1. Farah is studying for her linguistics exam. She thinks that if she can process the terminology and theoriesmore deeply, she will probably retain the information better. Farah’s thinking is similar to what model ofmemory?a. Levels of processing                                 c. Parallel distributed processingb. Transfer-appropriate processing               d. Information processing2. Amanda asks Becky, “How was your spring break?” As Becky describes her vacation, she begins to feelguilty because she subconsciously recalls how her parents criticized her for taking a trip instead ofconcentrating on her studies. Becky’s recollection of her vacation is an example of a(n) memory, andher feeling of guilt is an example of a(n) __ memory.a. implicit; explicit                              c. episodic; semanticb. semantic; episodic                          d. explicit; implicit3. When you ask her, Kyung cannot remember the names of all fifty U.S. state capitals. However, when youthen show her a list of U.S. city names, she can correctly point out all fifty capitals. Kyung originally hadtrouble remembering the state capitals because of poora. recall.                                      c. elaborative rehearsal.b. recognition.                            d. maintenance rehearsal4. Jill is studying for her psychology midterm. The most effective way for Jill to encode the course materialwould bea. acoustically.                              c. semantically.b. visually.                                     d. episodically.5. Skill learning depends mainly ona. insight and observational learning.b. operant conditioning and reconditioning.c. classical conditioning.d. imitation, following instructions, and practice.6. Gretchen absolutely loves going to school. Her teacher uses teaching methods that are fun, such assmall-group problem-solving tasks, discussion of short essays written in class, and short review sessions ofthe previous half-hour of class. Gretchen’s teacher is obviously taking a(n) __ learning approach.a. insight                                     c. vicarious .b. latent                                       d. active7. If a group of kids is allowed to watch more hours of violent television programs than usual, they most likelywilla. be much less aggressive immediately afterward.b. be slightly less aggressive later on the playground.c. imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed.d. imitate only the violent actions that were rewarded on television.8. During her talk, Dr. Ravenscroft discusses her research on learning and how the brain creates associationsand connections. Most likely, Dr. Ravenscroft has found that association networks can be explained by all ofthe following excepta. parallel-distributed processing.            c. connectionist models.b. opponent-process theory.                    d. distributed memory and knowledge9. Your friend tells you that she just bought a cat. You naturally assume that your friend means that she boughta housecat rather than a lion or a tiger. This is an illustration of a(n)a. constructive memory.                   c. implicit memory.b. spontaneous generalization.        d. relearning method.10. When asked to describe an examination room at his doctor’s office, John seemed to do an accurate job.However, his description included a framed medical degree on the wall that in fact was not there. This is anillustration ofa. context-specificity.              c. constructive memory.b. elaborative rehearsal.          d. a retrieval cue.11. Al is on the witness stand. He is asked whether he can remember the name of the person who told him toplace the bet. Al replies that he thinks the last name ofthe person starts with “C.” AI’s response is an exampleofa. penultimate response.                      c. spontaneous generalization.b. feeling-of-knowing experience.      d. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon12. Blair is asked a question during a game of Trivial Pursuit. The answer is on the tip of his tongue, but he can’tcome up with it. Which of the following memory processes failed him?a. Encoding                c. Retrievalb. Storage                   d. Rehearsal13. Semantic network models predict that people will respond more quickly to the question “Can a bat fly?” thanthey will to “Is a bat a mammal?” becausea. of the primacy effect.b. the first question requires a deeper level of processing.c. they probably have a stronger association between “bat” and “wings” than “bat” and”mammal. “d. the first question can be answered using short-term memory, but the second questioncannot.14. Sharmin is trying to remember the hilarious conversation she had with her friends last night If Sharminwanted to utilize context-specific memory to help remember the conversation topics, she shoulda. recreate the mood she was in when the conversation took place.b. concentrate on the last topic they discussed.c. cluster the topics into meaningful groups of information.d. return to the restaurant in which they had the conversation.15.  Fred was tired of hearing two-year-old Pebbles cry whenever she did not get her way. Fred decided to ignorePebbles anytime she had a crying outburst. Over the course of several weeks, the frequency of outburstsdecreased and eventually ceased. What operant conditioning process was Fred utilizing?a. Shaping                                  c. Second orderb. Negative reinforcement         d. Extinction16. When Marc sits in his bedroom with the door open, his sister walks by and starts yelling at him. In time,Marc learns that if he closes the door when his sister yells at him, she stops yelling and walks away. Thisshows __ . Marc also learns that ifhe closes the door before his sister walks by, she will not start yellingat him. This shows —a. social learning; observational learningb. insight learning; delayed conditioningc. escape conditioning; avoidance conditioningd. avoidance conditioning; escape conditioning17. Jamie is working in a group to develop creative solution’sto a social problem. As Jamie is considering newideas, she is able to manipulate the information held in her short-term memory primarily because of theoperations of her __ memory.a. state-dependent                      c. workingb. semantic                                d. procedural18. Bart tells Lisa about his new cat, Scratchy. Even though Bart does not mention that Scratchy has fur, Lisaknows this because she makes this generalization from the facts she knows about cats. Lisa’s generalizationabout Scratchy best demonstratesa. the method of savings.b. a false memory.c. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.d. a parallel distributed processing model of memory.19. When Harold sees a box of Junior Mints, he immediately recalls where they are sold, when he had them last,what they taste like, and which of his friends like them. Such a network of associations is suggestive of the__ model of memory.a. levels of processing                 c. transfer-appropriate processingb. information processing            d. parallel distributed processing20. If you need to remember a person’s name for several days or weeks, the strategy of relating the name to acharacteristic of that person will be more effective than simply repeating the person’s name several timeswhen you first learn it. This indicates thata. elaborative rehearsal works better than maintenance rehearsal.b. maintenance rehearsal works better than elaborative rehearsal.c. maintenance rehearsal involves deeper processing.d. elaborative rehearsal works best only for short-term recall.21. Which of the following is not one of the PQ4R suggestions about how to read a textbook?a. Preview each chapter before reading it.b. Reflect on what you are reading, thinking of your own examples of concepts.c. Recite major points in your own words when you fmish a section.d. Reread the chapter, underlining or highlighting key passages.22. You are driving down the street when you see a billboard displaying a phone number for a service you need.You keep repeating the number over and over so you won’t forget it until you can write it down at home. Youdo this to prevent the process of __ from causing you to forget the number.a. decay                                 c. deductive interferenceb. construction                      d. proactive inhibition23. Shania is in court being cross- examined about a car accident that she witnessed. lfthe defense attorney wantsto manipulate Shania’s recall of the accident in favor of her client, which of the following questions wouldshe be most likely to ask?a. “How fast was my client going when he hit the truck?”b. “How fast was my client going when he made contact with the truck?”c. “How fast was the defendant going when he slammed into the truck?”d. “Although my client was issued a speeding ticket, do you think he was driving fastenough to do all that damage?”24. Dr. Evil presents the sound of a buzzer to his pet rabbit, and he follows it with the delivery of a small electricshock. After repeated pairings of the buzzer and shock, the rabbit learns to fear the sound of buzzers. Dr. Evilthen proceeds to extinguish the rabbit’s fear of buzzers. Now suppose that, after extinction, Dr. Evil decidesto present the buzzer and shock to the rabbit once again. After only a few pairings, the rabbit willdemonstrate __ and fear the buzzer again.a. stimulus discrimination            c. stimulus generalizationb. spontaneous recovery              d. reconditioning25. In an experiment, a flash of light is paired with a mild electric shock to a participant’s :finger. After severaltrials, the participant begins to pull his :finger away after seeing the flash of light. The experimenter thenbegins to present just the flash, but no shock. After several trials the participant willa. keep pulling his finger away after seeing the light.b. pull his finger away sometimes but not others.c. gradually cease pulling his :finger away after the flash of light.d. pull his finger away more quickly on each trial.26.  Hannah’s behavior depends largely on reflexes rather than on voluntary control over her movements. Hannah is most likelya. in Piaget’s preoperational periodb. suffering from fetal alcohol syndromec. less than six months oldd. experiencing Erikson intimacy-versus-isolation conflict

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