Ethnicity and Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Diseases

Ethnicity and Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Diseases

examine how patient factors may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.  You also explore ways to improve drug therapy plans for cardiovascular disorders based on patient factors and overall health needs.


When writing your Week 2 Assignment, consider the following scenario:

Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:

  • Atenolol 12.5 mg daily
  • Doxazosin 8 mg daily
  • Hydralazine 10 mg qid
  • Sertraline 25 mg daily
  • Simvastatin 80 mg daily

o Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
  • Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
  • Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
  • Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
  • Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
  • Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.


Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
  • Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.



Ethnicity and Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Diseases


Drug prescription is considered to an essential aspect in patient care. When done properly, it leads to effective control of diseases and other health conditions, thereby improving the health of patients. Contrarily, poor prescriptions of drugs may lead to health problems. In some cases, it may lead to death. To achieve the aim of this process, practitioners need to adhere to suitable drug concentrations basing on different health factors (Ladd & Hoyt, 2016). One of the issues that may affect the effectiveness of drug dosages is ethnicity. This factor refers to the state of being in a social setting with common traditions. This paper tries to establish the impact of ethnicity on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy of a patient. The patient’s initials are AO and he is viewed to have had obesity in his life. He is diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Ethnicity and Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Diseases

Effect of Ethnicity on PD and PK Processes

There is a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in African Americans than in other ethnic groups in the country. African Americans are depicted to have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. In addition, hypertension also develops earlier in blacks than in any other ethnic group. It is suggested that African Americans may carry a gene that increases their sensitivity to salt, thereby increasing their risk of attaining hypertension (Diaz et al., 2017). This group is also viewed to experience a high burden of morbid factors such as hyperdilipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. These issues lead to elevated blood pressures in the ethnic group. The factors also increase the body’s resistance to drugs’ effects.  Assuming that AO is African American, he tends to have a lower control of hypertension than patients from other ethnic groups (Arcangelo et al., 2017).


Changes in the Pharmacotherapy

Research shows that African American respond well to beta blockers in the treatment of hypertension. Therefore, Atenolol intake is suitable for AO. However, its dosage should start at 50 mg due to the patient having obesity. Doxazosin is viewed to be an essential add-on to calcium-channel blockers. However, it is discouraged in a monotherapy. Therefore, its 8mg dosage is suitable for the patient during a combinative therapy. Hydralazine is a vasodilator which is essential for relaxing the patient’s blood vessels. The drug may not be suitable for the patient when diuretics are involved (Sessoms et al., 2015). Simvastatin is suitable in the treatment of hyperlipidemia in African Americans. However, since the patient is obese, the starting dosage should 40mg. Sertraline is a suitable antidepressant whose intake is recommended to start between 50mg and 100mg. However, its interaction with simvastatin may lead to liver damage. Therefore, its 25mg dosage is safe for AO (Arcangelo et al., 2017).

Improving AO’s Therapy

Treatment of hyperlipidemia and hypertension for a patient with obesity also needs the use of physical exercises. In addition, the patient needs to have a healthy diet. Both approaches are considered suitable in reducing the patient’s weight (Diaz et al., 2017). In addition, control the amount of salt in the body, thereby making the patient to reduce effects of salt sensitivity. The practitioner also needs to engage in effective follow-ups to ensure that the patient’s liver is not affected by the interaction between simvastatin and sertraline. If its functionality is within the normal range, sertraline’s intake level may be increased to improve on the patient’s activeness (Whelton et al., 2016).

Nursing Paper Help


Pharmacotherapy for hypertension and hyperlipidemia is depicted to be affected by ethnicity of the patient. The paper focuses on treatment basing on an African American ethnicity. The ethnic choice is essential for the disease because African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension than other ethnic groups. From the paper, it can be shown that proper consideration of changes in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes leads to a safe prescription for the patient. Additional therapeutic measures such as exercises and a suitable diet are considered to improve the patient’s pharmacotherapy.



Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017).

Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4thed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Diaz, K. M., Booth III, J. N., Seals, S. R., Abdalla, M., Dubbert, P. M., Sims, M., … & Shimbo,

  1. (2017). Physical activity and incident hypertension in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study. Hypertension69(3), 421-427.

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for

            Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166-173.

Sessoms, J., Reid, K., Williams, I., & Hinton, I. (2015). Provider adherence to national

guidelines for managing hypertension in African Americans. International Journal of Hypertension, 1-7. Doi:10.1155/2015/498074.

Whelton, P. K., Einhorn, P. T., Muntner, P., Appel, L. J., Cushman, W. C., Diez Roux, A. V., …

& Arnett, D. K. (2016). Research needs to improve hypertension treatment and control in African Americans. Hypertension68(5), 1066-1072.







Are you struggling to create a sound and comprehensive nursing paper? Do you feel overwhelmed with the amount of time and effort it takes to write a good piece? Are you looking for the best nursing paper writing service that can assist you in your nursing paper needs? Look no further than our skilled team of professional writers who specialize in providing high-quality papers with the best nursing paper writing services reviews. Make your order at

Needs help with similar assignment?

We are available 24x7 to deliver the best services and assignment ready within 3-4 hours? Order a custom-written, plagiarism-free paper

Get Answer Over WhatsApp Order Paper Now