justify your study two predictions and you do that by both showing how study one influenced your choice of variables in study two as well as citing prior research that supports your second independent variable in study two 1
Purpose of Paper III: Study Two Literature Review
1). Psychological Purpose
Paper III is intended to help you take your original Seflie study one step further by letting
you predict how a second independent variable of your labâ€™s choosing impacts
participants. In this
replication with extension
study, you have a greater role in a).
choosing which articles to include in your follow-up literature review as well as b).
identifying how this new variable influences your hypotheses. The bulk of your points in
Paper III will come from a new paper â€œliterature reviewâ€, butâ€”similar to journal articles
you might have readâ€”this second literature review comes between the discussion from
study one and before the methods for study two. That is, your Paper III will include your
original literature review from study one (revised based on feedback from Paper I), your
study one methods, results, and discussion (revised based on feedback from Paper II), and
a new literature review that both focuses on the results of study one but adds in new
information and references for study two.
In other words, Paper III includes:
1). Your original title page (though feel free to change the title)
2). Your revised study one literature review (ending in the study one hypotheses).
3). Your revised study one methods section.
4). Your revised study one results section.
5). Your revised study one discussion section.
6). Your new study two literature review (ending in the study two hypotheses).
7). References for all citations in the paper (minimum 10 references required)
8). Your appendices from study one
The largest number of Paper III points are provided for your new study two literature
review. Unlike your study one literature review, your study two literature review will
essentially pick up after study one. Think of it as a â€œsequelâ€ of sorts. It builds on and
extends study oneâ€™s Selfie focus, using two levels of your original independent variable
(either Selfie vs. Groupie, or Selfie vs. Professional) and similar dependent variables (e.g.
impressions of Emma, etc.) but altering or extending them into a new study design. The
good news here is that you can refer to study one as you write your study two literature
review. In fact, that is something I encourage. You can also refer back to your study one
literature review sources.
The bulk of this study two literature review concerns a second independent variable that
you and your lab will manipulate during the second part of the semester. You will need to
find up to five references for this second independent variable, hopefully finding sources
that build a bridge between studies one and two. In other words, in Paper III you will
answer the following question: â€œGiven our findings in study one, how will the presence of
a second independent variable impact participant decisions?â€
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
Like Paper I, you should end your literature review by noting your specific hypotheses for
study two. Here, you will address both main effects (outcomes associated with each
independent variable alone) and interactions (the combined impact of your independent
2). APA Formatting Purpose
The second purpose of Paper III: Literature Review is to once again teach you proper
American Psychological Association (APA) formatting. In the pages below, I will tell you
how to format your paper using APA style. There are a lot of very specific requirements in
APA papers, so pay attention to the instructions below as well as Chapter 14 in your book!
3). Writing Purpose
Finally, this paper is intended to help you refine your writing. My hope is that you will use
feedback from Paper I and Paper II to improve your grammar, spelling, and content in
Paper III. At the end of the semester, you will actually use Paper III as the opening section
for your final course paper, so doing a good writing job Paper III will be very beneficial as
you revise your papers for Paper V. Many students use Paper V as their writing sample for
graduate programs, so make sure you write clearly and precisely for an educated reader!
Note that the plagiarism limit for Paper III is 50%. This is a bit higher given the overlap in
the Paper II material, but your Paper I and new literature review in Paper III should be
very unique to you. As usual, references, citations, and the predictions are not included in
the plagiarism limit.
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
Instructions for Paper III: Study Two Literature Review (Worth 35 Points)
This paper will cover both study one (including the literature review, methods section, results
section, and brief discussion from that study) and the introduction literature review to study two.
This paper essentially tells the literature oriented story of your semester long project thus far.
Your main job is to justify your study two predictions, and you do that by both showing how
study one influenced your choice of variables in study two as well as citing prior research that
supports your second independent variable in study two. At the end of the study two literature
review section, you will provide your own study two predictions.
The good news is that we are continuing with our topic of the Selfie study. You wrote a lot on that
already, so here you simply add to it, noting in a second â€œliterature reviewâ€ section how a second
independent variable might interact with the Selfie manipulation from study one. Here are the
components to keep in mind. By now, a lot of this should be familiar to you, so youâ€™ll see a lot of
overlap with the instructions and checklists from Paper I and Paper II.
1. Title Page: I expect the following format
a. This title page is a lot like the title page on your Papers I and II. See my â€œTitleâ€
page above as an example or reuse your title page from prior papers (though you
may need to modify your title given your new IVs in this study).
b. You must have a header and page numbers on each page.
i. If you donâ€™t know how to insert headers, ask your instructor or watch this
very helpful video!
ii. The header goes at the top of the paper and it is left justified.
1. Use â€œInsert Headersâ€ or click on the top of the page to open the
header. Make sure to select the â€œDifferent first pageâ€ option so that
your title page header will differ from subsequent pages
2. The R in Running head is capitalized but the h is lower case,
followed by a colon and a short title (in ALL CAPS). This short
running head title can be the same one as the rest of your paper or it
can differ â€“ the choice is yours, but it should be no more than 50
characters including spaces and punctuation
3. Insert a page number as well. While the header is flush left, the
page number is flush right.
iii. Want an example header? Look at the title page of these instructions! You
can use other titles depending on your own preferences (e.g. SOCIAL
MEDIA AND NARCISSISM; SEFLIES VS. GROUPIES; JUDGING
c. Your Title should be midway up the page. Feel free to alter the title at this point so
that it includes a better description of both study one and study two
d. Include your name (First Last) and the name of your institution (FIU) beneath the
paper title. For this class, only your own name will go on this paper. Double space
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
i. You can also refer to Chapter 14 in your textbook
2. Abstract? Again, this is not needed … yet! Youâ€™ll include it later in Paper V.
3. Literature Review Study One
a. Make sure to revise the study one literature review from Paper I based on feedback
to that paper. The Paper I instructions still apply for that second in Paper II, so
reread those instructions if you need a reminder on the requirements for your study
one literature review.
b. For Paper III, you will need ten references total. You already have five for the
study one literature review, so feel free to keep those same references. You can
also add a few or take away a few from the study one literature review and make-
up the difference in the study two literature review section (#7 below). That is, you
can have seven references for study one and three for study two, or six for study
one and four for study two, etc. My advice â€“ keep your five references from study
one and include five additional references for the study two literature review.
c. Just remember to revise, revise, revise your study one lit review. If we made
recommendations for improvement and you donâ€™t change a word, youâ€™ll lose all
three points in this section!
4. Methods Study One
a. Revise your methods from study one for this section based on feedback we gave
you in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for methods still apply for this section.
b. Again, revise, revise, revise or risk losing all points in this section
5. Results Study One
a. Revise your results from study one for this section based on feedback we gave you
in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for the results still apply for this section.
b. Do I need to mention revise?
6. Discussion Study One
a. Revise your discussion from study one for this section based on feedback we gave
you in Paper II. The Paper II instructions for the discussion still apply for this
b. One word â€“ revise!
7. Literature Review Study Two
a. APA formatting for the first page of your literature review
i. Your study two literature review starts right after the discussion for study
one. There is no page break, so have it come right after the discussion on
the very next line.
b. APA formatted citations for the literature review
i. Between the literature review for study one and the literature review for
study two, you have to have at least ten references combined. If you have
five references in the study one lit review, you need five more here. If you
have seven for study one, you need three here. In total, at least eight of
these ten references must be based on empirical research reports (that is,
each of these eight cited articles should have a literature review, a methods
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
section, a results section, a conclusion/discussion, and references). The
remaining two sources can also be primary sources, but you may also use
secondary sources (books, law reviews, newspaper articles, etc.). Of course
I would recommend sticking with all primary sources, but the choice is
yours for the other two citations. Note: Internet blogs and Wikipedia are
not acceptable as secondary sources. Here is a bit more to note:
1. As in Paper I, I am not setting a maximum on the number of
citations you can use, but between studies one and two you need at
minimum ten of them! These may overlap among students, so it is
okay to read the same articles as some of your classmates. You can
use all of the articles posted on blackboard for Paper I if you want,
but note that you will need to find some new references as well
(especially ones that focus on your second independent variable).
a. Referring to your first study does not count as a reference.
2. Proper citations must be made in the paper â€“ give credit where it is
due, and donâ€™t make claims that cannot be validated! If it sounds
like a fact, then you must provide a citation to support that fact
3. DO NOT plagiarize. You will turn this in on blackboard, and we
can check for plagiarism via turn-it-in. Paraphrasing is okay, but
you must still cite the original author even if you do not use his or
her words verbatim. If you rewrite what they say, it is still them that
had the original idea, and they deserve credit for it
4. If you directly quote a source, make sure to provide a page number
for where you found that quote. However, I prefer paraphrasing to
I allow three quotes total for the whole paper
(including the two that I allowed in Paper I). If you quote more
than three times you will lose one point for each additional
c. Content-based requirements for your study two literature review
i. Your study two literature review should use your study one results and
prior research studies as a jumping off point, once again starting with a
broad theme and then narrowing it down â€“ think about the hourglass
example your instructors have given you. Now imagine that you have a
second hourglass right below the original one. You can start broadly again
with information about the new study independent variable, and then once
again narrow down as you near your hypotheses for study two.
ii. Think about your study two literature review this way: You are writing a
sequel to study one, so your new story picks up where that story left off.
1. I want you to pay close attention to your own brief discussion from
study one (Paper II discussion). You drew some conclusions there,
but now is your chance to build on those conclusions. At the
beginning of your new study two story, your audience knows some
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
of the story from study one, so there is no need to rewrite what you
already presented. Rather, you need to set the stage for the new
sequel storyline. Introduce your new â€œcharacterâ€, or your new
independent variable. Talk about this somewhat in isolation (what
does research say about this variable on its own). Once you define
and clarify what this new variable is and how it has been used in
prior research, start to show how it connects to your own study one.
a. For example, letâ€™s say your new independent variable is â€œthe
effect of warnings on behaviorâ€, with warning versus no
warning as the two levels of the new IV. You would talk
about research on warnings and how it impacts people.
THEN you talk about how warning about Selfie might
impact people. So, step one is to introduce the new concept
while step two is to show how the new concept fits in with
your new study.
2. At the end of the story, start to lead the reader to the big cliffhanger
(your study two hypothesis). By now you have introduced the
characters as well as the plot, but then you want to build some
anticipation in your reader â€“ you want them to wonder what comes
next! The last part of the literature review brings the reader to your
study two hypotheses, or that potential twist ending to your story.
That is, â€œGiven what we saw in the literature, what happens if we
do XYZ?â€ Thus you build your study to your hypotheses and end
on another cliffhanger. The next chapter (Paper IV Methods,
Results, and Discussion) focuses on the study that you actually did!
In other words, at the end of your study two literature review you
a. give a general overview of your research question
b. state your specific predictions / hypotheses given the studies
you talked about in the literature review. This should look at
both main effects and interactions, so youâ€™ll need to address
each IV on its own (main effect for belief perseverance and
main effect for your second IV) and the interaction of the
two IVs as they work together.
d. The literature review for study two must have a minimum of two (2) full pages of
text and a maximum of five (5) pages. This time, Iâ€™ll let you include the
hypotheses within that minimum 2 pages (though it would be very tight to get all
of that info in there in such a short lit review section).
8. Citations: I expect the following format
a. All in text citations must be correct (correct APA formatting, correct dates, if
directly quoted must have page numbers, and uses et al. and & and correctly)
9. References: I expect the following format
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
a. The References section starts on its own page, with the word References centered.
Use proper APA format in this section or you will lose points.
b. All ten references that you cited in the literature review must be in this section
(there should be more than
here if you cited more than ten articles).
However, at least eight must come from empirical articles
c. For references, make sure you:
i. use alphabetical ordering (start with the last name of the first author)
ii. use the authorsâ€™ last names but only the initials of their first/middle name
iii. give the date in parentheses â€“ e.g. (2007).
the name of the journal article
v. give the volume number, also in
vi. give the page numbers (not italicized) for articles
vii. provide the doi (digital object identifier) if present (not italicized)
10. Appendices: I expect the following format
a. Copy and paste from Paper II. This should be an easy point! Just make sure the
appendices go AFTER the references page (That is, an appendix â€œappendsâ€ the
paper â€“ it goes at the end!)
i. Appendix A: Include your tables for age, gender, and ethnicity.
ii. Appendix B: Include your tables for your chi square and the crosstabs
iii. Appendix C: Include your tables for your first scaled DV
iv. Appendix D: Include your tables for you second scaled DV
11. Overall writing quality
a. Make sure you check your paper for proper spelling and grammar. The FIU
writing center is available if you want someone to look over your paper (an extra
eye is always good!) and give you advice. I highly recommend them, as writing
quality will become even more important on future papers.
Other Guidelines for Paper III: Literature Review
1). Pay attention to the page length requirements â€“
1 page for the title page, 2-5 pages
for the study one lit review, no minimum page lengths for the study one methods,
results, and discussion sections, 2-5 pages for the study two literature review, and at
least 1 page for the references page.
If you are under the minimum, we will deduct
points. If you go over the maximum, we are a little more flexible (up to a half page or so),
but we want you to try to keep it to the maximum page.
2). Page size is 8 1/2 X 11â€ with all 4 margins set at 1â€. You must use a 12-point font with
Times New Roman font. EVERYTHING in the paper (including references) is double
3). When summarizing articles for your lit review and doing so in your own words, make
sure you still cite the original source. Always use proper referencing procedures, which
If you are inserting a direct quote from any source, it must be enclosed in
quotations and followed by a parenthetical reference to the source. â€œLetâ€™s say I am
directly quoting this current sentence and the next. I would then cite it with the
author name, date of publication, and the page number for the direct quoteâ€
(Winter, 2013, p . 5).
We will deduct points if you quote more than three times in the
, so keep quotes to a minimum. Paraphrase instead, but make sure
PAPER III: LITERATURE REVIEW
you still give the original author credit for the material by citing it or using
the authorâ€™s name (â€œIn this article, Smith noted that …â€ or â€œIn this article,
the authors noted that…â€)
4). PLEASE use a spell checker to avoid unnecessary errors. Proofread everything you
write. I actually recommend reading some sentences aloud to see if they flow well, or
getting family or friends to read your work. Using Pearson Writer is also required
The above information is required for your paper, but I wanted to provide a few tips about writing
your study two literature review as well. Hopefully this will give you some good directions:
First, remember that you need ten references total, eight of which MUST be peer-reviewed
Second, I don’t expect a lengthy discussion for each and every article that you cite for
either study one or study two. You might spend a page on one study and a sentence or two
on another. The amount of time you spend describing an article you read should be
proportional to how important it is in helping you defend your hypotheses. If you do a
near replication of a prior study, then I would expect you to spend more time discussing
that prior research since it has a big impact on your own study. If an article you read
simply supports a global idea that ties into your study but has very different methods (like
“frustrated people get mad!”), you can easily mention it in a sentence or two without
delving into a lot of detail. Tell a good story in your literature review, but only go into
detail about plot elements that have a direct bearing on your study!
Third, like Paper I, Paper III is all about supporting your study two hypotheses. Know
what your hypotheses are before you write the paper, as it will help you determine how
much time to spend on each article you are citing.
Fourth, make sure to proofread, proofread, proofread! Use the Pearson Writer for help, but
note that their suggestions are just that â€“ suggestions. It is up to you to make sure the flow
of the paper is easy to understand. Good luck!
Fifth, please note that a different grader might grade your Paper III than Paper I or II. As
forewarning, the new grader might mark off for Paper I and II elements that the prior
grader thought was okay. That is, the two graders may not agree with each other on
everything. Unfortunately, this happens, even when I try to publish a paper in a journal.
Two reviewers may have no problem with my paper while two others nitpick a lot. The
same happens here. Just be aware that graders all use the same paper checklist and grade
rubric. They might emphasize some elements more than others in those checklists
depending on their personal grading style, but if YOU pay attention to all checklist
elements then grading will not differ much regardless of who graded! So, USE THE
CHECKLISTS! I mark off a point if the appendix comes before the references. I mark off
if reference article titles use incorrect capital letters. I mark off if the letters
are not in italics. Everything I might mark off for is included in the checklist, so if
your paper passes the checklist, I wonâ€™t have as much to mark off for! Use it (and look at
the example paper and grade rubric as well!)