Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement

Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement

If you talk about a possible poor health outcome, do you believe that outcome will occur? Do you believe eye contact and personal contact should be avoided?

You would have a difficult time practicing as a nurse if you believed these to be true. But they are very real beliefs in some cultures.

Differences in cultural beliefs, subcultures, religion, ethnic customs, dietary customs, language, and a host of other factors contribute to the complex environment that surrounds global healthcare issues. Failure to understand and account for these differences can create a gulf between practitioners and the public they serve.

In this Assignment, you will examine a global health issue and consider the approach to this issue by the United States and by one other country.

Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement

To Prepare:

  • Review the World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda and select one global health issue to focus on for this Assignment.
  • Select at least one additional country to compare to the U.S. for this Assignment.
  • Reflect on how the global health issue you selected is approached in the U.S. and in the additional country you selected.
  • Review and download the Global Health Comparison Matrix provided in the Resources.

The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Global Health Comparison Matrix; 1-page Plan for Social Change)

Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix

Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:

  • Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study.
  • Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.
  • Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the global health issue you selected. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Using the WHO’s Organization’s global health agenda as well as the results of your own research, analyze how each country’s government addresses cost, quality, and access to the global health issue selected.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the health of the global population. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the role of the nurse in each country.
  • Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. Be specific and provide examples.

Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment and the impact that global health issues may have on the world, the U.S., your community, as well as your practice as a nurse leader.

Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement

In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

  • Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples.



Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement


Global Healthcare Issue  

Air Pollution and climate change


According to the World Health Organization (2019), nine out of ten people breathe polluted air every day. Air pollution is considered as one of the greatest risks to global health. Air pollutants penetrate respiratory systems and circulatory systems resulting in damages to the lungs, heart and the brain. As a result, over 7 million people die yearly from heart and lung diseases. Burning of fossil fuels also contributes to climate change. Statistics shows that between 2030 and 2050, over 250,000 people will die from Malaria, heat stress and diarrhea.


Country United States


Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue -Clean Air Act

-2016 standards for heavy-duty trucks

-Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA)

-California Sustainable Freight Action Plan




-China has introduced a low-carbon program

-top-10,000 energy consuming enterprises program.

-the 2017 national carbon emission trading system (ETS)

What are the strengths of this policy? -The California Sustainable Freight Action Plan sets requirements to use zero to near-zero emissions equipment when transporting freight (“Policies to Reduce Pollution and Protect Health”, 2019)

-The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act encourages business owners to replace their diesel equipment at an earlier time than is legally required. Since its inception, the act has resulted in over 1700 fewer premature deaths and has over 12.6 billion USD health benefits

-2016 standards for heavy-duty trucks reduces pollutants and promotes health

-Clean Air Act requires all cars and vehicles operating in the U.S. to reduce emissions.


-The low carbon program reduces coal consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The country has constructed coal plants that utilize ultra-supercritical thermal power technology to reduce pollution

-The top 10,000 energy consuming enterprises program saves industrial energy (Tan & Lee, 2017)

What are the weaknesses of this policy? -The California Sustainable Freight Action plan lacks support from the trucking industry, uses expensive technologies.

-The Diesel Emissions Reduction Act lacks support from all the states.

-The Clean Air Act fails to provide specific guidelines to reduce fossil fuel emissions




-One of the main weaknesses of ETS is that it lacks data which is required for cap settings and allowance allocation (Qi & Cheng, 2017). It is also large scale and highly complex

-China’s top 10000 energy consuming enterprise program fails to accommodate the transition of energy consumption from production to consumption sectors. The program is also very costly (Wang, Yang & Zhang, 2015)

Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)


-African Americans have lower income, little to no education and poorer health status. These inequalities result in greater vulnerability to climate impacts. African Americans are more likely to live in neighborhoods with fewer trees.

-Native Americans and Alaska Natives subsistence hunting and fishing is at risk due to air pollution and climate change (American Public Health Association).


-Reduction in poverty rates and urbanization in China has resulted in increased rates of climate-related health risks. People living in cities are more prone to respiratory infections due to high rates of pollution (Chan et al. 2019).
How has each country’ government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue? -The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts research on a wide range of issues associated with climate change

-National Institute of Health (NIH) is the biomedical research arm of the Department of Health and Human Services. The National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS) carries out climate change related research.

-The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention works to reduce climate change through its Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative

-The US Global Change Research Program works under the federal research on climate change and how it affects the society.


-13th five-year plan period promotes green energy, environmental management and emissions control and environmental protection

-The government introduced the Environmental Protection Tax Law in 2018

How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) -The Clean Air Act has resulted in a decrease in air pollution, decrease in environmental lead contamination and decreases in tropospheric ozone (Sullivan et al. 2018). The act has reduced pollution and drastically improved the health of surrounding countries.




-China’s Emissions Trading Scheme has reduced the carbon emission intensity of cities in Japan which in turn has significant impacts on global warming and climate change (Zhang et al. 2019)
Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurse in each country. -After the implementation of the Clean Air Act, nurses in America are factoring in environmental determinants of health and health hazards during their assessments of patients.










-Nurses play a critical role in reducing the health consequences of climate change and pollution. The ETS in China expects nurses to be trusted messengers of health information and serves as essential personnel in the case of disaster response
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples) -Many U.S. government agencies have recognized the need to improve global health. As such, they have provided funding, human resource and technical support to improve global health. Some of the initiatives include; President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPAR)





-After the SARS outbreak, China designed the world’s largest reporting system of infectious disease epidemics and public health emergencies. All local healthcare institutions report infectious disease cases to the national level
General Notes/Comments Climate change impacts human health. While negative impacts have been highlighted, there are several benefits that climate change has on public health. Milder winters would reduce the number of winter related deaths. Additionally, increases in temperature might reduce the viability of mosquito populations that transmit diseases (WHO, 2003)




China and the U.S together emit more than 40% of the world’s CO2.


A Plan for Social Change

To advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective into my role as a nurse leader, I will work closely with the International Council of Nurses (ICN) whose global vision is to lead societies to acquire better health. Among the key activities carried out by the ICN includes developing strong leadership and advocating for health-related policies. Additionally, as a global nurse, I will be culturally sensitive. In this role, I will actively carry out research on global health issues and collaborate with other care givers to find local solutions to identified issues.

Global Health Comparison and Narrative Statement

Global health issues require the cooperation of the global community to respond, plan and prepare for health equity issues among nations. As a public health nurse, my role is to eliminate health inequalities to achieve equity. Additionally, as a public health nurse I must recognize and understand the impact of social determinants of health on the population. Social determinants of health contribute to global health issues and adversely affect patient’s health outcomes. To further advocate for global health issues, I must advocate for justice and equality for individuals and the community.


Nurses can contribute to wider spheres of influence by applying their skills to address wider issues affecting the community’s health. As a nurse advocate, my role is to be effective in advocating for change for individuals and communities. Advocacy can be achieved through the use of strategies and methods that result in change. In line with this objective, I will identify causes, issues and areas of need that matter to individuals or the community and through advocacy create awareness and advance change. I am passionate about palliative care; therefore, I will advocate    for all patients with life-limiting illnesses to receive health care that promotes their quality of life.



American Public Health Association. (n.d). Introduction to Climate Change, Health, and Equity. Retrieved from APHA_Climate-Equity_Introduction.pdf

Chan, E.Y., Ho, J., Hung, H.H., Liu, S. & Lam, H.C. (2019). Health Impact of Climate Change in Cities of Middle-Income Countries: The Case of China. British Medical Bulletin, 130(1), 5-24. Doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldz011

“Policies to Reduce Pollution and Protect Health”. (2019). Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Retrieved from

Sullivan, T. et al. (2018). Air Pollution Success Stories in the United States: The Value of Long-term Observations. Environmental Science & Policy, 84(1), 69-73.

“Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019”. (2019). World Health Organization. Retrieved from

Tan, X. & Lee, H. (2017). Comparative Assessment of China and U.S. Policies to Meet Climate Change Targets. Environment and Natural Resources Program, Belfer Center. Retrieved from

Qi, S. & Cheng. S. (2017). China’s National Emissions Trading Scheme: Integrating Cap, Coverage and Allocation. Climate Policy, 18(1), 45-59. Doi: 10.1080/14693062.2017.1415198

Wang, C., Yang, Y. & Zhang, J. (2015). China’s Sectoral Strategies in Energy Conservation and Carbon Mitigation. Climate Policy, 15(1), 60-80. Doi: 10.1080/14693062.2015.1050346

World Health Organization. (2003). Climate Change and Human Health-Risks and Responses. Summary. Retrieved from

Zhang, K., Xu, D., Li, S., Zhou, N. & Xiong, J. (2019). Has China’s Pilot Emissions Trading Scheme Influenced the Carbon Intensity of Output? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10), 1854. Doi: 10.3390/ijerph16101854

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