discussion responses 37
To get full credit for participation make substantial comments on your peerâ€™s posts with 2 scholarly resources per answer. 250 words per response.
Topic 1 DQ 1 (Obj. 1.1 and 1.2) â€“ Teressa Deâ€¦.
There are many aspects of counseling and interventions, and therefore, there is no â€œone size fits allâ€ approach. Each strategy must be customized to suite the individual needs of the client, and crisis interventions are no different. If the client perceives his or her situation as a crisis, then it is. The difference between crisis interventions and other types of interventions is the risk or presence of imminent danger to the client or to others. Given the imminent risk of suicide, therapeutic interventions are implemented under considerable pressure of time, and this risk, however, is also linked to opportunityâ€”krÃsis refers to â€œdangerâ€ as well as to â€œdecisive moment;â€ thus, time and process are at the core of crisis intervention (Tschacher & Jacobshagen, 2002). A crisis can also be considered a behavioral emergency. A behavioral emergency is a situation that requires an immediate response to avoid possible harm, and the three major behavioral emergencies are suicidal behavior, violent behavior, and interpersonal victimization (Callahan, 2009).
For example, a client calls to set an appointment for a marriage crisis that she is having with her husband. She is stressed, but there is no immediate danger to present.
In contrast, a client calls to set an appointment, because she continues to have visions of seeing herself commit suicide, and she states that life is â€œjust not worth living.â€ This is an example of a crisis as opposed to other types of interventions.
Callahan, J. (2009). Emergency intervention and crisis intervention. In Behavioral emergencies: An evidence-based resource for evaluating and managing risk of suicide, violence, and victimization. (pp. 13â€“32). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/11865-0…
Tschacher, W., & Jacobshagen, N. (2002). Analysis of crisis intervention processes. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 23(2), 59â€“67. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1027//0227-5…
Topic 1 DQ 1 (Obj. 1.1 and 1.2) â€“ Virginia Houst..
â€œCrisis intervention is a unique form of counseling, distinguished from other forms of counseling by its purpose, setting, time, and intervention plan . . . the ways in which relationships are formed, clients are empowered, or goals areaccomplished often seem divergent from other forms of counselingâ€ (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018, p. 27-28). Crisis counseling is not a scheduled event and can take place anywhere unlike traditional therapy that is typically scheduled, lasts for a certain period of time (45 mins), and occurs over several sessions.
Four essential crisis intervention tasks:
- Normalize and educateâ€”help the client(s) realize that their thoughts, feelings, and actions are normal for a crisis situation.
- Explore optionsâ€”evaluate all the options for solving the crisis
- Develop a plan and obtain client commitmentâ€”plans should have attainable and measurable goals
- Prepare documentation, follow up, and provide referrals
Before any of these tasks can be completed, the client requires his basic survival needs to be met (food, clothes, shelter). After the client is physically stable, he can begin to work with the crisis counselor to explore his options and create a plan of action.
Examples of crisis intervention: a counselor meeting with a bank teller who has been robbed, a counselor meeting with a mom whose daughter has just run away from home, or a counselor meeting with a family who just lost their house in a fire. These three examples are all unscheduled, occur in different settings than a traditional mental health agency, and will require specific intervention plans for that client in that situation.
Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention(3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Topic 1 DQ 2 (Obj. 1.3) â€“ Courtney Glickâ€¦
A crisis is caused by an external event, but is maintained by the state of the person (Callahan, 2009). The crisis is not the rape or natural disaster that occurs, but it is the personâ€™s inability to cope with the event that makes it a crisis (Callahan, 2009). Crisis interventions do not try to fix the same problems that standard psychotherapeutic interventions fix, so they are not appropriate to use during a crisis. Crisis interventions deal with immediate action, such as finding food or shelter for a family that has lost everything in a fire and helping the family cope with their trauma and bring them back to a basic level of functioning. Once that is accomplished, the crisis counselor can send them to a traditional counselor to seek help in maintaining their equilibrium and get back to an optimal level of functioning, not just basic. In regards to crisis intervention, four interventions that need to be completed are normalize and educate, explore options, develop a plan and obtain commitment, and prepare documentation, follow-up, and provide referrals (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). While some of those ideas are also used in psychotherapeutic interventions, with crisis intervention, they must be done with more intensity and with fewer sessions than standard interventions. Psychotherapeutic interventions also focus more on long term affects while crisis interventions are not meant to be a long-term solution to the problem.
Callahan, J. (2009). Emergency intervention and crisis intervention. Behavioral emergencies: an evidence-based resource for evaluating and managing risk of suicide, violence, and victimization, pp13-32. Retrieved from https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eho…
Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention (3rd ed.) New York, NY: Pearson.
Topic 1 DQ 1 (Obj. 1.1) â€“ India Schiltâ€¦
Assessments date all the way back to Chine in 2200 BC. The Chinese used them to test people for positions in the government. There is also proof that the Greco-Romans used assessments as well as Darwin. Darwin’s work influenced Galtons work. Galton was a major contributor in the field of assessments. He started his work by working with sweet peas to see if peas in the same pod were more similar than peas in a different pod. Assessments were also popular at the first experimental psychology lab founded by Wundt. One of Wundts students, James McKeen Cattell, is credited for creating the word “mental test”. He is also said to have started the movement of mental testing in America. Some of Wundts other students including Charles Spearman, Victor Henri, Emil Kraepelin, E. B. Titchener, G. Stanley Hall, and Lightner Witmer also have played a role in psychology assessments. Durign the 20th century, testing was still a big part of the field of psychology. However, during the 1900s, there start to become more formal tests developed. One of these test include Alfred Binets and Theodore Simone measurement of intelligence. This test, paved the way for the intelligence testing movement and the clinical testing movement. in 1939, David Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). During World War 1, the government had Robert S. Woodsworth develop an assessment to test the adjustment and emotional stability of recruits. This test was never published but after the war, Woodsworth developed a personality test based in the past test. In the 19030s, projective tests using pictures became popular and were widely used. Today, there are many assessments that are still used to measure intelligence, personality and other parts of the field of psychology and counseling.
Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2018). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Tests and Measurment(9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Topic 1 DQ 2 (Obj. 1.2) â€“ Demetress Ha..
In counseling the client has the right to privacy, confidentially and privileged communications. Serval court cases shed light on whether these rights absolute or limited? Privacy, confidentiality and privilege are unique but related terms; 1) privacy right supports the client right to keep communications from exposure, 2) confidentiality protects privileged relationship communications between therapist including health records and assessments, and 3) privilege information is legally protected from disclosure during a court proceeding (pleading the Fifth).
Jaffee v. Redmon (1996)
Confidentiality is an ethical mandate, protected by law including counselor communications; therapeutic notes, paper files, electronic, assessment and tests. Jaffee v. Redmon (1996) the Supreme court ruled counselor/ client communication is privileged in federal courts (Cohen and Swerdlik, 2018).
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1974)
Privilege is not absolute and courts can mandate disclosure of privileged information in cases where public peril overrides privilege. Such as the case of Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1974) in which the courts ruled that if revealed an another person is in danger of harm the counseling has duty to disclose. According to Cohen and Swerdlik (2018) states that â€œProtective privilege ends where the public peril beginsâ€ (p.73).
Mitchell v. State (Nev. 2008)
Pleading the Fifth, refers to the Fifth Amendment, meaning the client has the right to opt out on disclosing any feeling, thought and behavior that might incriminate their case. Mitchell v. State (Nev. 2008) determines whether court mandated psychiatric evaluation violates the defendantâ€™s Fifth Amendment right to avoid self-incrimination? The Nevada Supreme Court ruled that the psych evaluation did not violate defendant’s Fifth Amendment rights in the course of litigation of a criminal trial (Cohen and Swerdlik, 2018).
Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M.E. (2018). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Test and Measurements (9th ed). McGraw Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/mcgraw-hill/2017/psychological-testing-and-assessment_9e.php
Topic 1 DQ 2 (Obj. 1.2) â€“ Ariel Glov..
According to the text, one very important event that took place involved the Soviet Union, who were responsible for placing a satellite in space for military purposes (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018). This, in turn sparked an interest in the need to test students for gifted abilities relating to engineering, math, science, and physics. Congress then passed the â€œNational Defense Education Act, which provided federal money to local schools for the purpose of testing ability and aptitude to identify gifted and academically talented students. This event triggered a proliferation of large-scale testing programs in the schoolsâ€ (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018, p. 56). There has been numerous other legislative events regarding psychological testing in schools following this event. Many during the 1960s and 70s involved the need to not base White created tests on the skills and abilities of Blacks because Whites always scored higher, which led to discrimination on the basis of the tests being culturally and racially biased (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018).
Another event was the case of Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California in 1974. The courts ruled that â€œTherapists and/or psychological assessors must reveal privileged information if a third party is endangeredâ€ (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018, p. 57). This case was brought about because a client revealed to his therapist his intent to kill an unnamed women before the murder actually took place a couple months before (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018). Instances such as this, obligates therapists to disclose to the appropriate party what the client plans to do or has done. Especially if a psychological test or evaluations prove a person who has also revealed homicidal intentions to be capable of such tendencies, then the therapist is required by law to disclose this information despite the nature of client-therapist confidentiality and privacy laws protecting the client.
Cohen, R. J. & Swerdlik, M. E.(2018). Psychological testing and assessment (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies