Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

Discuss some of the possible problems or issues that could affect intervention studies.

Use the main book of the class to make the paper, include it in the references, please.



Issues Affecting Intervention Studies

The validity of interventional research is based on the theoretical framework, underlying hypothesis, and support for the conception level. The validity of the intervention studies is made during the intervention study design, which is made up of the construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Burns & Groves, 1997).  Any factor that reduces the validity of the study is a threat is the main limitation of the study.

The construct validity is often due to the flaws in the study design linked to the intra-study social considerations, selected measurements, and imprecise operational definitions (Grove, Burns, & Gray, 2012).  However, the significant threats to construct validity include: inadequate preoperational clarification of constructs, confounding constructs and level of constructs, mono-operational bias, interaction of different treatment, interaction of testing and treatment, hypothesis guessing within the experimental conditions, evaluation apprehension, novelty effect, and compensatory rivalry (Burns & Groves, 1997).


Internal validity is based on changes in the dependent variable caused by the actions of independent variables. The major threats include history threat that affects the value of independent variable, maturation that happen due to the changes that occur as a function of time, testing that happens due to pretest on subsequent posttest scores, and the statistical regression towards the mean that arise due to the display of the extreme scores.

External validity is based on the study results that may have been generalized back to the population. The major threats of external validity include design-dependent decisions in sampling strategy, which reduces the generalization of results, subject attrition, Subject refusal to participate, selection-treatment interaction, testing-intervention interaction, high differential attrition and reactive arrangements (Burns & Groves, 1997).

The statistical conclusion validity is the researcher’s correct decision on the statistical tests used in the study. Its significant threats include false data analysis conclusion that leads to low statistical power, type II error, and fishing or error rate problem (Burns & Groves, 1997).

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In summary, the validity of interventional research is the truthfulness of the study. It helps to address the study designs used during the study. However, the threats of interventional studies often decrease the validity of the study. The limitations of the intervention study always lead to threat validity (Munhall, 2012).  Thus, researchers need to scrutinize the threats that may arise during interventional researched.



Burns, N., & Groves, K. (1997). The practice of nursing research. Philadelphia, PA: WB

Saunders company.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal,

synthesis, and generation of evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Munhall, P. (2012). Nursing research. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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