find a topic that aligns with your interests and career goals. Whether you are passionate about patient communication, healthcare disparities, advanced practice nursing, or any other area within nursing, we have something for you.

By exploring these research topics, you will gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of nursing practice, develop critical research skills, and contribute to the ever-evolving field of healthcare. We encourage you to choose a topic that resonates with you, inspires your curiosity, and presents an opportunity to make a meaningful contribution to the nursing profession.

50 Good Research Topics for Nursing Students

g Here are 50 good research topics for nursing students:

  1. The impact of COVID-19 on nursing practice
  2. The role of nurses in promoting mental health
  3. The effectiveness of telehealth in nursing practice
  4. The impact of nurse staffing levels on patient outcomes
  5. The role of nurses in end-of-life care
  6. The impact of cultural competence on nursing practice
  7. The effectiveness of pain management techniques in nursing practice
  8. The role of nurses in preventing hospital-acquired infections
  9. The impact of nursing leadership on patient outcomes
  10. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in reducing readmissions
  11. The role of nurses in promoting healthy lifestyles
  12. The impact of nursing education on patient outcomes
  13. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing chronic diseases
  14. The role of nurses in promoting patient safety
  15. The impact of nurse-patient communication on patient outcomes
  16. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing acute illnesses
  17. The role of nurses in promoting evidence-based practice
  18. The impact of nursing informatics on nursing practice
  19. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing mental health disorders
  20. The role of nurses in promoting patient-centered care
  21. The impact of nursing research on nursing practice
  22. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing pain in children
  23. The role of nurses in promoting health equity
  24. The impact of nursing education on nursing practice
  25. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing substance abuse disorders
  26. The role of nurses in promoting patient advocacy
  27. The impact of nursing informatics on patient outcomes
  28. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing infectious diseases
  29. The role of nurses in promoting interprofessional collaboration
  30. The impact of nursing leadership on nursing practice
  31. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing wound care
  32. The role of nurses in promoting patient education
  33. The impact of nursing research on patient outcomes
  34. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing hypertension
  35. The role of nurses in promoting patient empowerment
  36. The impact of nursing informatics on healthcare outcomes
  37. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing diabetes
  38. The role of nurses in promoting patient satisfaction
  39. The impact of nursing leadership on patient outcomes
  40. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing heart disease
  41. The role of nurses in promoting patient engagement
  42. The impact of nursing education on healthcare outcomes
  43. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing cancer
  44. The role of nurses in promoting patient compliance
  45. The impact of nursing informatics on nursing education
  46. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing respiratory diseases
  47. The role of nurses in promoting patient-centered communication
  48. The impact of nursing research on healthcare outcomes
  49. The effectiveness of nursing interventions in managing obesity
  50. The role of nurses in promoting patient privacy and confidentiality

To choose the best research topic for nursing students, consider the following:

  • Choose a topic that is of interest to you and relevant to nursing practice.
  • Consider the scope of the topic and narrow it down to a specific area of interest.
  • Ensure that the topic is feasible and can be completed within the given time frame.
  • Consider the potential impact of the research on nursing practice and patient outcomes.
  • Assess the relevance: Look for topics that address current issues and challenges in nursing practice. Choose a topic that has practical implications and the potential to contribute to the field.
  • Review the literature: Conduct a literature review to identify existing gaps or areas for further exploration. Look for gaps where you can contribute new knowledge or expand on existing research.
  • Consult with faculty and experts: Seek guidance from your faculty mentors or experts in the field. They can provide valuable insights and help refine your research topic.
  • Consider ethical implications: Ensure that your research topic adheres to ethical guidelines and respects the rights and well-being of participants.
  • Determine the research methodology: Consider the type of research design and methodology that aligns with your research question. Choose a topic that allows for feasible data collection and analysis methods.
  • Reflect on future career goals: Select a research topic that aligns with your long-term career aspirations. This can provide valuable experience and knowledge relevant to your desired nursing specialty.

By following these guidelines, nursing students can choose a research topic that is both interesting and relevant to their field of study.


At, we are committed to supporting nursing students like you in your academic and professional journeys. The 50 research topics provided in this blog post are designed to inspire and guide you as you embark on your research endeavours. Remember, the power of research lies in your hands, and by choosing a topic that aligns with your passion and goals, you can create a lasting impact on the nursing field. So, dive in, explore these topics, and let your research journey begin!


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Comprehensive Guide Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults

Comprehensive Guide to Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults: Understanding and Providing Effective Support.

Introduction: The Importance of Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults

Mental health is a critical component of overall health and well-being. It includes emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and it affects how we think, feel, act, and relate to others. Mental illness is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, nearly one-in-five adults live with a mental illness.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the importance of mental health and psychiatric care in adults, including the rising prevalence of mental health disorders and their impact on individuals’ well-being and overall quality of life.

The Rising Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders

Mental health disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, mental disorders are responsible for the largest proportion of the global burden of disease.

Depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, addiction, and other conditions that affect thoughts, feelings, and behaviours can all have a significant impact on a person’s daily life. Mental health disorders can interfere with social, work, or family activities, and they can be associated with distress and problems functioning.

Impact on Well-being and Quality of Life

Mental health disorders can have a significant impact on a person’s well-being and overall quality of life. They can affect a person’s ability to cope with the stresses of life, realize their abilities, learn well, work well, and contribute to their community.

Mental health disorders can lead to physical health problems, particularly long-lasting conditions like diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

They can also lead to social and financial circumstances, adverse childhood experiences, biological factors, and underlying medical conditions that can shape a person’s mental health

The Importance of Psychiatric Care in Adults

Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults involves the diagnosis, treatment, and management of mental illness. It is provided by mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers. A comprehensive treatment plan may include individual actions, such as lifestyle changes, support groups, or exercise, that enhance recovery and well-being.

Mental health professionals must possess certain qualities to provide effective care to their patients, including empathy, communication skills, critical thinking, and flexibility.

Overview of Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults

Mental health disorders are common in adults and can have a significant impact on their well-being and quality of life. Below is an overview of the common mental health disorders that affect this population, along with the potential causes and risk factors associated with these conditions.

Common Mental Health Disorders

  • Depression

Depression is a common mental health disorder that affects millions of adults worldwide. It is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable.

  • Anxiety

Anxiety is another common mental health disorder that affects adults. It is characterized by excessive worry and fear that can interfere with daily activities.

  • Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that is characterized by episodes of mania and depression.

  • Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a severe mental health disorder that affects a person’s ability to think, feel, and behave clearly.

Potential Causes and Risk Factors

  1. Genetics: Mental health disorders can be caused by genetic factors that increase a person’s risk of developing these conditions.
  2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in brain chemicals can contribute to the development of mental health disorders.
  3. Life experiences: Trauma, abuse, and other adverse life experiences can contribute to the development of mental health disorders.
  4. Family history: A family history of mental health disorders can increase a person’s risk of developing these conditions.
  5. Social and financial circumstances: Social and financial circumstances can contribute to the development of mental health disorders.
  6. Underlying medical conditions: Underlying medical conditions, such as chronic pain, can contribute to the development of mental health disorders.

Signs and Symptoms of Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults

Mental health disorders can manifest in various ways, and the symptoms can differ from person to person. Early recognition and intervention are essential to prevent the condition from worsening. Below are some of the common signs and symptoms of Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults:


  • Persistent sadness, hopelessness, and feelings of worthlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities once enjoyed
  • Changes in appetite and sleep patterns
  • Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
  • Suicidal thoughts or behaviours


  • Excessive worrying and fear
  • Panic attacks
  • Avoidance of social situations
  • Irritability and restlessness
  • Muscle tension and headaches
  • Sleep disturbances

Bipolar Disorder

  • Episodes of mania (elevated mood, excessive energy, and grandiosity) and depression (persistent sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities once enjoyed)
  • Rapid cycling between episodes of mania and depression
  • Impulsivity and risk-taking behaviours
  • Irritability and agitation


  • Delusions (false beliefs)
  • Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there)
  • Disorganized speech and behaviour
  • Lack of motivation and interest in life
  • Difficulty with cognitive tasks, such as memory and attention

Importance of Early Recognition and Intervention

Early recognition and intervention are essential to prevent mental health disorders from worsening. If you or someone you know is experiencing any of the above symptoms, it is important to seek help from a mental health professional. A primary care provider or a mental health professional can diagnose mental health disorders and develop a personalized treatment plan. Mental health disorders are treatable, and most people with mental illness continue to function in their daily lives with the appropriate treatment and support.

Diagnosing Mental Health and Psychiatric Care in Adults

Diagnosing mental health disorders in adults involves a comprehensive evaluation process that includes a mix of questions and physical examination. The process of diagnosing mental health disorders in adults is as follows:

  • Assessment and evaluation

A mental health assessment is conducted by a healthcare professional, such as a family doctor, psychologist, or psychiatrist, to check if the individual has a mental health disorder. This assessment usually includes a mix of questions and a physical examination

  • Mental status examination

A mental status examination is conducted to determine the patient’s mental status at the time of evaluation. This approach is used to identify, diagnose, and monitor signs and symptoms of mental illness. Each part of the mental status examination is designed to look at a different area of mental function. Psychiatrists use this examination to evaluate a patient on initial and subsequent encounters, and it can aid in diagnosing a patient when combined with a thorough psychiatric interview including the history of present illness, past medications, and other factors

  • Standardized diagnostic tools

Healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and nurses, use standardized diagnostic tools to diagnose mental health disorders accurately. These tools include the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders

  • Comprehensive evaluation

A comprehensive evaluation is essential to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning. The evaluation may include a review of the individual’s medical history, family history, and social and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of mental health disorders. It may also include psychological and cognitive assessments, laboratory tests, and imaging studies


The role of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and nurses, is crucial in conducting assessments and utilizing standardized diagnostic tools to diagnose mental health disorders in adults. A comprehensive evaluation is essential to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning. Accurate diagnosis is important to ensure that individuals receive the appropriate treatment and support that they need to manage their mental health disorders effectively. At, we recognize the significance of the diagnosis and assessment process in mental health care. Our team of expert writers understands the complexities involved in evaluating mental health disorders in adults. We provide comprehensive resources and guides that shed light on the diagnostic process, ensuring that readers have access to accurate and up-to-date information.


Treatment Options for Adults with Mental Health Disorders

Treatment options for adults with mental health disorders vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. A combination of treatments often works best, and a personalized and holistic approach to treatment is crucial. Below are some of the treatment options for adults with mental health disorders:

  1. Medication management

Medication is often used to manage the symptoms of mental health disorders. This includes antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and anti-anxiety medications. It is essential to work with a healthcare professional to determine the right medication and dosage for the individual.

  1. Therapy

Therapy is a type of treatment that can help individuals experiencing a wide array of mental health conditions and emotional challenges. Different types of therapy include:

  • Individual therapy: One-on-one sessions with a therapist to explore the individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
  • Group therapy: Therapy sessions conducted with a group of people who have similar mental health concerns.
  • Family therapy: Therapy sessions that involve family members to improve communication, resolve conflicts, and manage the effects of mental health disorders on the family
  1. Psychoeducation

Psychoeducation involves educating individuals and their families about mental health disorders, including the causes, symptoms, and treatment options. It helps individuals and their families understand the condition and the importance of treatment.

  1. Alternative therapies

Alternative therapies, such as meditation, yoga, and acupuncture, are becoming increasingly popular in the management of mental health disorders. These therapies can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.

  1. Collaborative care

Collaborative care involves a team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, and nurses, working together to manage the individual’s mental health condition. It is a personalized and holistic approach to treatment that takes into account the individual’s medical, psychiatric, and social needs.

It is important to note that a personalized and holistic approach to treatment is crucial to ensure that individuals receive the appropriate treatment and support that they need to manage their mental health disorders effectively. Working with a healthcare professional and developing a comprehensive treatment plan that is tailored to the individual’s needs can improve treatment outcomes and overall well-being

Recovery and Self-Care in Mental Health Care

Recovery is a process of change through which individuals improve their health and wellness, live a self-directed life, and strive to reach their full potential. Recovery is an ongoing journey and an end result, as well as an overall paradigm for achieving wellness and optimal mental health. The following are strategies and techniques that adults can incorporate into their daily lives to support their mental well-being:

  • Self-care

Self-care means taking the time to do things that help you live well and improve both your physical health and mental health. Self-care can help you manage stress, lower your risk of illness, and increase your energy. Some self-care strategies include:

  • Getting enough sleep
  • Eating a balanced diet
  • Exercising regularly
  • Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and meditation
  • Doing things you enjoy, such as reading, listening to music, or spending time in nature


  • Stress management

Stress can have a significant impact on mental health. Learning how to manage stress effectively can help individuals improve their mental well-being. Some stress management strategies include:

  • Identifying triggers and avoiding them when possible
  • Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation
  • Engaging in regular exercise
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Maintaining a healthy work-life balance
  • Healthy lifestyle choices

Making healthy lifestyle choices can also help improve mental well-being. Some healthy lifestyle choices include:

  • Avoiding alcohol and drugs
  • Quitting smoking
  • Eating a balanced diet
  • Engaging in regular exercise
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Building a strong support network

Having a strong support network can help individuals manage their mental health conditions effectively. Some ways to build a support network include:

  • Joining a support group
  • Participating in social activities
  • Reaching out to friends and family members for emotional support
  • Seeking professional help when needed

Remember that recovery is a process of change through which individuals improve their health and wellness, live a self-directed life, and strive to reach their full potential. Incorporating strategies and techniques such as self-care, stress management, healthy lifestyle choices, and building a strong support network into daily life can help individuals support their mental well-being and improve their overall quality of life

Support Systems and Resources for Adults with Mental Health Disorders

There are many support systems and resources available for adults with mental health disorders. These include:

  • National helplines

National helplines provide support, information, and referrals to individuals who are struggling with mental health issues. Some national helplines include:

  • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255)
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) Helpline: 1-800-950-NAMI (1-800-950-6264)
  • Crisis Text Line: Text HOME to 741741 to connect with a crisis counselor


  • Local support groups

Local support groups provide a safe and supportive environment for individuals to share their experiences, receive emotional support, and learn coping skills. Local support groups can be found through mental health organizations, community centers, and places of worship

  • Online communities

Online communities provide a platform for individuals to connect with others who are going through similar experiences. Online communities can be found through mental health organizations and social media platforms.

  • Mental health organizations

Mental health organizations provide guidance, information, and access to mental health services. Some mental health organizations include:

  • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
  • National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
  • Mental Health America (MHA)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  • State and local resources

State and local resources can provide information on mental health services and programs available in a specific area. Some state and local resources include:

  • State mental health departments
  • County health departments
  • Community mental health centers

It is essential to remember that there are many resources available to support individuals with mental health disorders. Seeking help from a healthcare professional and utilizing available resources can improve treatment outcomes and overall well-being

Addressing Stigma and Advocacy for Mental Health

Stigma is a significant barrier to individuals with mental health disorders seeking treatment and support. Stigma can take many forms, including discrimination, negative attitudes, and false beliefs about mental illness. Addressing stigma is crucial to promoting awareness, acceptance, and understanding within society to create a supportive environment for individuals with mental health challenges. The following are some ways to address stigma and promote advocacy:

  1. Speak up: Speak up when you hear negative or wrong comments about mental illness. Challenge stigma by seeing the person first and not labeling them by their mental illness. Educate others about mental health disorders and the impact of stigma on individuals with mental health challenges
  2. Share stories: Sharing stories can have a positive impact on reducing stigma. When we know someone with mental illness, it becomes less scary and more relatable. Individuals speaking out and sharing their stories can help reduce stigma and promote advocacy
  3. Seek help: Seeking help and treatment is essential to managing mental health disorders. Don’t let the fear of being labeled with a mental illness prevent you from seeking help. Treatment can provide relief by identifying what’s wrong and developing a plan to manage symptoms effectively
  4. Promote awareness: Promoting awareness about mental health disorders and the impact of stigma can help reduce stigma and promote advocacy. Participate in mental health events, share information about mental health resources, and support mental health organizations
  5. Support advocacy efforts: Supporting advocacy efforts for mental health disorders can help promote awareness and reduce stigma. This includes supporting mental health organizations, participating in mental health events, and advocating for policies that promote access to mental health services

In conclusion, addressing stigma and promoting advocacy for mental health disorders is crucial to creating a supportive environment for individuals with mental health challenges. Speaking up, sharing stories, seeking help, promoting awareness, and supporting advocacy efforts are some ways to address stigma and promote advocacy. By working together, we can reduce stigma and promote acceptance and understanding within society for individuals with mental health disorders

Barriers to Mental Health Care

Mental health care is essential to maintaining mental well-being, but many individuals face barriers that prevent them from seeking the care they need. Some of the most common barriers to mental health care include:

  1. Stigma: Stigma surrounding mental health disorders can prevent individuals from seeking treatment. Stigma can take many forms, including discrimination, negative attitudes, and false beliefs about mental illness
  2. Lack of access to care: Many individuals face obstacles in accessing mental health care services, including a lack of available providers, inadequate insurance coverage, high out-of-pocket costs, and fragmented care
  3. Shortage of mental health professionals: There is a shortage of mental health professionals, particularly in rural areas, which can make it difficult for individuals to access care
  4. Navigating the system: Navigating the mental health care system can be challenging and overwhelming for many individuals, particularly those who are already navigating other systems such as health care, education, and employment
  5. Limited mental health education and awareness: Often, those who have the greatest need for mental health treatment haven’t been taught the signs of mental illness and how treatment can help. This lack of awareness can prevent individuals from seeking the care they need

Addressing these barriers is essential to promoting access to mental health care and improving mental well-being. Some strategies to address these barriers include promoting awareness and education about mental health disorders, increasing access to mental health services, reducing stigma, and increasing the number of mental health

Conclusion: Importance of Mental Health and Psychiatric Care

Mental health is essential for overall well-being and quality of life. It encompasses emotional, psychological, and social well-being, and it affects how we think, feel, act, and relate to others. It is important to prioritize mental health and seek professional help, promote self-care, and access available resources.

It is essential to prioritize mental health and seek professional help when needed. Promoting self-care and accessing available resources can also play a role in maintaining mental health and supporting treatment and recovery. By taking care of our mental health, we can improve our overall well-being and quality of life. Remember that mental health problems are common, but recovery and improved quality of life are possible.

In conclusion, mental health and psychiatric care are of paramount importance for adults. Throughout this comprehensive guide, we have explored the common mental health disorders that affect adults, the signs and symptoms to look out for, the process of diagnosis and assessment, effective treatment options, and the availability of support systems and resources.

It is crucial to recognize that mental health disorders are real and can significantly impact individuals’ well-being and overall quality of life. Remember, you are not alone, and there are healthcare professionals and support networks available to assist you on your journey to better mental health.

We encourage you to prioritize your mental well-being by seeking help, practicing self-care, and utilizing the support systems and resources available. Remember, recovery is possible, and with the right support and treatment, individuals can experience improved quality of life and regain control over their mental health.

Take the first step towards better mental health today. Reach out to healthcare professionals, explore available resources, and remember that is here to support you on your academic and mental health journey. Together, we can break the stigma surrounding mental health and work towards a society that values and prioritizes the well-being of every individual.

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Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Strategies

Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment: Strategies for Effective Management

Welcome to, your trusted source for insightful articles on nursing and healthcare. In this blog post, we dive into the fascinating world of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) treatment. So, buckle up and join us as we explore the strategies and interventions that pave the way for effective management of this critical condition.

Picture this, a relentless battle is raging inside the human body, where the very essence of life hangs in the balance. Acute Coronary Syndrome, with its vice-like grip on the heart, demands urgent attention. Time becomes the enemy, and the right treatment can make all the difference between life and death.

As top-tier writers dedicated to providing you with the most up-to-date and accurate information, we take pride in unravelling the complexities of ACS treatment. Whether you’re a healthcare professional seeking comprehensive knowledge or a curious reader eager to understand the intricacies of cardiovascular care, you’ve come to the right place.

Join us as we embark on a journey through the corridors of cardiac health, exploring the nuances of Acute Coronary Syndrome treatment. From the initial recognition and diagnosis to the implementation of cutting-edge interventions, we will equip you with the knowledge and insights needed to make a difference in the lives of those affected by ACS.

So, without further ado, let’s delve into the world of ACS treatment and discover the strategies that hold the power to mend broken hearts and restore hope.

Understanding Acute Coronary Syndrome

Imagine a symphony where the heart takes center stage, orchestrating the rhythm of life. Now, picture an unwelcome disruption in this harmonious performance—an obstruction that hampers the heart’s supply of oxygen and nutrients. That disruption is none other than Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) refers to a group of conditions characterized by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. It is a medical emergency that requires prompt evaluation and treatment. In this section, we will delve into the different types of ACS, their underlying causes, and the risk factors involved.

Types of ACS

ACS encompasses three main conditions: unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

  • Unstable Angina: Unstable angina is characterized by chest pain or discomfort that occurs at rest or with minimal exertion. It is caused by a partial blockage of the coronary arteries due to the formation of blood clots or the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Unlike a heart attack, unstable angina does not cause permanent damage to the heart muscle.
  • NSTEMI: NSTEMI occurs when there is a partial blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. It is characterized by chest pain and may be accompanied by changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and an increase in cardiac biomarkers, such as troponin levels. NSTEMI can cause damage to the heart muscle, although it is usually less severe than STEMI.
  • STEMI: STEMI is the most severe form of ACS and is caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery, typically due to a blood clot. This complete blockage leads to a lack of blood flow and oxygen supply to a specific area of the heart, resulting in significant heart muscle damage. Prompt restoration of blood flow is crucial to minimize the extent of damage and improve outcomes.

Underlying Causes and Risk Factors

The underlying cause of ACS is atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the build-up of fatty deposits (plaques) within the coronary arteries. These plaques can gradually narrow the arterial lumen, reducing blood flow. When a plaque ruptures, it can trigger the formation of blood clots, further impeding blood flow and leading to ACS.

Several risk factors contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of experiencing ACS. These risk factors include:

  • Age: ACS risk increases with age, especially after 45 years in men and 55 years in women.
  • Gender: Men are generally at higher risk, but the risk in women increases after menopause.
  • Smoking: Tobacco use significantly raises the risk of ACS.
  • High blood pressure: Uncontrolled hypertension contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
  • High cholesterol levels: Elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, often referred to as “bad” cholesterol, promote plaque formation.
  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes are at higher risk of developing atherosclerosis and experiencing ACS.
  • Obesity: Excess weight, particularly abdominal obesity, increases the risk.
  • Family history: Having a close relative with a history of ACS or premature coronary artery disease raises the risk.
  • Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of regular physical activity is associated with an increased risk of ACS.
  • Stress and psychological factors: Chronic stress and certain psychological conditions may contribute to the development of ACS.

The Importance of Early and Effective Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment 

In the realm of Acute Coronary Syndrome, time becomes a precious commodity. Every passing moment can mean the difference between preserving heart muscle function or irreversible damage. Early and effective treatment is the key to altering the course of events and improving patient outcomes.

When it comes to ACS, the mantra is clear: Act swiftly, act decisively. By recognizing the signs and symptoms promptly, healthcare professionals can initiate a cascade of interventions designed to restore blood flow, relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and reduce the risk of future events.

It’s not just about buying time; it’s about seizing the opportunity to save lives. Early treatment can significantly minimize the extent of heart muscle damage, increase the chances of survival, and pave the way for a speedier recovery. With each passing minute, the stakes grow higher, underscoring the critical importance of a rapid and coordinated response.

As healthcare providers, we hold the power to make a profound impact on the lives of those affected by ACS. By understanding the nuances of this condition and staying abreast of advancements in treatment, we equip ourselves with the tools needed to deliver optimal care and instill hope in the hearts of our patients.

In the next sections, we will explore the recognition and diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome, uncover the goals of treatment, and delve into the strategies and medications employed to combat this relentless foe. So, stay tuned as we navigate the intricate landscape of ACS management, arming ourselves with knowledge to make a difference.

Recognizing and Diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome

In the realm of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), time is of the essence. Swift recognition and accurate diagnosis are crucial in initiating timely treatment and improving patient outcomes. In this section, we explore the common symptoms of ACS and highlight the importance of prompt medical evaluation and various diagnostic tests.

Common Symptoms of ACS

ACS often manifests with a distinctive array of symptoms that serve as warning signs of a potentially life-threatening condition. While symptoms can vary among individuals, the following are commonly reported:

  • Chest Pain or Discomfort: One of the hallmark symptoms of ACS is chest pain or discomfort. This pain is typically described as a pressure-like sensation, squeezing, heaviness, or tightness in the chest. The pain may radiate to the arm(s), jaw, neck, or back. It is important to note that chest pain may not always be present, especially in certain atypical presentations, such as in older adults, women, or individuals with diabetes.
  • Shortness of Breath: As ACS progresses, the inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle can lead to difficulty in breathing. Patients may experience shortness of breath, especially with minimal exertion or at rest. This symptom is often accompanied by a feeling of tightness in the chest.
  • Nausea and Sweating: ACS can also elicit other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, and profuse sweating. These symptoms are attributed to the body’s response to the immense stress and inadequate oxygen supply.

It is important to remember that symptoms can vary from person to person, and some individuals may even experience atypical or subtle symptoms, particularly in the elderly, women, or individuals with diabetes. Therefore, maintaining a high index of suspicion and considering ACS in the differential diagnosis is crucial for timely intervention.

Prompt Medical Evaluation and Accurate Diagnosis

When faced with potential ACS, prompt medical evaluation is vital to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment. Healthcare providers employ a combination of clinical assessment and diagnostic tests to accurately diagnose ACS. Here are some key diagnostic measures:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): An electrocardiogram is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It is a valuable tool in diagnosing ACS. ECG changes can reveal characteristic patterns, such as ST-segment elevation or depression, T-wave inversion, or the presence of Q-waves, which provide important clues for differentiating between NSTEMI and STEMI.
  • Blood Tests (Troponin Levels): Blood tests, specifically the measurement of cardiac biomarkers such as troponin levels, play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of ACS. Elevated troponin levels indicate heart muscle damage or injury. Serial measurements of troponin are often performed to assess the trend and aid in the diagnosis and risk stratification of ACS.
  • Coronary Angiography: Coronary angiography is an invasive procedure that involves the injection of contrast dye into the coronary arteries to visualize their anatomy. It helps identify the location and severity of coronary artery blockages or obstructions, guiding further management decisions, such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) if necessary.

Accurate diagnosis through these diagnostic tests enables healthcare providers to tailor treatment plans according to the specific type and severity of ACS, ensuring appropriate interventions are initiated promptly.

By recognizing the common symptoms of ACS and emphasizing the importance of prompt medical evaluation and accurate diagnosis, we emphasize the critical role of healthcare providers in swiftly identifying ACS and initiating the necessary steps to improve patient outcomes. Now, let’s move on to our third Section, Goals of Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment, as outlined earlier.

Goals of Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment

When facing Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), the goals of treatment revolve around saving lives, preserving heart function, and preventing future cardiovascular events. In this section, we explore the primary objectives of ACS treatment and the strategies employed to achieve them.

1.Saving Lives and Minimizing Heart Damage

The primary goal in ACS treatment is to save lives by restoring blood flow to the heart muscle and minimizing heart damage. Time is critical, and the following interventions are typically employed:

  1. a) Reperfusion Therapy: Reperfusion therapy aims to restore blood flow to the blocked coronary artery promptly. Two common approaches are utilized:
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): PCI, also known as angioplasty, involves the insertion of a catheter with a balloon at its tip into the blocked artery. The balloon is then inflated to widen the artery, allowing improved blood flow. Often, a stent is also placed to keep the artery open.
  • Thrombolytic Therapy: Thrombolytic therapy involves the administration of clot-dissolving medications to break down the blood clot causing the blockage. This therapy is typically used when immediate PCI is not feasible.
  1. b) Medications: Various medications are utilized to manage ACS and improve outcomes. These may include antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, and statins, among others. Medications are tailored to the specific type of ACS and the patient’s individual characteristics.
  2. Preventing Future Cardiovascular Events

ACS is a wake-up call, indicating the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. To prevent future cardiovascular events, additional goals of treatment include:

  1. a) Risk Factor Modification: Lifestyle modifications and management of risk factors play a crucial role in preventing recurrent events. This may involve addressing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and promoting smoking cessation. Healthy lifestyle choices, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress reduction, are also emphasized.
  2. b) Long-Term Medication Management: Following an ACS event, long-term medication management is essential. Medications such as antiplatelet agents, statins, and blood pressure-lowering medications may be prescribed to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events.
  3. c) Cardiac Rehabilitation: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a comprehensive approach to recovery and secondary prevention. These programs typically involve supervised exercise training, education on heart-healthy lifestyle choices, psychosocial support, and close monitoring of risk factors.
  4. Individualized Care and Shared Decision-Making

Each patient’s ACS journey is unique, necessitating individualized care and shared decision-making. Healthcare providers collaborate with patients to develop treatment plans that consider the patient’s preferences, comorbidities, and overall well-being.

By focusing on saving lives, minimizing heart damage, and preventing future cardiovascular events, ACS treatment encompasses a comprehensive approach that extends beyond the acute phase. Through timely interventions, risk factor modification, and long-term management, healthcare professionals strive to improve patients’ quality of life and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

In the next section, we will explore the specific strategies and medications employed in ACS treatment, shedding light on the tools that healthcare providers use to combat this formidable adversary.

By outlining the primary goals of ACS treatment and highlighting the strategies used to achieve them, we emphasize the comprehensive nature of care and the importance of tailoring treatment plans to individual patients. This approach underscores the collaborative nature of healthcare and the shared responsibility in promoting optimal outcomes.

Medications for Long-term Management

In the battle against Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), long-term management plays a crucial role in preventing future cardiovascular events and promoting optimal health. In this section, we explore the medications commonly prescribed for long-term management of ACS, empowering patients with the knowledge to take control of their health.

  1. a) Antiplatelet Agents: Antiplatelet medications are a cornerstone of long-term ACS management. They help prevent blood clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Commonly prescribed antiplatelet agents include:
  • Aspirin: Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation and is often recommended for long-term use in ACS patients.
  • P2Y12 Inhibitors: Medications such as clopidogrel, ticagrelor, and prasugrel are P2Y12 inhibitors that further inhibit platelet activation and aggregation. The choice of P2Y12 inhibitor depends on individual patient factors and considerations.
  1. b) Statins: Statins are lipid-lowering medications that play a vital role in reducing cholesterol levels and stabilizing plaque in the arteries. They are prescribed to ACS patients to lower the risk of future cardiovascular events. Commonly prescribed statins include atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin.
  2. c) Beta-Blockers: Beta-blockers help regulate heart rate and blood pressure, reducing the workload on the heart and preventing further damage. They are often prescribed to ACS patients, particularly those who have experienced a heart attack or have certain cardiac conditions. Commonly prescribed beta-blockers include metoprolol, carvedilol, and bisoprolol.
  3. d) Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs): ACE inhibitors and ARBs are medications used to manage hypertension and protect against further cardiac damage. They help relax blood vessels, lower blood pressure, and reduce strain on the heart. Examples of ACE inhibitors include lisinopril, enalapril, and ramipril, while ARBs include losartan, valsartan, and candesartan.
  4. e) Other Medications: Depending on the individual patient’s needs, additional medications may be prescribed, such as:
  • Antiplatelet/Anticoagulant Combination: Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin with a P2Y12 inhibitor, may be prescribed for a specific duration following ACS events or interventions like stent placement.
  • Anticoagulants: In certain cases, anticoagulant medications like warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be prescribed for individuals at high risk of blood clots.

It is essential to adhere to the prescribed medication regimen, attend regular follow-up appointments, and communicate any concerns or side effects to healthcare providers. Long-term medication management, in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, forms the foundation of successful ACS treatment.

Lifestyle Modifications and Cardiac Rehabilitation

Beyond medications, lifestyle modifications are key to optimizing cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of future cardiac events. Coupled with cardiac rehabilitation programs, these changes empower individuals to take charge of their well-being and enhance their quality of life.

  1. a) Healthy Eating Habits: Adopting a heart-healthy diet can significantly impact cardiovascular health. Emphasize the importance of:
  • Consuming a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
  • Limiting intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugars.
  • Controlling portion sizes and practicing mindful eating.
  1. b) Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity strengthens the heart, improves circulation, and reduces the risk of complications. Encourage patients to engage in aerobic exercises, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming, for at least 150 minutes per week. Additionally, incorporating strength training exercises at least two days a week helps improve overall cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength.
  2. c) Smoking Cessation: Smoking is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including ACS. Encourage patients to quit smoking and provide resources and support to facilitate smoking cessation. Quitting smoking not only reduces the risk of future cardiac events but also improves overall health and well-being.
  3. d) Stress Management: Chronic stress can contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Encourage patients to explore stress management techniques such as mindfulness meditation, deep breathing exercises, yoga, or engaging in hobbies and activities that promote relaxation and emotional well-being.
  4. e) Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Encourage patients to adopt a balanced, calorie-controlled diet, and provide guidance on portion sizes and mindful eating. Incorporating regular physical activity is also essential for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
  5. f) Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a comprehensive approach to recovery and secondary prevention for individuals with ACS. These programs provide a range of benefits, including:
  • Supervised Exercise Training: Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer structured exercise sessions under the supervision of healthcare professionals. These sessions help patients safely increase their physical activity levels, improve cardiovascular fitness, and regain confidence in their ability to exercise.
  • Education on Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Cardiac rehabilitation programs provide valuable education on topics such as nutrition, medication management, stress reduction, and risk factor modification. This knowledge empowers patients to make informed decisions and adopt sustainable lifestyle changes that promote cardiovascular health.
  • Psychosocial Support: ACS can have a significant emotional impact on patients. Cardiac rehabilitation programs offer a supportive environment where individuals can connect with others who have experienced similar challenges. Psychosocial support, including counseling and group therapy, helps patients navigate the emotional aspects of their condition and cope with the stress associated with their recovery.

Participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program can significantly improve cardiovascular health, enhance overall well-being, and reduce the risk of future cardiac events. Encourage patients to take advantage of these programs to optimize their recovery and long-term outcomes.

In the final section of this blog article, we will explore recent advancements in ACS treatment, shedding light on emerging therapies and ongoing research that holds promise for improving patient outcomes. Stay tuned to stay informed about the exciting developments in the field.


Recent advancements in ACS

Recent advancements in ACS treatment have brought about promising new therapies and ongoing research that could improve patient outcomes. Here are some key developments in ACS treatment.

Anti-inflammatory Treatment

  • Recent research suggests that anti-inflammatory treatments might improve the outcome of ACS by blocking interleukin-1 (IL-1) and other inflammatory markers
  • These treatments may help reduce inflammation and promote healing in the heart after an ACS event.

Biosensors and Implantable Devices

  • Recent advances in biosensor-based diagnosis and implantable devices have made it easier to diagnose and monitor ACS
  • These devices can provide real-time data on heart function, allowing healthcare providers to respond quickly to changes in a patient’s condition.

New Medications

  • New medications have been developed to treat ACS, including prasugrel, ticagrelor, vorapaxar, and abciximab
  • These medications have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent ACS events and improve patient outcomes.

Improved Systems of Care

  • Improvements in systems of care for STEMI and other types of ACS have helped reduce the time between symptom onset and treatment
  • This can help minimize damage to the heart and improve patient outcomes.

While there is no cure for ACS, early diagnosis and prompt treatment can protect the heart from further damage and help it work as well as possible. Ongoing research and development of new therapies hold promise for improving patient outcomes and reducing the burden of ACS on individuals and healthcare systems


In this comprehensive blog article, we have explored the essential aspects of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) treatment.

Timely and comprehensive treatment of ACS is paramount. By understanding the symptoms, seeking medical evaluation, adhering to medication regimens, and embracing lifestyle modifications, individuals can significantly improve their cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of future events.

Furthermore, it is essential to acknowledge the advancements in ACS treatment and the hope they bring. Ongoing research and emerging therapies continue to shape the field, offering new possibilities for improved outcomes and enhanced quality of life.

We understand that the content discussed in this article can be heavy, but accuracy and providing valuable information to our readers at are our top priorities. We appreciate your visit to our blog and hope that the knowledge shared here will empower you to make informed decisions regarding ACS treatment and promote a healthier future.

Thank you for your readership and for choosing as your trusted source of information. Stay tuned for more engaging and informative content to support your journey in the field of nursing and healthcare.

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Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

You have been asked to conduct an analysis of your care setting that will result in two potential pathways toward a strategic plan to improve health care quality and safety in your organization, department, team, community project, or other care setting. To accomplish this, you will take two approaches to the analysis:

  1. Complete the discovery and dream phases of an appreciative inquiry (AI) project.
  2. Conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis.

To help ensure that your analysis is well-received, the requester has suggested that you:

  • Present your analysis results in four parts:
    • Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream.
    • Part 2: SWOT Analysis.
    • Part 3: Comparison of Approaches.
    • Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills.
  • Your analysis should be 4–7 pages in length.

Note: Remember, you can submit all, or a portion, of your draft plan to Smarthinking for feedback before you submit the final version for this assessment. However, be mindful of the turnaround time for receiving feedback, if you plan on using this free service.

Analysis Requirements

Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide, so at a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Writing, Supporting Evidence, and APA Style
  • Communicate professionally when conducting interviews and collecting data.
  • Write clearly, with professionalism and respect for stakeholders and colleagues.
  • Integrate relevant sources of evidence to support your assertions.
    • Cite at least 3–5 sources of scholarly or professional evidence.
    • Include relevant interview information.
  • Format your document using APA style. The APA Style Paper Template and associated tutorial, linked in the Resources, are provided for your use. Be sure to include:
    • A title page and reference page. An abstract is not required.
    • A running head on all pages.
    • Appropriate section headings.
    • Properly formatted citations and references.
  • Proofread your writing to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it more difficult to focus on the substance of your analysis.
Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream
  • Synthesize stories and evidence about times when a care setting performed at its best with regard to quality and safety goals.
    • Collect stories from your care setting. You may collect stories through interviews or conversations with colleagues or provide your own.
    • Explain how your stories are related to quality and safety goals.
    • Describe the evidence you have that substantiates your stories.
    • Identify the positive themes reflected in your stories.
    • Describe other evidence (for example: data, awards, accreditations) that validates your care setting’s positive core.
  • Propose positive, yet attainable, quality and safety improvement goals for your care setting.
    • Explain how accomplishing these goals will lead to ethical and culturally-sensitive improvements in quality and safety.
    • Explain how your proposed goals align with your care setting’s mission, vision, and values.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Part 2: SWOT Analysis
  • Conduct a SWOT analysis of your care setting, with respect to quality and safety goals.
    • Provide a narrative description of your analysis.
    • Identify the assessment tool you used as the basis of your analysis.
    • Describe your key findings and their relationships to quality and safety goals.
  • Describe one area of concern that you identified in your SWOT analysis—relevant to your care setting’s mission, vision, and values—for which you would propose pursuing improvements.
    • Explain how this area of concern relates to your care setting’s mission, vision, and values.
    • Explain why you believe it will be necessary and valuable to pursue improvements related to this area of concern.
Part 3: Comparison of Approaches

Compare the AI and SWOT approaches to analysis and reflect on the results.

  • Describe your mindset when examining your care setting from an AI perspective and from a SWOT perspective.
  • Describe the types of data and evidence you searched for when taking an AI approach and a SWOT approach.
  • Describe the similarities and differences between the two approaches when communicating and interacting with colleagues.
Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills

Analyze the leadership characteristics and skills most desired in the person leading potential performance improvement projects, taking both an AI and SWOT approach.

  • Explain how these characteristics and skills would help a leader facilitate a successful AI-based project and a successful SWOT-based project.
  • Comment on any shared characteristics or skills you identified as helpful for both AI and SWOT approaches.




As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

One key aspect to being an effective leader, manager, or administrator is an awareness of your leadership strengths, weaknesses, and style.

  • How would you assess your general leadership, communication, and relationship-building skills?
  • How would describe your leadership style?

Imagine the future for a care setting that is your place of practice or one in which you would like to work.

  • What aspirational goals can you envision that would lead to improvements in health care quality and safety?
  • How well do these goals align with the mission, vision, and values of your care setting?



Care Setting Environmental Analysis


Conducting an environmental analysis in the healthcare system is an essential part of the strategic planning process of an organization. This tool helps in identifying the possible external and internal elements that may influence the organization’s operations. It also focuses on determining the risks and opportunities that may be available for the organization and the findings from the analysis are considered during the decision-making process (Phadermrod, Crowder, & Wills, 2019). The environment in which the healthcare sector operates has continuously evolved overtime. Various strategic tools can help to analyze the microenvironment of a business. The primary analysis tools include the PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, business tool analysis, and microenvironment analysis. All these tools are critical for the accomplishment of the business. This paper analyzes the ABC Health Clinic based on its strategic development, including the discovery and dream phases of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) project and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the healthcare institution.

Part 1: Appreciative Inquiry Discovery and Dream

Appreciative Inquiry (AI) represents one of the critical change methods that promise to energize quality management in the healthcare sector. According to MacCoy (2014), whatever the situation one encounters, the first step is always to discover and disclose the situation’s positive capacity. The aim of this stage is to find emphasis and highlight all factors that have led to success in similar cases. The best way to discover the best method is to first look at the peak experiences. However, one should also look at what touches his or her heart and spirit and what motivates him or her to view reality from a different perspective (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). On the other hand, dreaming entails the act of focusing on the possibility of what could be, rather than the limiting factors. In dreams, a person is focused on seeing and understanding things in a new way.


In healthcare organizations, quality management often seems more like a burden than an opportunity for growth. Such is the situation at ABC Health Clinic. Interviews were conducted among the clinic’s staff who gave their stories about their journey in the hospital. Most of the doctors, nurses, and other hospital staff, about 82 percent, indicated that they were satisfied with their departments of work and the duties assigned to them. They further stated that they were motivated to work in the hospital. Some of the factors that they highlighted as their motivators to work in the hospital included remuneration, working conditions, engagement by the management, and flexible work schedules.

It was reported that nurses at ABC cannot do their jobs without collaboration. When they assign beds and the floors push back, it delays the patients from getting to their assigned room. When discharge orders are not made earlier in the day, beds don’t become available until later in the day. All of these factors have to be done in a timely way for ABC to help improve patient flow.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Nurses also engage with each other and other departments. There are multiple tasks that are split among nurses. Services such as Cardiac, Surgery, Medicine, and Oncology all have to be distributed among several nurses to make sure the hospital’s entire bed board is covered. For patients that are being admitted, nurses work closely together to ensure the patients get appropriate services. Therefore, in order to ensure efficient patient flow, nurses work together. Although each nurse may have individual tasks to perform, the tasks are interrelated and a lot of time they have to collaborate to ensure everything runs smoothly and avoid delays.

In the Dream phase of AI analysis, the findings provided an outlook on the future of ABC on its commitment to patient safety goals. The future of ABC improvement processes is ongoing. The organization will be switching over to a new EMR, which is supposed to make interdepartmental data tracking and patient charting seamless. ABC is also looking to increase staffing and possibly changing locations to a larger office.

Part 2: SWOT Analysis

ABC Health Clinic is a healthcare establishment in which many people in Area B seek medical services. The clinic was established in 1991 and has experienced growth since then. The institution has various units such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the emergency department, burn center, the pediatric department, and many others. People in the area visit the hospital to seek emergency services and other small health issues. Outstandingly, the hospital has some of the most experienced doctors in the area who deliver competent medical attention and treatment plans to their patients’ satisfaction.

ABC’s SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis is a standard study tool used to determine the internal strengths and weaknesses of an organization, as well as its external opportunities and risks (Phadermrod et al., 2019). The strengths of any organization account for the positive aspects of the brand. For instance, in our case, ABC’s strengths make it one of the most favorable hospitals in the area.


ABC has many capabilities that gives it a huge advantage over the other health care organizations in the state. Examples include the following:

Reputation: The hospital is a nationally recognized healthcare center and exceeds many national benchmarks for safety. This is because of the quality care that ABC offers its’ patients. ABC analyzes trends, such as how long it takes a patient to be admitted, how long physicians spend with patients and the average response time for a transport order. This has positively impacted the emergency department and the organization’s patient safety goals for decreasing wait times and patients leaving without receiving medical care.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Highly qualified and experienced doctors and staff- Doctors and other staff in the hospital are what make the facility the most preferred choice for the people in the area. The hospital has a very complex employment process, which ensures that it hires the most qualified doctors and other hospital staff. This strength is one of the most critical factors that distinguish ABC from other hospitals, not only in the area but also in the entire region.

Brand name- ABC has, over the years, established itself as the most desirable hospital in the area since 1991. It has become popular, not only among the local people but also across the whole region. People travel for hundreds of kilometers to seek medical services at ABC. This brand name has been built through many years of hard work and dedication.

High-quality medical services-This is another positive aspect of the ABC Health Clinic. The two departments that have contributed to this popularity are the emergency department and outpatient section. Most of the emergences in the region are referred to as the ABC Clinic, including road accidents and burns. Other departments have contributed to this popularity, including the ICU, pediatric, and cancer departments.


According to Phadermrod, Crowder, and Wills (2019), weaknesses refer to the downside in a brand’s services. Although ABC does not have many shortcomings, it has some significant ones that can affect its performance.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

A decentralized organizational vision for throughput limits ABC’s goal for improving patient flow for patient safety in the emergency department. Patient flow is not only reliant on ED processes, but is also greatly dependent on occupied inpatient beds. Earlier discharges would alleviate extended wait times for patients in the ED. Until patient flow becomes a central idea to the organization, patient safety due to the long length of stay will remain an unresolved issue.

The high cost of medical services-One of the critical weaknesses of the healthcare facility is its high cost of medical services. Since the clinic has been operational for many years, it is supposed to have addressed the problem of high prices. Even though it provides high-quality services, it should give them at an affordable cost. Some of the services, such as cancer treatment, are provided at costs that are unreachable by many people in the area. This is an issue that the clinic may consider with utmost seriousness since it is located in an area where most people are medium-income earners.

Inadequate staff – Another weakness is that the clinic has inadequate staff. Considering the number of people that visit the hospital in a day, the ratio of doctor to patients is 1:50. Since there are some patients whose medical conditions require a considerable amount of time, the number of doctors in the hospital cannot adequately cater for all patients.


Many hospitals do not offer some of the services that are offered at ABC Health Clinic. This is most likely the reason why many people travel for long distances to seek medical services at ABC clinic. Some of the services offered include cancer treatment and gynecological services. In order for patient flow to work successfully, ABC needs to change the hospital’s current culture of viewing throughput as the responsibility of the ED to one of a hospital-wide responsibility. Throughput needs to be a system-wide objective of every department involved in patient care from admission to discharge. In order for a culture change to be successful, the management should introduce the changes and train the frontline staff how to follow the new process which would enable the hospital transformation.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system


In an organization, threats are the external obstacles that stand on the path of its success. The only significant threat for ABC is the new emerging hospitals that are likely to be its competitors in the years to come. Hospitals in the region are increasingly investing in new medical technologies and inventions, and are advancing in terms of service provision. This implies that ABC has to draft strategies to improve its operations and to remain relevant and competitive in the near future. Threats to any healthcare organization with below-average scores in patient safety can affect insurance reimbursement and leave the organization at risk for malpractice lawsuits. A commitment to patient safety is key to avoiding these threats.

Part 3: Comparison of Approaches

The organizational outcomes when SWOT analysis and when AI is used are entirely different. SWOT analysis has a deficient level of engagement compared to AI. The latter collects information by asking questions regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the organization or the issue at hand. It takes into account each set of questions by focusing on more specific areas when collecting diverse perspectives from different members of the team. AI is more result-oriented because it stimulates and encourages positive outcomes (Bertram et Al., 2016).The assumption in this comparison is that the threats and weaknesses are overpowered by the strengths, and that the SWOT analysis in the ABC Clinic is applied the way it is described. The bias in the AI analysis is that it does not consider what the organization should avoid in order to fully uncover the available opportunities.

On the contrary, SWOT is more of a balanced analysis that usually generalizes. Also, the model focuses more on the failures than the achievements. For ABC Clinic, focusing on the negatives may deprive it of its confidence, thus destroying the inspirational vision to work (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). The data collected in the AI approach has led to the focus on positive aspects of the departments as well as on how the staff felt about their job and their contribution to patient safety goals. ABC aims to create a command center, Patient Placement Operation Center (PPOC), a nurse-driven department and serving as patient flow specialists that identify where beds are free and where incoming patients should be placed. These specialists will oversee housekeeping to ensure new beds are ready for patients and coordinate with the transport team tasked with moving patients around the hospital where staff members can more efficiently oversee patient flow. Thus, ABC would reduce patient long wait times and patients leaving without receiving medical attention which creates quality and safety issues for the patients. The patient safety throughput initiatives will ensure improvements in quality care, patient satisfaction and financial returns.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Moreover, with the growing emphasis on evidence-based practices (EBP), uncertainty has become a major factor affecting the healthcare setting. Uncertainty is the main drive for medical researchers, patients’ pursuit for medical care, and medical interventions. However, despite its impact on healthcare, there is still minimal knowledge on how to address the effects it has on the stakeholders of the health sector. These knowledge gaps include the uncertainties encountered by patients and clinicians, the effects of communication barriers, and how to assist them in dealing with the uncertainties. A fundamental way to address the knowledge gaps would be drafting an empirical evidence framework that integrates the concept of uncertainty from various disciplines.

Part 4: Analysis of Relevant Leadership Characteristics and Skills

Leadership is an important aspect, especially in healthcare organizations. Although it is not fundamentally taught in medical schools, hospital leaders are expected to demonstrate high-quality leadership skills to lead their healthcare organizations to success (De Zulueta, 2016). ABC Health Clinic recognizes the importance of engaging its staff in leadership roles. During the interviews, one of the nurses at ABC indicated that every staff in the clinic could lead a team in his or her respective area. This was because the management of the hospital had an obligation to provide its staff with opportunities to develop their leadership skills.

Environmental analysis in the healthcare system

Team leaders were found to have high-quality leadership skills, primarily through their communication. Communication skills promote an understanding between the leaders and their subordinates and between the management and employees (Bertram, Gilbert, & Culver, 2016). ABC staffs are also trained in team-building skills. The group meetings that were conducted to obtain information for the present paper revealed that no staff member dominates others during conversation, implying that each staff member has excellent team-building skills.


The target market for every organization keeps evolving on a daily basis. Technological advancement and the environment are the critical situational factors that mostly determine the outcomes and relevance of an organization against its competitors. Therefore, organizations such as the ABC Health Clinic may incorporate either the AI or SWOT analysis tools to assess its internal and external factors, and draft the best strategies that will aid in realization of objectives. ABC has an opportunity to expand its operations and open branches in other areas to take its services closer to consumers.  However, the organization needs to increase the number of staff to reduce burnout and stress among nurses.  Other motivators for nurses that should be maintained by the company include remuneration, working conditions, engagement by the management, and flexible work schedules.




Bertram, R., Gilbert, W., & Culver, D. (2016). Using appreciative inquiry to create high-impact coach learning: Insights from a decade of applied research. Practitioner. Retrieved from

De Zulueta, P. C. (2016). Developing compassionate leadership in health care: an integrative review. Journal of healthcare leadership8, 1. Doi:10.2147/jhl.s68068

Phadermrod, B., Crowder, R. M., & Wills, G. B. (2019). Importance-performance analysis-based SWOT analysis. International Journal of Information Management44, 194-203. Doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.07.001

MacCoy, D. (2014). Appreciative Inquiry and Evaluation – Getting to What Works. Retrieved from



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Incorporating Technology in health-centered learning

Incorporating Technology in health-centered learning

  • Reflect on the health-centered learning needs of patients in your community, communities with which you are familiar, or communities abroad. Consider not only patients grouped by geographic location, but also those that represent a functional community, such as expectant mothers or patients with breast cancer or muscular dystrophy.
  • Reflect on the mobile applications and social networking sites you have used for both personal and professional reasons. How might these technologies help to address patient learning needs?
  • Select either a geographic community or functional community to further investigate.
  • Using the websites in this week’s Learning Resources and your own scholarly research, identify specific learning needs of your selected community of patients. The learning need that you select might be associated with a health concern, preventative care practices, health management, or basic patient education.
  • Browse the Internet to select a mobile application, social networking site, or other technology that might be appropriate for your patient community. Once selected, save pictures, videos, and/or capture screenshots that highlight the benefits of this technology.
  • Review the section Guidelines for PowerPoint in Chapter 8 of the Herrman course text.
  • Describe how you would construct a PowerPoint that explains the following:
    • Learning needs of the community, as well as their relevance (i.e. why does this matter? Why should patients and nurses care to address this learning need?)
    • A mobile application (i.e. handheld tablet or smart phone) or social media website that could help to address this need and why
    • Suggestions for using this technology
    • Any concerns or potential problems that might be associated with this technology
    • Follow-up activities to increase the success of patient/nurse integration into daily activities



Incorporating Technology in Community-Based Learning

The use of mobile devices in nursing has led to the development of medical software apps and applications to improve patient care. Mobile devices have helped in medical coding and billing, practice management, diagnosis and treatment, and electronic prescription (West, 2012). Therefore, mobile apps can help nurses answer clinical questions and provide resourceful information that can improve healthcare delivery without visiting the hospital (West, 2012). Therefore, mobile apps are ultimately cost-effective because they help nurses to reach more patients.

Incorporating Technology in health-centered learning

Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide (JHABx) is an evidence-based software app that helps in medical education; information gathering, consulting, communication, and health record maintenance and access (Boudreaux et al., 2014). The app allows nurses to identify diagnostic possibilities, appropriate scans and tests to order, reducing cost of care and decreasing unnecessary procedures. The app is essential for helping patients to identify preventive measures, counseling, improving practice efficiency and knowledge and ensuring the quality of data management and accessibility.


 The main advantage of using Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide (JHABx) as a medical app is that it provides numerous conveniences, including rapid access to information, better clinical decision-making, improve accuracy, efficiency, and productivity (Boudreaux et al., 2014). On the other hand, the major challenge of the app is that lack of privacy and protecting patient data, their lack of reliability for making clinical decisions, increased medicolegal and ethical implications, and its impact on the doctor-patient relationship (Boudreaux et al., 2014).

Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide (JHABx is a valuable tool in clinical practice and delivery of health care. However, the app requires the rigorous development of best-practice standards, evaluation, and validation to ensure their safety and quality level in the delivery of healthcare.




Boudreaux, E. D., Waring, M. E., Hayes, R. B., Sadasivam, R. S., Mullen, S., & Pagoto, S.

(2014). Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations. Translational behavioral medicine4(4), 363-371.

West, D. (2012). How mobile devices are transforming healthcare. Issues in technology

innovation18(1), 1-11.

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Opportunities for RNs and APRNs in Policy Review

Opportunities for RNs and APRNs in Policy Review

In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making. A critical component of any policy design is evaluation of the results. How comfortable are you with the thought of becoming involved with such matters?

Some nurses may be hesitant to get involved with policy evaluation. The preference may be to focus on the care and well-being of their patients; some nurses may feel ill-equipped to enter the realm of policy and political activities. However, as you have examined previously, who better to advocate for patients and effective programs and polices than nurses? Already patient advocates in interactions with doctors and leadership, why not with government and regulatory agencies?

In this Discussion, you will reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

To Prepare:

  • In the Module 4 Discussion, you considered how professional nurses can become involved in policy-making.
  • Review the Resources and reflect on the role of professional nurses in policy evaluation.

By Day 3 of Week 9

Post an explanation of at least two opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review. Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present and describe how you might overcome these challenges. Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities. Be specific and provide examples.



Policy and Advocacy for Improving Population Health

There are a number of opportunities that currently exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy review. One of the opportunities existing for RNs and APRNs is participating in policy reviews in the professional bodies (Cziraki, Read, Spence & Wong, 2018). In this, the nurses join the many organizations for nurses in all categories such as the American Nurses Organization. The bodies largely influence the implementation of the policies. The second role relates to the influencing the healthcare delivery programs (Crowne, Young, Goldman, Patterson, Krouse & Proenca, 2017). The nurses contribute towards the promotion of quality health for the populace. The RNs and APRNs in their capacity enhance the promotion of the policies to facilitate their effectiveness.

Nursing Paper Help

The professional bodies may experience the challenge of complexity when it comes to the process of member registration (Nyborg, Danbolt & Kirkevold, 2017). Thus, many qualified nurses are unable to join professional organizations. However, dealing with the problem requires putting in place a simple elaborate process. This is achievable through having a dynamic leadership to oversee such requirements. Consequently, it is challenging for the nurses who have no updates on the policies to participate in their review. This hinders them not only to ensure appropriate care delivery but also prevents them from undertaking policy review opportunities. Thus, the nurses require adequate information on the policy changes to ensure that the implementation phase becomes seamless. Poor leadership and skills are also problems that require active inquiries to rectify any loopholes that might hinder effective service delivery.


The effective strategies for facilitating the communication of the opportunities include training and quality leadership (Al-Hussami, Hamad, Darawad & Maharmeh, 2017). Through training, the nurses grasp a better understanding of their work environment, as well as their role in implementing the relevant policies to ensure quality healthcare. Equally, leadership is responsible for ensuring that the nurses have the democratic mandate of reviewing and speaking their views on a given policy. The leaders should also provide a platform for the nurses to do the policy reviews.




Al-Hussami, M., Hamad, S., Darawad, M., & Maharmeh, M. (2017). The effects of leadership competencies and quality of work on the perceived readiness for organizational change among nurse managers. Leadership in Health Services, 30(4), 443-456. Retrieved from

Crowne, K. A., Young, T. M., Goldman, B., Patterson, B., Krouse, A. M., & Proenca, J. (2017). Leading nurses: Emotional intelligence and leadership development effectiveness. Leadership in Health Services, 30(3), 217-232. Retrieved from

Cziraki, K., Read, E., Spence, L. H. K., & Wong, C. (2018). Nurses’ leadership self-efficacy, motivation, and career aspirations. Leadership in Health Services, 31(1), 47-61. Retrieved from

Nyborg, I., Danbolt, L. J., & Kirkevold, M. (2017). Few opportunities to influence decisions regarding the care and treatment of an older hospitalized family member: A qualitative study among family members. BMC Health Services Research, 17 doi:


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Major Psychological Theories

Major Psychological Theories

Understanding the theoretical foundations, influential theorists, and demarcation of the three major movements of psychology is essential to having a fundamental knowledge of the discipline. Psychoanalysis; behaviorism; and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE) are recognized as the three primary movements of psychology.  As such, they provide a rich history of human science and form the basis for understanding human experience and the human condition as a whole. In this assignment, you will address this history, synthesize the theories, and consider applications of the theories.


General Requirements:

  • To foster retention of foundational theories in psychology, this assignment requires the incorporation of information from this course and previous courses regarding psychological theories and their applications. Refer to PSY-802, Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Theory and PSY-803, Behaviorism to assist with this assignment.
  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • This assignment requires that at least ten scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included. Scholarly works encountered in prior doctoral courses may be used in this assignment

Major Psychological Theories


Write a paper (2,250-2,500 words) that demonstrates your understanding of the primary movements in psychology – psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). Your paper should provide a historical perspective for each of the movements, showcase your understanding of the key components of each, and suggest a synthesis and application of the theories. Include the following in your paper:

  1. An overall historical context of all three movements. (Benchmarks C.1.1:  Discuss the history and development of the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and   Humanistic/Transpersonal/Existential (HTE) Psychology)
  2. A rationale for why each movement is/was considered essential to understanding human behavior and experiences.
  3. An analysis of psychoanalysis/psychodynamic theory. What were the primary tenets and perspectives of the theories? Who were the key theorists? How did their work lead them to new ideas including Neo-Freudianism?
  4. An analysis of behaviorism. What were the theoretical underpinnings of the movement? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? Who were the key theorists?
  5. An analysis of humanistic, transpersonal, and existential psychology (HTE). From what cultural and historical contexts did the movement emerge? What were the primary tenets and concepts of the movement? Why were these tenets and concepts important? How do these tenets and concepts differ across the movement? Who were the key theorists?
  6. A synthesis of these movements. How did these movements enhance the understanding of human behavior, growth, and potential? (Benchmarks C.1.2:  Synthesize the theories of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  7. An evaluation of the applications of the theories that were the basis for each of these movements. To what extent has the application of these theories enhanced treatments in mental health and the helping professions? (Benchmarks C.1.3:  Evaluate the common applications of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and HTE Psychology)
  8. A statement of next steps. What comes next in the development of psychological approaches to understanding human behavior and experience



Major Psychological Movements


When psychology initially emerged as a separate science from philosophy and biology, a debate emerged over how to analyze and explain the human mind and behavior. Prior to the 19th century, anyone interested in analyzing the human mind would do so in a philosophical context. However, two men, Wilhelm Wundt and William James, working at this time defied the rules of human physiology to introduce a new field of science referred to as psychology. Over the years, psychology has evolved into several approaches and theories. There may be multiple theories within a specific approach but all share common assumptions and beliefs about human behavior (McLeod, 2014). There are several different psychological perspectives that introduce something different to the understanding of the human mind and behavior. Among the many psychological approaches there are three primary movements in psychology. They include; the theories of psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal theory and existential psychology. This paper will provide a historical analysis of psychology and its approaches, it will also synthesize the three primary movements in psychology and lastly, the paper will present the applications of the theories.

Historical Context of the Primary Movements in Psychology

Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism and Humanistic

Behaviorism is a psychological approach that uses scientific methods to investigate stimulus-response behaviors. According to behaviorism, behaviors are acquired through a series of interactions with the environment (Krapfl, 2016).  Early work in behavior psychology begun in 1913 and was championed by John Watson and his article ‘Psychology as the behaviorist views it’. In the article, Watson presented several basic assumptions about behaviorism. Watson claimed that the environment plays a major role in influencing behavior. Additionally, behaviorism focuses on observable behavior and not on internal events. A few years before Watson’s article, Ivan Pavlov carried out an experiment on conditioning after studying digestion in dogs. In 1897, Pavlov published his findings. A few years after Watson’s article, B.F Skinner founded radical behaviorism which claimed that psychology should neither predict nor control behavior (McLeod, 2017). Skinner, like Watson, recognized that internal mental events can be explained in the analysis of behavior. Skinner in 1948 published ‘Walden Two’ where he proposes the development of a Utopian society rooted in the principles of behaviorism. Later on in 1971, Skinner published Beyond Freedom and Dignity where he notes that free will is an illusion. In addition to the work done by Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, other behavioral psychologists have expounded on the idea of behaviorism by publishing books and writing articles. Clark Hull published the principles of Behavior in 1943 (McLeod, 2017). Overall behaviorism states that behavior is simply a stimulus-response feature.

Major Psychological Theories

Owing its origin to the works and theories of Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis is a set of therapeutic techniques and psychological theories whose core idea is the belief that human beings have feelings, desires, thoughts and memories (Wachtel, 2014). By introducing the contents of the unconscious mind into the consciousness, individuals are able to experience catharsis and thus become aware of their current state of mind. Therefore, people find relief from distress and any form of psychological disturbance (Wachtel, 2014). Freud (1856-1939) an Australian neurologist was fascinated by patients with hysteria and neurosis. After observing these patients, Freud theorized that the hysteria arose from the patient’s conscious mind. Based on his observations, he developed psychoanalytical therapy and published his findings in his book A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis in 1922 (Lees, 2008). Gestalt psychology principles were introduced in the United States by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler who were German psychologists immigrating into the United States. According to Gestalt principles, sensory experiences can be broken down into different parts where the parts relate to each other forming a whole. Unlike behaviorism, psychoanalysis is more concerned with understanding inner experiences and how these experiences affect the individual.

Major Psychological Theories

While behaviorism focuses on stimulus-response interactions and psychoanalysis on the effects of the unconscious mind on the conscious mind, humanistic psychology emphasizes on looking at an individual as a free and self-efficient being. Additionally, humanistic psychology helps people maximize their potential and their well-being (Serlin, 2014). This approach emerged in the 1950s as a response to behaviorism and psychoanalysis which had dominated the field of psychology at the time. Carl Rogers, a psychologist was interested in understanding everything that helped humans grow, improve and thrive. According to Rogers, psychology was designed to help people live their best lives and achieve happiness (Serlin, 2014). It was this belief that motivated psychologist Abraham Maslow to develop the hierarchy of human needs. In the late 1950s, Maslow and other humanistic psychologists begun to grow the humanistic approach which focused on creativity, individualism, self actualization and personal fulfillment. In line with these objectives, the American Association for Humanistic Psychology was developed in 1961. The following year, Maslow published Toward a Psychology of Being which highlights the third force in psychology. In 1971, humanistic psychology was introduced as a unique division of the American Psychological Association (Serlin, 2014). The humanistic approach has provided unique perspectives on the way human behavior is understood.

Major Psychological Theories

Transpersonal Psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a field in psychology focused on the spiritual aspects of human life. Transpersonal psychology was initially introduced in 1960 by Abraham Maslow and Victor Frankl. In 1969, the journal of transpersonal psychology was published. Two years later, the association for transpersonal psychology was founded. Additionally, in 1978 the international transpersonal association was created to promote education and research in the field of transpersonal psychology (Stanislav, 2008).  While transpersonal psychology did not formally begin until the 1960s, it owes its roots to the works of psychologists William James and Carl Jung. In addition to applying the principles of psychology to understand spiritual matters, transpersonal psychology provides a richer appreciation and understanding of human beings and strives to help them attain their maximum potential.

Major Psychological Theories

Existential psychology

Existential psychology is a branch of psychology that analyses the way in which people understand the basic concepts of human existence (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology was developed in the early 20th century to reflect on the principles of philosophical anthropology and psychoanalysis. Existential psychology is mainly based on the works of Martin Heidegger’s “Being and Time”. Since its introduction, existential psychology has been closely linked to philosophy since it is majorly based on some aspects of psychological theory of personality and the philosophical understanding of human beings (Tan & Wong, 2012). This form of therapy was developed from the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Soren Kierkegaard. Philosopher Kierkegaard theorized that human internal wisdom can overcome human discontent. Nietzsche on the other hand, developed the principles of existentialism by introducing the concepts of personal responsibility and free will. In the early 1990s, Jean-Paul Sartre explored the role of interpretation in the healing process. Otto Rank actively pursued this filed and was latter joined by Paul Tillich and Rollo May who introduced existential therapy in their writings (“History of Existential Therapy”, 2015). Later on, Viktor Frankl developed logotherapy while other psychologists ventured into humanistic psychology (Koole, 2011). Existential psychology focuses on the underlying factors associated with behavior while also addressing mental health concerns.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Psychoanalysis Theory

Psychoanalytic psychologists believe that psychological problems are located in the mind. Thus, when these symptoms manifest, they are often caused by hidden disturbances. Some of the hidden disturbances include unresolved issues that mainly occur during the development stage or as a result of repressed trauma (Sousa, 2011). According to psychoanalysis, treatment should focus on bringing forward repressed trauma to the conscious mind so that the individual can deal with it. Psychologists use psychoanalysis to treat anxiety disorders and depression. Due to the intricate defense mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the unconscious mind, psychoanalysis is a lengthy process. The theory assumes that when symptoms are reduced they make little to no difference in the wellness of the patient as long as the underlying conflicts are not resolved (Sousa, 2011). Some of the techniques used in psychoanalysis include Rorschach ink blots, Freudian slip and free association. Sigmund Freud had many ideas that were controversial. However, Freud attracted several followers who adopted many of his views but changed several aspects of the theory by incorporating their own ideas, opinions and beliefs. Neo-Freudian psychologist Carl Jung developed the theory of personality and introduced the concept of collective unconscious. Alfred Adler heavily disagreed with Freud’s statement that sex was the primary motivator of human behavior. As such he designed his own approach that placed greater emphasis on interpersonal and social influences. Erik Erikson disagreed with Freud’s beliefs that personality was cemented in early childhood. Erikson believed that development was a life-long journey (Sousa, 2011). Additionally, Erikson noted that not all conflicts were unconscious. Karen Horney was the first woman to receive training in psychoanalysis. She was also the first one to criticize Freud for presenting women as lesser beings to men. Both Freudian and neo-Freudian principles played an intricate role in shaping the field of psychology.


Analysis of Behaviorism

Behavior analysis is a science-based approach that utilizes the principles of behaviorism. Behavior analysis is a behaviorist tradition that utilizes learning principles and investigates how they are used to bring about change in behavior. Behavioral psychology does not focus on mentalistic causes of behavior but analyzes the behavior itself (O’Neil, 2008). Behavior analysis builds the abilities in children and adults increasing their academic performance or employee performance. According to division 25 of the American Psychological Division, behavior analysis occurs through experiments and investigations of behavior and through applied behavior analysis. Behaviorism was established by Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner (O’Neil, 2008). While conducting investigations on dogs, Pavlov noticed the occurrence of conditioning reflex. He used his findings to establish classical conditioning. According to classical conditioning, environmental stimuli can stimulate a conditioned response. Watson expounded on Pavlov’s theory and applied it to understanding human behavior. Skinner further expounded on these concepts and introduced operant conditioning. According to Skinner, reinforcements result in desired behavior. There are several techniques and strategies used by behavior analysts (O’Neil, 2008). They include; chaining, prompting and shaping. Chaining is a behavior technique that involves breaking down a task into smaller parts. The simplest tasks are then selected and are taught first. Prompting is the use of prompts to trigger desired responses. Lastly, shaping strategies involve the process of gradually altering behavior. Behavior analysis has been used to help children with autism or children with developmental delays better control their behavior.

Major Psychological Theories

Analysis of Humanistic, transpersonal and Existential (HTE) Psychology

Transpersonal psychology has implicit metaphysical assumptions that there are experiences that transcend human experiences. This concept has been backed by transpersonal theorists like Abraham Maslow, Ken Wilber, Michael Washburn and Stansilov Krippner. Both existential and transpersonal psychology share one thing in common; both of them believe in the human potential and are committed to upholding human dignity. In the 1950s, the two most dominant schools of thought were behaviorist and psychoanalytic. Many psychologists criticized these beliefs and in response, embraced the humanistic approach. Humanistic psychology theorizes that a person’s subjective experience is crucial in behavior (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Additionally, humanistic psychology believes that every person has free will and people naturally strive to maintain a state of self actualization (Bland & Derobertis, 2007). Transpersonal psychology introduces new concepts in the field of psychology. Transpersonal psychology includes the influences of spiritual experiences and acknowledges that they is a higher purpose. Transpersonal psychology highly emphasizes on relationships and strives to understand how the mind works based on the person’s relationships with others (Friedman, 2014). Existential psychology believes that man has free will and is self aware, human beings are self-actualizing and have a great capacity to grow, and lastly, individuals and their self-identity. Existential psychology is unique in that it has acknowledged that humans have limitations. Existential psychology analyzes human condition but takes a positive approach towards it.

Major Psychological Theories

In conclusion, there is no right way to study the way people think or act. However, there are several schools of thought that have evolved in the development of psychology and have advised psychologist on the human behavior investigated. Some of the main schools include; psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanist, transpersonal and existential psychology. Some psychologists focus on specific schools of thought including the biological perspective while other psychologists take a different approach where they incorporate new approaches. Overall, as the paper has shown, no perspective is better than the other; each perspective simply highlights different aspects of human behavior.



Bland, A.M. & Derobertis, E.M. (2017). The Humanistic Perspective in Psychology. Researchgate, Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1484-2

Friedman, H., (2014). Finding Meaning Through Transpersonal Approaches in Clinical Psychology: Assessments and Psychotherapies. International Journal of Existential Psychology and Psychotherapy, 5(1), 45-49.

“History of Existential Therapy”. (2015). East European Association for Existential Therapy. Retrieved from

Krapfl, J.E. (2016). Behaviorism and Society. The Behavior Analyst: Association for Behavior Analysis International, 39(1), 123-129. Doi: 10.1007/s40614-016-0063-8

Koole, S.L. (2011). Existential Psychology. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. Doi: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0329

Lees, J. (2008). A History of Psychoanalytic Research. Journal of Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organizations, 11(2), 117-131. Doi: 10.1080/14753630500108042

McLeod, SA. (2014). Psychology Perspectives. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

McLeod, SA. (2017). Behaviorist Approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

O’Neil, W. M. (2008). American Behaviorism: A Historical and Critical Analysis. SAGE Journals Theory & Psychology, Doi: 10.1177/0959354395052008

Serlin, I.A. (2014). The History and Future of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(4), 428-431. Doi: 10.1177/0022167811412600

Stanislav, G. (2008). Brief History of Transpersonal Psychology. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 27(1). Doi: 10.24972/ijts.2008.27.1.46

Sousa, A. (2011). Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A Conceptual Analysis. Mens Sana Monographs, 9(1), 210-217. Doi: 10.4103/0973-1229.77437

Tan, S. & Wong, T.K. (2012). Existential Therapy: Empirical Evidence and Clinical Applications from a Christian Perspective. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3).

Wachtel, P.L. (2014). Psychoanalysis and its Social Context. Psychoanalytic Perspectives, 11(1), 58-68. Doi: 10.1080/1551806X.2014.857991


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Management of Tuberculosis

Management of Tuberculosis

Wilson is a 36-year-old migrant worker. He was admitted to the Hospital with a cough, unintended weight loss, and night sweats. He is staying with 6 friends in a one bedroom apartment near the strawberry field where he works. The ED physician suspects Tuberculosis (TB).

  • What diagnostic testing will the Provider order to confirm a diagnosis of TB?
  • What Isolation precautions do you expect to be put in place and why?
  • Describe the recommended treatment regimen for TB, including the rationale for combination drug therapy.
  • Identify the reason compliance to medication therapy is often a concern in the patient with TB.
  • What should be done for Wilson’s 6 roommates?



Management of Tuberculosis

            Clinical presentation for Wilson reveals that he may have tuberculosis. His symptoms include unintended weight loss, night sweats, and coughs. However, to get a clear diagnosis of tuberculosis, the practitioner needs to perform a Mantoux tuberculin skin test. It involves the injection of a fluid into the skin of a person’s lower arm. Alternatively, the practitioner can take samples of the patient’s sputum to confirm tuberculosis infection (Lange et al., 2018). The practitioner needs to provide airborne isolation precautions. This is because the germs causing tuberculosis are usually spread via air. Since the client is staying with 6 friends, he needs to be given a special room to minimize spread of tuberculosis bacteria (Rangaka et al., 2015).

Research Paper Help

The recommended regimen for tuberculosis involves four drugs. For intitial treatment, a patient is given rifampin, pyazinamide, isoniad, and either streptomycin or ethambutol. Ethambutol or streptomycin may be discontinued when the person is viewed to be fully susceptible. The use of combination therapy is considered essential as it helps in killing a high number of TB-causing bacteria in the body. The combination is also determined by whether the person has an active or latent form of the disease and whether the person is infected by human immunodeficiency virus (Lange et al., 2018).


Compliance to tuberculosis treatment is a big concern for patients because the bacteria associated with the disease is very strong. Poor adherence to treatment may make people to be infectious for a longer period. They are also more likely to relapse or die. Moreover, taking drugs according to the prescriptions is viewed to control drug-resistant form of tuberculosis.  In the scenario, Wilson’s roommates also need to undergo diagnosis to verify if they have tuberculosis or not. If they do not have the disease, Wilson needs to be isolated from them in order to minimize chances of being infected (Rangaka et al., 2015).



Lange, C., Chesov, D., Heyckendorf, J., Leung, C. C., Udwadia, Z., & Dheda, K. (2018).

Drug‐resistant tuberculosis: An update on disease burden, diagnosis and treatment. Respirology, 23(7), 656-673.

Rangaka, M. X., Cavalcante, S. C., Marais, B. J., Thim, S., Martinson, N. A., Swaminathan, S.,

& Chaisson, R. E. (2015). Controlling the seedbeds of tuberculosis: diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis infection. The Lancet, 386(10010), 2344-2353.





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Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

ASSIGNMENT 1 Writing Activity 1: Prewriting & Research Assignment Due Week 3 and worth 100 points Instructions: Follow the three-step process outlined in Webtext chapter 3 to complete and submit Writing Activity 1. For additional help, watch the video tutorial in your course, which will walk you through the process. Step 1 Complete the following prewriting activities in your Webtext.

Week 1: Select Your Topic

Week 2: Develop Your Position and Draft Your Supporting Points

Week 3: Research Organizer

Step 2 Download and Edit Your Work

Download Complete all the activities and templates in your Webtext. Then download your Prewriting & Research Assignment from the Webtext. (*** You will need to finish all writing templates before you are able to download the assignment) Edit Your Work Run your Microsoft Word document through Grammarly to identify and correct any issues with grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and style. NOTE: Refer to the Webtext to learn how to sign up for and use Grammarly. Remember to remove all of the Grammarly comments and underlined words before you submit! Step 3 Submit to Blackboard Go to week 3 in your course and upload your Prewriting & Research Assignment.



Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice


Since time immemorial, criminals have been executed as a punishment for the crimes that they have committed (Rice, 2017). Capital punishment also referred to as the death penalty is a justice system where the offenders, when found guilty are killed. The reasons for the penalty varied among different societies and they included sexual crimes, blasphemy, magic as well as a violation of religious obligations among others (McFeely, 2019). In the USA the punishment has been used for treason, murder, and people involved in the use of spies by governments to obtain political and military information. Other parts of the world provide death punishment for different reasons. For instance, in the Middle East, the death penalty is given for people involved in sexual crimes including incest, sodomy, rape, and adultery. In China, it is given to people involved in corruption and human trafficking. In history, capital punishment involved various ways of killing an individual including crucifixion, stripping the skin off an individual, stoning, burning, dismemberment and crushing among other methods. In the modern world, industrialized countries may use lethal injections among other modern forms. However, in the USA, capital punishment is given through the firing squad (McFeely, 2019).


I am opposed to capital punishment being given to an individual irrespective of the crime that they have committed. The most common argument for capital punishment, which results in death, is that it serves as a deterrent to others who would want to engage in similar crimes (Rice, 2017). It means that other people in society will recognize the effect of the crime and consequently avoid getting involved. However, capital punishment is morally wrong and had more disadvantages than advantages.


Morally, it is wrong to give capital punishment because it simply results in the executer following in the steps of the offender. It involves committing a crime as compensation for another crime or simply following the example of the criminal by carrying out an equally bad action (Binder et al. 2016). The process does not allow the offender to take time and change their lives and be better people in the future. This is because an individual may have committed a crime unintentionally, such as crimes of passion, which may be different from the premeditated crimes. The person may be given another chance at life instead of being killed. The capital punishment however denies the offender the opportunity of rehabilitation, which is supposed to be the main goal of the justice system (Haney, Weill, and Lynch, 2015).  Also, the criminal justice system has been filled with errors previously and consequently, an innocent individual may be put to death for a mistake that they did not commit (Brown, & McGee, 2018).

The capital punishment process is also expensive and there are several costs involved including special prison housing and staff costs. The governments spend a significant amount of tax payer’s money to fund such processes. The money would be used to carry out other important activities like educating the poor in society or coming up with programs that would seek to establish corrective behaviors or deter youths from getting into crime (Brown, & McGee, 2018).

Capital Punishment in Criminal Justice

When criminals face capital punishment, it seems as though an individual is being given the decision to decide when another person’s life will end. In various religious beliefs, there is a supreme God that gives and takes life and therefore, when pothers end the lives of others, they seem to be assuming the role of God. Capital punishments infringe on the inviolability, sanctity, and dignity of an individual’s life as only God should be allowed the right to take the lives of people. In conclusion, capital punishment should be abolished from the legal system because it is morally wrong and is very costly in addition to the fact that it gives man the position of God considering everyone has one life.



American Civil Liberties Union. (2019). The debate against capital punishment. Retrieved


The article provides the reason why capital punishment is a process that is not only barbaric but also goes against the expectations of a democratic society.  It highlights the process as being expensive and consequently wastage of taxpayer’s money. It expounds on the fact that the process is inhumane and anachronistic or old fashioned. It also has a negative impact on the people that witness the process.  It shows several reasons why the process should be abolished and hence supports my argument on opposing the idea of capital punishment.

Binder, G., Fissell, B., & Weisberg, R. (2016). Capital punishment of unintentional felony

murder. Notre Dame L. Rev., 92, 1141.

The article delves into the eighth amendment and offers a description of an individual who is eligible for capital punishment. An example of a case is provided shedding more light on background information of the issue of capital punishment.

Brown, L. L., & McGee, S. G. (2018). Social Work and Capital Punishment: a Call to

Action. Journal of Human Rights and Social Work3(4), 229-239.

The authors highlight the stand by social work governing bodies that have called for an end to capital; punishment. The main idea is that it violates the eighth amendment and remains a threat to the mission of the profession and most importantly leads to violence. The article supports the position by arguing that the process is expensive. It suggests that the money that is used in capital trails and the appeals be used on other more appropriate roles such as law enforcement and a better society. It also establishes that the system is filled with errors hence proving the fact that innocent people may be convicted.

Haney, C., Weill, J., & Lynch, M. (2015). The death penalty. In B. L. Cutler & P. A. Zapf

(Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology. APA handbook of forensic psychology, Vol. Criminal investigation, adjudication, and sentencing outcomes (pp. 451-510). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

The article discusses the concept of capital punishment and explains that although few people are involved in the punishment, it remains a controversial topic that has been studied widely. it is established the punishment differs from the other types of punishments in degree as well as in-kind based on the fact that it is irrevocable. This supports my position because it brings out that the process rejects the possibility of rehabilitation and hence does not allow the criminal to change their lives.

McFeely, W, S. (2019). Trial and Error: Capital Punishment in U.S. History. Retrieved


The article provides information about capital punishment and the background of how it was used. It reveals the circumstances under which capital punishment was given including a description of the rimes from different parts of the world. It serves to highlight that some of the reasons were barbaric and did not deserve the sentence.

Rice, S. K. (2017). Darkness to Light: Procedural Injustice as Crisis for Capital

Punishment Legitimacy. Seattle Journal for Social Justice, 15(3), 13.

The article talks about the issue of capital punishment and the loops that exist in process. It serves to show that there are injustices that take place in the criminal justice system and as a result may have an impact on the capital punishment.


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Personal Practicum Experiences

Personal Practicum Experiences

As a future advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to connect your classroom experience to your practicum experience. By applying the concepts you study in the classroom to clinical settings, you enhance your professional competency. Each week, you complete an Assignment that prompts you to reflect on your practicum experiences and relate them to the material presented in the classroom. This week, you begin documenting your practicum experiences in your Practicum Journal.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze nursing and counseling theories to guide practice in psychotherapy*
  • Summarize goals and objectives for personal practicum experiences*
  • Produce timelines for practicum activities*


In preparation for this course’s practicum experience, address the following in your Practicum Journal:

  • Select one nursing theory and one counseling theory to best guide your practice in psychotherapy.Note: For guidance on nursing and counseling theories, refer to this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Explain why you selected these theories. Support your approach with evidence-based literature.
  • Develop at least three goals and at least three objectives for the practicum experience in this course.
  • Create a timeline of practicum activities based on your practicum requirements.



Personal Practicum Experiences

The paper journal entry reviews and evaluates the nursing and counseling theory that will help to guide the nursing practice in psychotherapy.

The nursing theory I have chosen is Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Theory. The theory focuses on the nurse-patient relationship as a critical component of healing and care (Belcher & Brittain-Fish, 2012).  Besides, the theory involves interpersonal relations including respect, trust, and communication as critical aspects that increase nurse-patient relationships. Therefore, an excellent nurse-patient relationship enhances patient’s outcomes and improves their quality of life.

The counseling theory I have chosen is the humanistic approach. The theory looks at each patient holistically by focusing on positive characteristics and behaviors (Lego, 2013). Besides, it involves concepts such as self-actualization and self-efficacy by looking at maladaptation and past challenges. The critical aspect of the humanistic theory is that patients are motivated to achieve their great potential (Lego, 2013). Thus, the theory empowers individuals to take control of their health and live a more quality life.


During the practicum experience, I aim to achieve the following goals: (1). To have a clear understanding and knowledge of both interpersonal theory and humanistic theory in caring for a psychotherapy group to help manage their mental health issues. (2). To practice therapeutic knowledge and skills, particularly communication skills, to help build a rapport and facilitate communication in a group setting during psychotherapy. (3). To use different techniques of psychotherapy during group or family therapy.

The timeline for practicum activities for the course will take about 12 weeks. I will carry out group psychotherapy with minimal supervisions. I will then develop a comprehensive plan of care and an assessment of individuals in group therapy. I will then incorporate the use of DSM-V in diagnosing families and groups. Thus, I will accomplish the goals in 12 weeks of the practicum course.

Research Paper Help



Belcher, J. R., & Brittain-Fish, L. J. (2012). Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: Hildegard E. Peplau. Nursing Theories: The base for professional nursing practice (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Lego, S. (2013). The application of Peplau’s theory to group psychotherapy. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing 5(3), 193-196. Doi:10.1046/j.1365-2850.1998.00129.x


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